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JUJNE 1 192U 












Otto Leopold Schmidt, President 

Charles Henry Rammelkamp, Vice President 

Laurence Marcellus Larson, Secretary 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Librarian 
Theodore Calvin Pease, Editor 

Evarts Boutell Greene 
William Edward Dodd 
James Alton James 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin 
Edward Carleton Page 
Theodore Calvin Pease 
Charles Henry Rammelkamp 







DATE ^^!CR•: 




C .-. L 





PAPERS 1781-1784 

Edited with Introduction and Notes bt 


William Smith Mason Professor of American History, 
Northwestern Universitt 


OF UTAH ^i>. 


Published by the Trustees of the 





The Illinois State Historical Library 

ScBNEPP A Barnes, PRiNTKea 

SPRiNonau), III. 




The present volume continues the publication of 
documents relating to George Rogers Clark and his 
activity in the revolutionary Northwest from 1781 to 
1784. Since this volume and its predecessor were first 
planned great amounts of additional Clark material 
have come to light; but so far no definite plans for their 
publication have been formulated. The work of pre- 
paring this volume for the press has been done by the 
assistant editor of the Collections, Miss Marguerite E. 
Jenison. In this and in the work of proof reading and 
indexing she has had the assistance of Miss Lucille F. 
Kile and Miss Elizabeth K. Biersmith. 

Theodore C. Pease 
Urbana, Illinois 
January 12, 1925 



During the year 191 2 the first volume of the George 
Rogers Clark Papers, Illinois Historical Collections, 
Volume VIII, Virginia Series, Volume III, was pub- 
lished. This volume contained all of the available 
Clark papers prior to October i, 1781. Upon the 
recommendation of the Advisory Commission of the 
Illinois State Historical Library, the search for ma- 
terial covering the remaining years of the Revolution 
in the West having to do especially with the activities 
of Clark was continued. A second volume of material 
covering activities in the West to 1784 is here offered. 

It again seems best to include, as was done in the 
first volume, letters written to and about Clark which 
have heretofore been printed and which are thought to 
be essential to the explanation of his work. The pri- 
mary aim has been to interpret events connected with 
the Revolution west of the Alleghanies. The general 
arrangement of the documents has been chronological 
but it has seemed best to include the account of the 
settlement of Virginia's claims against the United 
States. "The necessary and reasonable expences in- 
curred by this State in subduing any British posts or 
in maintaining forts or garrisons within and for the 
defence, or in acquiring any part of the territory so 
ceded or relinquish'd shall be fully reimbursed by the 
United States" as provided by an act of Congress re- 
lating thereto, October 10, 1780. The amount agreed 
upon by the three commissioners (May 15, 1788) was 


When certain of the letters were originally secured 
from the archives of the Virginia State Historical 
Library, the collection of documents was known as the 
Illinois Papers. They were labeled Bundle I and 
Bundle II. These documents seem since to have dis- 
appeared and no trace of them has been found. One 
explanation is that they are hidden in some forgotten 
place or have been distributed throughout the present 

In the Virginia State Library there are two copies 
of the Journal of the Northwestern Commissioners, 
which is included in this work. These are volumes VII 
and VIII in the Illinois Papers, the first of these bearing 
all the marks of having been the original journal of 
the commissioners. Volume VIII was doubtless a con- 
temporary copy but was the only one available when 
the transcript of the journal was first made. The dif- 
ferences in the volumes were mainly those of abbrevia- 
tion and punctuation. In the original there are many 
abbreviations and little punctuation and in some places 
it is torn or cannot be deciphered. As far as possible 
the original has been restored with such additions as 
were necessary for completeness. 

The documents herewith presented have, with but 
few exceptions, been selected by myself. The follow- 
ing persons made themselves responsible for compari- 
sons of the copies with the originals: for the Draper 
Manuscripts, Dr. Louise Phelps Kellogg; for the 
manuscripts in the State Department, Dr. N. D. Mere- 
ness; for those in the Virginia State Library, Dr. H. J. 


Eckenrode. | 



I wish to express my gratitude, also, to Dr. H. R. 
Mclhvaine, state librarian of Virginia, for privileges 
extended in that library, to Dr. James A. Robertson 
for his assistance in securing copies of documents from 
the Congressional Library and from the State Depart- 
ment, to Dr. Kellogg for allowing me to read the copies 
of documents which are to appear in her forthcoming 
volume descriptive of the Revolution on the upper 
Ohio, and to Miss Annie A. Nunns, assistant superin- 
tendent of the Wisconsin State Historical Society, for 
her courtesy in enabling me to secure copies of material 
in the Draper Collection. From Professor Frederick 
J. Turner, Professor Clarence W. Alvord, former edi- 
tor of the Illinois Historical Collections, and from 
Professor Theodore C. Pease, present editor, I have 
received invaluable advice and assistance. I wish like- 
wise to express my thanks to the Advisory Commission 
and especially to the Board of Trustees of the Illinois 
State Historical Library through whose generosity this 
volume has been made possible. 

James Alton James 
Evanston, Illinois 
August I, 1923 


>-fl-w '^" 


List of Abbreviations xiii 

Introduction xv 

Chapter I. Critical Conditions in the West, October 

6, 1 781 to March 5, 1782 i 

Evidences of danger and suggestions for t^efense; news of the 
surrender of Cornwallis; necessity for an offensive operation 
against Detroit; Virginia finances; commissioners appointed for 
the settlement of vrestern accounts; rise of land values. 

Chapter II. Clark's Plan for the Defense of Ken- 
tucky, March 5, 1782 to July 5, 1782 43 

Gunboats to be used on the Ohio; troubles encountered in equip- 
ping these boats; Virginia assembly opposed to offensive opera- 
tions; disaffection grovping out of the movement for an indepen- 
dent state in Kentucky; interest of James Monroe in the West. 

Chapter III. Expedition of Colonel William Craw- 
ford against the Indian Towns on the Upper San- 
dusky, July 6, 1782 to August 6, 1782 71 

Organization for Cravf ford's expedition at Fort Pitt; defeat of 
Colonel Crawford; retaliatory expedition demanded by the in- 
habitants of the upper Ohio. 

Chapter IV. The Battle of the Blue Licks, August 

19, 1782 TO September 3, 1782 . 89 

Attack on Bryan's Station; plan of the Battle of Blue Licks; 
loss of Kentucky leaders; capture of Kincheloe's Station. 

Chapter V. Cooperative Expeditions Planned by Gen- 
eral William Irvine from Fort Pitt and General 
Clark from Fort Nelson, September 3, 1782 to 
October 19, 1782 no 

Effects of Crawford's Defeat and the Battle of Blue Licks; call 
for volunteers; criticism of Clark; additional forts to be built on 
the Ohio; origin of criticisms of Clark and his associates. 



Chapter VI. Expedition against the Shawnee, Octo- 
ber 22, 1782 TO January 13, 1783 140 

Prfparation for the campaign; criticism of Clarlc not justififd; 
creditors importune Clark for relief; British plans for the cam- 
paign; expedition from Fort Pitt given up; Clark's plan of cam- 
paign; Clark's account of the expedition; friendly relationship 
existing between Thomas Jefferson and Clark; peace with the 
Chickasaw and Creek; lack of supplies in the western depart- 
ment; Clark ordered to report in Richmond. 

Chapter VII. Western Problems during the Winter 

AND Spring, January 16, 1783 to April 29, 1783 . . 183 

Protection of immigrants; abuses in the public service; condi- 
tions in Kentucky; Fort Nelson, the key to the West; terms of 

Chapter VIII. Conditions in the West after Peace, 
April 30, 1783 to December 22, 1783 227 

Problem of the Indians; lands granted the officers of the Illi- 
nois Regiment; plea for western creditors; reasons for high prices 
in the West during the Revolution; Clark relieved of his com- 
mand; Clark asked by Jefferson to lead a party for the explora- 
tion of the territory west of the Mississippi River; Clark ap- 
pointed principal surveyor of bounty lands. 

Chapter IX. Clark's Accounts with Virginia, March 

30, 1778 TO June 9, 1783 254 

Virginia debtor to Clark; Virginia creditor to Clark; summary 
of accounts connected with the conquest of the Northwest; bills 
drawn by various officers; pay roll of Captain Joseph Bowman's 
Company, August 8, 1778 to December 14, 1778; pay roll of Cap- 
tain Edward Worthington's Company, July 17, 1778 to June i, 
•779; psy fo" of Captain Jesse Evans' Company, December 29, 
1778 to April 5, 1779. 

Chapter X. Journal of Western Commissioners, 
November i, 1782 to July i, 1783 290 

First meeting of commissioners at Harrodsburg, November i, 
1782; recommendations of the commissioners on the construction 
of forts, December 23; misapplication of funds or stores; report 
of proceedings of the commissioners, February 17, 1783; situation 
at Fort Nelson, March 24, 1783; the state not obligated to honor 
bills drawn by unauthorized persons; bills to be paid according 
to the Illinois scale of depreciation; Doctor Connard, surgeon to 
the Illinois troops, June 19, 1783; amounts due Clark. 


Chapter XI. Allotment of Lands in Clark's Grant 
TO Soldiers on the Illinois Expedition, February i, 
1783 TO April 3, 1784 413 

Commission organized, February i, 1783, at Fort Nelson; lands 
located opposite Louisville; William Clark appointed principal 
surveyor; those entitled to receive lands, August 3, 1783; Clark 
empovrered to erect a mill in Clarksville, August 7, 1783; sale of 
lots, May 9, 1786; Clark present at meeting of the board, Feb- 
ruary I, 1813. 

Appendix. Virginia's Claims against the United 

States, May 15, 1788 465 

Appointment of three commissioners; five hundred thousand 
dollars in specie to be paid Virginia. 

List of Works Cited 478 







A.D.S. ^Autograph Document Signed 

A.L. =Autograph Letter 

A.L.S. =Autograph Letter Signed 

Draper Mss., 52J 17 =^Draper Manuscripts, Wisconsin Historical 
Library, vol. 52, page 17 

D.S. =Document Signed 

LH.C. =Illinois Historical Collections 

L.S. =Letter Signed 

r ] =Words supplied by editor 



Special Introduction 


The Last Years of the Revolution West of the 


October 19, 1781 saw the surrender of Cornwallis 
and the final triumph of the Revolution east of the 
Alleghanies. Washington with his army of two thou- 
sand Americans and five thousand Frenchmen had 
made a brilliant march of four hundred miles from 
the Hudson to the York River, had joined forces with 
Lafayette and completely hemmed in the British army 
of seven thousand on the narrow peninsula between 
the James River and the York. After vainly striving 
to break the lines of the besiegers, Cornwallis had sur- 
rendered his army as prisoners of war. The instruc- 
tions issued to Sir Guy Carleton, who was setting out 
to take command in America (April 4, 1782), directed 
him to transfer the garrison at New York to Halifax, 
even at the price of an early capitulation, and to wiih- 
draw the garrisons at Charleston and Savannah. That 
there was to be no further effort towards conquering 
the revolting colonists was evident. 

During the last months of 1781 and for upwards of 
a year thereafter the control of the West was still in 
the balance and British and American leaders in this 
region continued to exercise their greatest military 
and diplomatic abilities. Clark continued to hold 
Fort Nelson, recently constructed at the Falls of the 
Ohio, as his base of operations. From it he could 


exercise control of the Illinois posts, rally militiamen 
for the protection of the Kentucky settlements, and 
keep the British on the defensive at Detroit. He might 
even attempt the capture of that fort — the goal of his 
ambition from the days when the first plans vi^ere for- 
mulated for the capture of the Illinois country.' Brit- 
ish leaders, while striving to hold the friendship of the 
northwestern tribes, sought to regain control over the 
Illinois country and the Mississippi River, to drive the 
Americans from Fort Nelson, and recapture Fort Pitt. 
An understanding of the situation at the end of 
1 78 1 becomes clear only as the salient points in the con- 
duct of the war in the West during the two preceding 
years are recalled. Such a review will serve to dem- 
onstrate to what extent the Northwest was then under 
the military dominance of the Americans." During 
the summer of 1779, following the capture of Kaskas- 
kia and Vincennes, Clark was forced to forego the 
march against Detroit, as he expressed it, "Detroit 
lost for want of a few Men. . . .'" But his prepara- 
tions for this expedition produced unexpected results 
on the enemy, who hurried reinforcements to Detroit 
and Michillimackinac and improved their defenses. 
Their French and Indian allies were in a panic over 
the report that the English, unable to withstand the 
effect of the alliance of the Americans, French, 
Spanish, and Germans, would be driven out of Amer- 

'Clark to George Mason, November 19, 1779. James, George Rogers 
Clark Papers {Illinois Historical Collections, 8), 116. 

'Some of this discussion was taken from my article, "To What Extent 
was George Rogers Clark in Military Control of the Northwest at the 
Close of the American Revolution?" Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association, 1917, pp. 313-329. 

'Clark to Mason, November 19, 1779. Clark Papers, 146. 


ica.' So great was the disaffection among the Indians 
that according to British testimony the Sioux was 
the only tribe still true to them. Two expeditions 
sent from Michillimackinac to intercept the Ameri- 
cans, one a force of some three hundred regulars, trad- 
ers, and Indians, the other numbering six hundred 
made up mainly of Indians, and a third with two hun- 
dred Indians led by officers from Detroit, retreated in 
haste upon hearing a report that Clark was advancing 
toward Detroit with a force of four thousand. A cam- 
paign against Vincennes and another against Fort Pitt 
were likewise abandoned. 

While establishing his headquarters in the newly 
erected fort at the Falls of the Ohio, Clark's plans 
seem to have comprehended two main objects — to raise 
a force in Kentucky, "with the hopes of giving the 
Shawneess a Drubing'V and to make a "bold push" 
and reduce Detroit and Mackinac' Full powers were 
granted him by Governor JefTerson to engage in either 
of these enterprises or to establish a post near the 
mouth of the Ohio. 

While preparing for the capture of Detroit, with- 
out which there could be no permanent peace, Clark, 
in the spring of 1780, began the erection of Fort JefTer- 
son on the Mississippi, five miles below the mouth of 
the Ohio, although a location north of that river had 

'De Peyster to Haldimand, July 21, 1779. Michigan Pioneer and His- 
torical Collections, 9:390-391. 

'Clark to Mason, November 19, 1779. Clark Papers, 153. 

'Clark 10 Jonathan Clark, January 16, 1780. Ibid., 383. "mv proposi- 
tion would be to Make a bold push Reduce those Garisons and no peace 
with the Indians, only on our own terms, and never after suffer arms or 
amunition to go among them which would effectually bring them to our 
Feet. . ." 


been formerly contemplated.' Some months before he 
had advocated building this fort, on the ground that a 
failure of crops in the Illinois country rendered advis- 
able a location nearer the frontier settlements of Ken- 
tucky to make the sustenance of his troops more feas- 
ible." Moreover, he argued that this post should be 
made the center for the other western garrisons, that it 
would at once become the key to the trade of the west- 
ern country and furnish a good location for the Indian 
department as well as give the means of controlling the 
Chickasaw Indians and the Illinois posts. By March 
of 1780 he was aware that the British were again win- 
ning control over the northwestern tribes and that they 
contemplated some such plan of action as that attempt- 
ed by Governor Hamilton in 1779. Not alone had this 
expedition which threatened the total loss of the West 
to be checked, but the advance of the Spaniards east of 
the Mississippi, who, as John Todd said, had a "fond- 
ness for engrossing Territory",' had also to be met. The 
continuance of American control in the Illinois coun- 
try seemed, as Clark believed, to depend on the concen- 
tration of his available force at the new fort. By this 
striking move the Indians would be so mystified that 
they would refuse to join the British on the aforesaid 
expedition. At no time was there the suggestion of 
abandoning any territory beyond the Ohio, Governor 
Jefferson having adopted the views of Clark and John 
Todd on the practicability of concentration in the fort 
at the mouth of the Ohio which would, as he said, 

Thomas Jefferson to the Speaker of the House of Delegates Tune li 
1780. Clark Papers, 427. 

Clark to Jefferson, September 23, 1779. Ibid., 365. 
'John Todd to Jefferson, June 2, 1780. Ibid., 422. 


facilitate trade with the Illinois and be near enough to 
furnish aid to that territory, protect the trade with 
New Orleans, and together with other posts to be estab- 
lished constitute a chain of defense for the western 
frontier.' In pursuance of this project, the troops were 
withdrawn from Vincennes, leaving only a company of 
French militia to guard that post. But before the re- 
tirement of the troops from the Illinois villages had 
taken place a formidable advance by the British was 

This plan for gaining control over the Mississippi, 
— for Spain, joint tenant with Great Britain since 1763, 
was now also at war with licr — for the recapture of the 
Illinois country, the Falls of the Ohio, and finally Forts 
Pitt and Cumberland, was one of the most striking mil- 
itary conceptions of the entire Revolution. If success- 
ful, the whole region west of the Alleghanies doubtless 
would have remained British territory, for all commu- 
nication between Clark and the East would thus have 
been destroyed. Besides, conditions east of the moun- 
tains must have been modified, for British rangers and 
their hordes of Indian allies would have been free to 
join the ranks of the British generals in Virginia and 
the South. 

The British planned to advance in five sections and 
to make three major assaults at widely separated points. 
With a force of fifteen hundred men General Camp- 
bell was to proceed from Pensacola and capture New 
Orleans. His strength was to be increased by the ad- 
dition of white troops and Indians from Michillimack- 

'Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Martin, January 24, 1780. Clark Papers, 


inac, this force having to advance down the Mississippi 
after capturing St. Louis. The third detachment, as- 
sembled by Detroit officials, was to detain Clark at 
the Falls of the Ohio. One of the subsidiary forces was 
to advance by way of the Illinois River, while a second 
was ordered to watch the plains between the Wabash 
and the Mississippi. 

The attack on St. Louis and the Illinois villages 
was entrusted by Governor Sinclair of Michillimack- 
inac to Captain Emanuel Hesse. His command, made 
up of nine hundred and fifty British regulars, traders, 
and Indians, was assembled at the junction of the Mis- 
sissippi and the Wisconsin. Conspicuous among the 
Menominee, Sauk, Fox, Winnebago, and Ottawa war- 
riors was a body of two hundred Sioux braves under 
the leadership of Wabasha, their illustrious chief. 
While the capture of Governor Hamilton had weak- 
ened the hold of the British on the northwestern tribes, 
the Sioux, as stated by Sinclair, were undebauched, 
addicted to war, and jealously attached to His Maj- 
esty's interest. Warned of the approach of the enemy, 
the Spaniards had so strengthened their defenses at St. 
Louis that the first assault was repulsed. Meantime 
Clark had reached Cahokia in response to the appeals 
for his immediate presence from De Leyba, the Span- 
ish lieutenant governor, and from Colonel John Mont- 
gomery. After a short skirmish at Cahokia the British 
retreated in two divisions, one up the Mississippi and 
the other to Michillimackinac. Two retaliatory ex- 
peditions were sent in pursuit, but the enemy made 
good his escape. The villages of the Sauk and Foxes 
on the Rock River were destroyed by the Americans. 




It is impossible to determine the reasons for the British 
retreat. Clark claimed that it was due to the presence 
of himself and his men. The British pointed to the 
treachery of some of their Indian leaders and to the 
lack of spirit on the part of the Canadians.' General 
Campbell evidently made no effort to leave Pensacola. 
The third expedition was quite as striking a failure. 
For weeks Major De Peystcr lavished what his superi- 
ors characterized as an "amazing sum" on the "indul- 
gence" of the tribes tributary to Detroit in order to en- 
list them for the expedition against the Falls of the 
Ohio.^ This, if successful, would cut the American 
communication with the East, force the surrender of 
the Illinois posts, and reduce the Kentucky settle- 
ments.' With a well-equipped force of eleven hun- 
dred, a thousand of them being Indians, Captain 
Henry Bird, one of the best type of British leaders, de- 
scended from the Miami to the Ohio. Notwithstand- 
ing his possession of two pieces of light artillery, he 
determined not to haz,ard an attack on the fort at the 
Falls. Learning that reinforcements had arrived 
from Virginia and that the other expeditions had 
failed, he turned toward Detroit after destroying Rud- 
dle's and Martin's stations, two small Kentucky stock- 
aded posts. So rapidly did he retreat that he aban- 
doned his cannon at one of the Miami villages. 

'IVisconsln Historical Collections, 11:154. 

'General Haldimand stated the amount to be £64,036. On July 6, 
1780, he wrote, "The appearance of such drafts in so regular & so quick 
a succession, naturally laid me to reflect upon their fatal consequences to 
the nation..." Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls., io'409. 

'Answers of Thomas Marshall and James Knox to questions of the com- 
missioners to adjust the claims of Virginia against the United States, De- 
cember 8, 1787, Bureau of Indexes and Archives, Department of State, 
Washington, D. C. 


At no time in his career did Clark's capacity for 
leadership appear more brilliant. No obstacle could 
deter him from delivering such a stroke as would pre- 
vent a second attempt that year on the part of the en- 
emy. The rapidity with which he advanced to his goal 
was not unlike the drive toward Vincennes in the Feb- 
ruary days of the preceding year. Learning of the 
designs of Captain Bird, he set out from Cahokia with 
a few men for Fort Jefferson, and after barely escaping 
capture by the Indians, struck off through the wilder- 
ness with only two companions for Harrodsburg. In 
spite of protests from the crowd of investors in land, 
he closed the doors of the land office until the end of 
the campaign, and by August i, seven weeks from the 
time of his leaving Cahokia, one thousand volunteers 
had responded to his order to assemble at the mouth of 
the Licking River. After a forced march they reached 
Old Chillicothe, but the Indians had fled. At Piqua, 
a few miles beyond, a well-built town with a block- 
house, the Americans overtook and attacked several 
hundred Indians, and after a fierce engagement forced 
them to retreat. No effort was made at pursuit. After 
burning the towns, Clark led his troops to the mouth 
of the Licking, where they disbanded. In this cam- 
paign of a month they had marched four hundred and 
eighty miles, and so successful was the effort that dur- 
ing the remainder of the year the Kentucky settlements 
were freed from serious molestation. 

By Christmas time, Clark was in Richmond con- 
sulting with the authorities over plans for taking De- 
troit. Such an expedition would serve to prevent the 


promised advance of the British, of which there were 
again unmistakable signs. Inspired by the more ag- 
gressive policy of Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, 
and George Mason, leaders in the House of Delegates, 
Clark's instructions provided for an advance of two 
thousand men with the ultimate object of reducing De- 
troit and acquiring Lake Erie. If successfully carried 
out, so argued Governor JefYerscn, this expedition 
would insure peace on the whole frontier and create an 
extensive area for commercial expansion. In the event 
of peace the acquisition would "form to the American 
union a barrier against the dangerous extension of the 
British Province of Canada and add to the Empire of 
liberty an extensive and fertile Country. . .'" At the 
opening of the year 1781, therefore, there was no evi- 
dence of final territorial demands extending over an 
area less than the whole Northwest. Besides, Wash- 
ington promised contributions from the continental 
stores for this object, which he declared he had con- 
stantly borne in mind, believing that the reduction of 
Detroit "would be the only certain means of giving 
peace and security to the whole western frontier . . .'" 
For the first time a complete military organization 
for the West was completed, by making Clark briga- 
dier general of the forces which were "to be embodied 
on an expedition westward of the Ohio.'" At no time 
during the Revolution was there a more striking exam- 
ple of military inefficiency on the part of both the gen- 

'Jeflerson to Clark, December 25, 1780. Clark Papers, 490. 

'Washington to Jefferson, December 28, 17S0. Washington, IVT'ttingt 
(Sparks ed.), 7:341- 

'Clark Papers, 501. This commission was granted under authority of 
Governor Jefferson. 


eral government and Virginia. Almost six weeks were 
wasted by Congress and the Board of War in collecting 
the promised supplies for the western expedition, and 
there was a delay of two weeks at one point between 
Philadelphia and Fort Pitt in order to make new kegs 
for the transportation of powder. The time of neces- 
sary waiting at Pittsburgh might well have disheart- 
ened any leader. Drafting troops, under Virginia mil- 
itary laws, was a failure and Governor Jefferson was 
forced to resort to the call for volunteers. Colonel 
Daniel Brodhead, commanding officer at Fort Pitt, 
refused to grant permission for two hundred regulars 
to go on the expedition, and finally, early in August, 
Clark set out down the Ohio with four hundred regu- 
lars and volunteers, a force scarcely adequate to guard 
the boats which contained supplies for fully two thou- 
sand men. But plans had been agreed upon at Pitts- 
burgh which provided for an expedition against the 
Wyandot early in September under Colonel Gibson, 
while Clark was to advance against the Shawnee. Once 
more Clark's activities had served as a defense to the 
frontier. Detroit was put into condition for withstand- 
ing this attack and Indian demands at that post were 
frequent and "amazing."' 

Clark's arrival at Louisville was opportune, for 
never was there a prospect so gloomy for the fate of the 
West. While Fort Nelson was completed, as he had 
directed. Fort JefTerson had been evacuated and there 
was a prospect that the Americans would be compelled 
to abandon Vincennes, where there was still a garrison 

'Haldimand to DePeyster, April lo, 1781. Mic/i. Pion. and Hist. Colls., 


of sixty men/ Preparations for the promised expedi- 
tion against Detroit had been made by Kentucky offi- 
cials under the most adverse conditions, for the credit 
of Virginia throughout the West was worthless. Dur- 
ing the winter and spring the Kentucky settlements had 
been devastated by a succession of Indian raids and 
there were well-founded rumors that an army was to be 
sent against them from Detroit. By order of the Vir- 
ginia assembly, the expedition against that post was 

In council with his officers and the three Kentucky 
county lieutenants early in September, Clark still clung 
to his determination to march against the Indians by 
the way of the Wabash or the Miami and then to De- 
troit. But his advisers deemed the force available, 
some seven hundred men, inadequate for such an expe- 
dition. While insisting on the maintenance of the gar- 
rison at the Falls, they likewise recommended that a 
fort should be built at the mouth of the Kentucky, and 
urged the assembling of a strong force for the reduc- 
tion of Detroit the next spring. Clark still advocated 
an expedition up the Wabash against the Indian tribes 
among whom the British emissaries seemed to be mot 
strongly intrenched. He saw in such a move the cap- 
ture of Detroit and the possession of Lake Erie, control 
of the savages and preservation of the Kentucky settle- 
ments, retention of power over the Illinois, both Span- 
ish and American, and ultimate influence on the terms 
of peace.' It is probable he had in his possession at the 

'Fort Jefferson was finally evacuated in June, 1781. Some of the gar- 
rison went to Vincennes. Clark Papers, 606. 

'Clark to Governor Nelson, October i, 1781. Ibid., 605-608. 



time the message from Colonel Arthur Campbell, writ- 
ten a month earlier, in which he stated that peace would 
probably be declared within a few months. This letter 
outlined the general situation, with Washington carry- 
ing on operations against New York, with Greene 
nearly in control of the two southern states that were 
the preceding winter occupied by the enemy, and with 
the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Galvez, in posses- 
sion of Pensacola. It concludes with language strik- 
ingly resembling that of Benjamin Franklin to Lord 
Shelburne in the peace preliminaries seven months and 
a half later: "I wish we could carry our arms to the 
banks of Lake Erie, before a cessation would take 
place; to attempt it farther, might be risking too much. 
For Canada confined to its ancient limits may serve our 
present turn: altho' every true American must ack- 
nowledge, the advantages that would accrue, could 
Canada be added to the Union.'" 

Early in December (1781), the numerous recom- 
mendations from the western officials were considered 
by the Virginia legislature.' While the members 
were fully aware of the critical situation, they were 
powerless to assume the burdens of an offensive warfare 
with an empty treasury and paper money depreciated 
to the ratio of 1000 to i.' "Our Paper Money is at an 
End," wrote Governor Harrison, "and from the Redun- 
dancy of that baneful Medium which has hitherto cir- 
culated amongst us, the Credit of the State is at a very 

'Colonel Arthur Campbell to Clarlt, September j, 1781. Clark Papers, 
595. Colonel Campbell was stationed at Washington, Pa. 

^Journal of yirginia House of Delegates, December 11, 1781, p. 35. See 
tost, 15-17. 

•Jonathan Clark to Clark, November 8, 1781. See post, 12. 


low Ebb.'" Legislative regulation and the imposition 
of heavy taxes were resorted to with the hope of restor- 
ing their lost credit. But contributions to the support 
of the army under General Nathanael Greene and the 
campaign against Lord Cornwallis had drained the 
state of its resources. The extended territory from 
which collections were to be made rendered relief 
through taxation impossible. Governor Harrison was 
forced to answer the appeal of General Greene for re- 
lief as follows: "The Credit of the State is lost and we 
have not a Shilling in the Treasury. The powers for- 
merly given to embody and march the Militia out of 
the State are no longer continued to us, nor can we im- 
press what may be necessary for you, or even for our- 
selves, and the late Invasion has nearly drained us of 
our Stock of Provisions and Refreshments of all Kinds 
necessary for an Army. As this is not an exaggerated 
but a true State of our Situation I leave you to judge 
whether any great Dependance can for the present be 
placed on this State.'" 

The hopes of the leaders in the West were revived 
for a time by the report of the success of General 
Greene at Charleston and the capture of Cornwallis, 
but failure to carry out the expedition under General 
Clark and Colonel Gibson aroused their fears lest they 
should now be attacked from Detroit. Discontent be- 
came more prevalent during the winter months. Fort 
Pitt was described as a "heap of ruins.'" The com- 

'Governor Harrison to the President of Congress, January 21, 1782. 
Harrison Letter Book, 1781, p. 31, Virginia State Archives. 

'January 21, 1782. Harrison Letter Book, 1781, p. 32. 

'Irvine to Thomas McKean, president of Congress, December 3, 178 1. 
Washington Papers, Library of Congress. 


bined garrisons at this post and at Forts Mcintosh and 
Wheeling numbered two hundred and thirty men. 
Military stores were almost exhausted, provisions were 
scarce, owing to the lack of public credit, although at 
the time it was stated that at least three hundred tons 
of flour were being held for shipment to Kentucky and 
New Orleans at the opening of navigation/ The 
boundary line between Pennsylvania and Virginia had 
not been settled and neither civil nor military authority 
could be enforced. There was an outcry against taxa- 
tion of every form. Large numbers of the inhabitants 
of Westmoreland County, because of Colonel Lochry's 
defeat, were threatening to retire to the east of the 
mountains.' A day was set upon which other settlers 
were to assemble at Wheeling for the purpose of ac- 
quiring lands on the Muskingum and founding a new 
state which must ultimately come under British control. 
Desertions were common among the troops.' For two 
years and three months they had received no pay. 
Forced to live in cold open barracks with little fuel and 
without adequate clothing, officers and men alike were 
incapable of performing the routine of garrison duties. 
"I never saw troops cut so truly a deplorable, and at 
the same time despicable, a figure. Indeed, when I 

'General Irvine to Robert Morris, April 29, 1782: "Since I came up, 
I have given permits to ten boats for New Orleans and Kentucky, loaded 
with flour. I believe none of them carried less than thirty tons. I am in- 
formed ten or twelve more are to be down in one fleet of a much larger 
size." Huttcrfield, ffas/iinffton-Irvine Corrfspondence, 202. 

'James, "George Rogers Clark and Detroit, 1780-1781," in Proceedings 
of the Miitisiippi Galley Uhtorical Asiocintlon, 3:314. 

'"...though nothing like general mutiny has taken place, yet several 
individuals have behaved in the most daring and atrocious manner, two of 
whom are now under sentence and shall be executed to-morrow, which I 
hope will check these proceedings." H^ashington-Irvine Correspondence, 


arrived," so wrote General William Irvine, the suc- 
cessor of Brodhead who in September had been ordered 
to surrender his command to Colonel Gibson, "no man 
would believe from their appearance that they were 
soldiers ; nay, it would be difficult to determine whether 
they were white men.^'^ The Pennsylvania assembly 
seemed to disregard all appeals for frontier relief and 
the commanding officer was forced to beg assistance 
from local authorities. 

By order of the Governor of Virginia, Clark was 
directed to garrison the Falls of the Ohio, the mouth of 
the Kentucky, the mouth of the Licking, and the mouth 
of Limestone Creek. Two gunboats were to be built 
for each post which should be used to patrol the Oliio 
and prevent any Indian bands from crossing.^ This 
defense, it was argued, would enable the inhabitants to 
protect themselves against the incursions of the enemy 
and occasionally to attack them.' These garrisons were 
to be manned by regulars and militia consisting of one 
hundred men at the Falls and sixty-eight at each of the 
other posts. The carrying out of these measures was 
dependent upon the generosity of the people them- 
selves, supported by the promise that any debts con- 
tracted for the purpose should be met by the first means 
available and that there was every expectation of punc- 
tuality.* The troops under Clark were poorly pre- 
pared for the service they were expected to render. For 
two years many of them had served without receiving 
any pay and during that time had been given neither 

'Washington-Irvine Correspondence, 75. 

'Benjamin Harrison to Clark, December 20, 1781. See post, 19 ff. 

'See post, 16. 

'Benjamin Harrison to Clarlc, March 24, 1782. See post, 49. 


shoes nor stockings nor hats.' For a like period 
others had received no clothing of any sort from the 
state.' Forced to live on half rations, they conceived 
themselves totally neglected while the main army, as 
they firmly believed, lacked nothing and was even sup- 
plied with luxuries. But the hardships in the camps 
of the main army were quite as extreme. Because of a 
lack of the ordinary means of transportation, provis- 
ions collected in one county were unavailable for the 
use of the troops in an adjoining county. At that time, 
Virginia troops at Cumberland Old Court House had 
received no meat for twelve days, and a state regiment 
at Portsmouth was reported to be in need of bread, 
meat, and salt.' 

Once more Clark's preparations, his evasive an- 
swers to inquiries, and messages to the enemy exerted a 
marked effect upon British plans and Indian acts. 
Typical of Clark's reports was one sent to the court of 
Kaskaskia, early in December, calling for the thorough 
enforcement of the laws and asserting that peace was 
shortly to be expected since Cornwallis with his entire 
army had surrendered and Clinton had lost three thou- 
sand men. "Charleston", he declared, "is besieged and 
I think by this time it has surrendered with all the Eng- 

'Capeain Robert Todd to Thomas Nelson, December ii, 1781. See post, 
14. Captain Todd was the paymaster of Clark's regiment. 

'"Our distress for the want of clothing cannot be otlierwise than ap- 
parent when you reflect sir that for more than a year and a half we have 
not ill this particular experienced the bounty of our country but have been 
left to struggle through a complication of difficult and distressful circum- 
^tances upon our own slender means." Joseph Crockett to Governor Har- 
rison, April 3, 1782. Clark Manuscripts, Virginia State Library. Crockett 
accompanied Clark on the expedition. 

'Major Alexander Dick to Colonel Davies, January 14, 1782; Colonel 
Febiger to Colonel Davies, January 23, 1782. Calendar of Virginia Slate 
Pa fen, 3:20, 44. 


lish troops; so that there will scarcely remain an Eng- 
lishman on the continent except those who are pris- 
oners." More than one-half the Indian tribes made 
overtures for peace.' On the other hand during the 
fall and winter British authorities strove to gain con- 
trol of all the northwestern tribes. Great sums in pres- 
ents were bestowed upon them and discipline was re- 
laxed, for, as stated by one of the ofTicials, Indians must 
be used "to prevent the inroads of the Virginians" and 
must be "delicately managed, to prevent their favour- 
ing those rebels. . .'" In January, a company of Indians 
was sent to drive off some traders at "Chicagou," who 
were using their influence among the Indians in behalf 
of the Americans.' Late in November, chiefs of the 
Shawnee, Wyandot, Delaware, and ten other tribes as- 
sembled at Detroit.* They were instructed to make no 
attack, particularly on Kentucky, until towards 
spring.^ As a feint, small parties were sent forward to 
steal horses and commit minor depredations, thus keep- 
ing settlers off their guard until the coming of the main 
expedition which was to capture Fort Nelson and the 
other posts and at a single blow lay waste the whole 
frontier. Promise for the success of the plan was 
greater because of the arrival at Detroit of Rocheblave, 
Lamothe, and other captured leaders, all anxious to re- 
trieve their former disasters by capturing the Illinois 

'Shane Papers, in Wisconsin Historical Library, 16:37 (Draper MSS., 
17CC140). It was estimated that twenty-seven of the fifty tribes were pre- 
pared to treat with Clarl:. 

'De Peyster to Haldimand, January 26, 1782. Mich. Pion. and Hist. 
Colls., 10:548. 
'Ibid., 547. 

'ffaihington-lrvine Correspondence, 90. 
'Clark to Governor Harrison, March 5, 1782. See posl, 44. 


country and Vincennes.' Early in February the most 
exposed settlements of Kentucky and Virginia were 
surprised, a number of prisoners were captured, cabins 
burned, and stock killed. 

The outlook was still gloomier, for Clark had ten- 
dered his resignation to the Governor. Power to draw 
bills on the state had been entrusted to Clark alone, but 
large quantities appeared drawn by Colonel John 
Montgomery, Captain Robert George, and others. It 
was suspected that there was collusion between the 
drawers and those to whom the bills were made pay- 
able, because of the large amounts and the fact that 
most of them were for specie when it was common 
knowledge that there was no specie available in the 
state.' By an act of the assembly five commissioners 
were appointed to investigate the conduct of all offi- 
cers, agents, contractors, and other persons who had dis- 
bursed public money in the West belonging to Virginia, 
and if it seemed desirable to appoint others to their po- 
sitions.' Clark interpreted the act as a reflection upon 
his conduct of public aflfairs. Free from military ser- 
vice, he planned to give attention to his land holdings, 
for, as he said, he possessed an "unprecedented Quan- 
tity of the finest Lands in the Western World. . ." At 
the time, immigration to the West was so extensive that 
the land values rose "amazingly." Not only was his 
request to be relieved from service refused, full confi- 

'For the plan submitted by Lamothe, see Michigan Pioneer and His- 
torical Collections, 10:569-571. 

'Harrison to Fleming, January 29, 1782. See fost, 33. 

'Harrison Letter Book, 1781, pp. 41-42. The commissioners named were 
William Fleming, Thomas Marshall, Samuel McDowell, Daniel Smith, and 
Granville Smith. Any three of them might constitute the commission. For 
lep.iii of this commission, see post, 290 ff. 


dence in him having been expressed by the Governor, 
but his powers were made more extensive/ 

Fully aware that the task was the most difficult he 
had ever undertaken, Clark pushed the preparations 
vigorously for foiling the main attack of the enemy, 
which it was understood would be directed against 
Fort Nelson/ "If we should be so fortunate as to re- 
pel this invasion without too great a loss to ourselves", 
he wrote, "the Indians will all scatter to their different 
Countries and give a fair oppertunity for a valuable 
stroke to be made among them — '" In reply to his ap- 
peal, transmitted by Davies, for armed boats to prevent 
the incursions of Indians south of the Ohio, Governor 
Harrison wrote, "I am sorry to inform you that we 
have but 4. S. in the Treasury, and no means of getting 
any more."* 

Assuming a part of the expense himself, Clark gave 
special attention to the construction of four armed gal- 
leys with the design of using them to control the navi- 
gation of the Ohio at the mouth of the Miami. Spies 
and scouting parties were constantly engaged on the 
various trails leading to the settlements in order to 
prevent possible surprise." Early in July one of tlie 
boats, with a seventy-three foot keel, was completed, 

'Clark to Jonathan Clark, February i6, 1782. See post, 39. "I am 
satisfy'd concerning the Verbal message alluded to In your», fimlinp that it 
was aimed at me. I wish those who see the Resolution may not think so, as 
its known that most publick transactions in the Western Departm't pas'd 
thro' my hands. Such an idea must be painful to me well knowing the 
Exertions I have us'd to save the publick monies." Clark to Governor 
Harrison, February 18, 1782. Cal. of I'a. Stale Papers, 3:68. 

'"...but I doubt it will be out of my power to save this infant Cuntrey 
from those impending strokes that now Hover over it..." Clark to Jona- 
than Clark, February 16, 1782. See post, 39. 

'Clark to Governor Harrison, May 2, 1782. See post, 64. 

'April 22, 1782. See post, 61. 

'John Floyd to Clark, June 16, 1782. See post, 67. 


having bullet-proof gunwales four feet high and false 
gunwales which could be raised in case of attack.' 
When completely equipped, it was to be manned with 
one hundred and ten men, and was to carry a six-pound- 
er, two fours, and a two-pounder. 

The obstacles encountered in carrying out defen- 
sive measures were continuous. Militia ordered on 
duty at Fort Nelson refused to march. A company of 
thirty-eight men serving on the row galley deserted, 
even after unusual concessions had been granted them.' 
The regiment of state infantry promised for western 
defense could not be sent, for it was found that their 
services would be necessary to guard the coast.' Added 
to the general confusion and lack of discipline incident 
to the fear of attack, there was a spirit of insurgency 
on the part of certain leaders born of the desire to form 
an independent state and "calculated on purpose for 
disafifection & an Evasion of duty. . . "* 

Clark's preparations were, in the usual fashion, 
magnified by tlie authorities at Detroit. It was assert- 
ed that he was about to march with four thousand men 
for the capture of that post. According to another 
report which was current, a force of one thousand 
French and Spaniards were to join Clark on this ex- 
pedition. To add to their alarm and confusion, early 

'The expense was met in part by the sale of flour from the general 
storehouse. "Take all the pains you Can to find out and encourage Boat- 
builders and good workmen to repair to this place immediately, they shall 
have good wages in hard Money; if you can find experienced Ship Carpen- 
ters that come immediately he shall have almost what wages he will ask". 
Clark to Joseph Lindsay, March 5, 1782. See post, 43. 

'Robert George to John Todd, Jr., July 14, 1782. See post, 77-78. 

'Harrison to Clark, March 24, 1782. See post, 49. 

*John Floyd to John May, April 8, 1782. See post, 54. 


in April the first news reached Detroit of the surrender 
of Cornwallis, and it was rumored that the Iroquois 
were about to make peace with the Americans.' There 
was no hope for assistance from Montreal for the 
British authorities were in expectation that such troops 
as they could spare would be needed to make a diver- 
sion in favor of General Clinton, who was defending 
New York. In anticipation of the importance of 
holding Detroit should peace ensue, General Haldi- 
mand ordered the collection of sufficient provisions to 
enable the garrison to withstand a formidable assault. 

The advance of Colonel William Crawford from 
Fort Pitt at the head of four hundred and eighty 
mounted men was regarded as the advance guard of 
this American army. His force was made up of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia frontiersmen, some of whom had 
been guilty of taking part in the Moravian Indian 
massacre two months earlier. The outcome of Craw- 
ford's expedition can be fully understood only in its 
relation to this massacre, or the "Gnadenhiitten affair" 
as it has been called. No other deed narrated in the 
annals of the frontier gives such evidence of a lapse 
into revolting brutality on the part of the borderers. 

Early in the year 1772, David Zeisberger and John 
Heckewelder, Moravian missionaries who had labored 
faithfully among the Delaware in western Pennsyl- 
vania, responded to the appeal of the Delaware nation 
in Ohio and led their followers of Christian Indians 
to a site which was granted them by the Delaware on 
the upper Tuscarawas River about one hundred miles 

'De Peyster to McKee, April 3, 1782. Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls., 


from Fort Pitt. Here they founded three settlements, 
Salem, Gnadenhiitten, and Schonbrunn, where for a 
number of years they lived undisturbed as prosperous 
farmers. Their cabins were well built; they were gov- 
erned by published laws and their children received 
some schooling. At the outbreak, of the Revolution, 
their leaders declared they were to remain neutral, an 
impossible role, living as they did on the warpath be- 
tween Fort Pitt and Detroit. Both sides were suspi- 
cious of them for at times some of their young men 
joined the war-parties of the British Indians and there 
is evidence of a secret correspondence between them 
and the Americans at Pittsburgh. That a stricter 
watch might be kept on them, a band of two hundred 
and fifty British and Indians under the renegade 
Captain Matthew Elliot during September, 1781 
appeared at their settlements and forced them to ac- 
company him to the upper Sandusky River. Their 
leaders were taken to Detroit but as no evidence was 
obtainable relating to their sympathy for the Ameri- 
cans they were permitted to return to their followers. 
Their suffering at the hands of their Indian captors 
and because of hunger and cold was extreme. Before 
the opening of spring a company of about a hundred 
Christian Indians was permitted to return to the de- 
serted villages to harvest the corn which still stood in 
the fields. 

Early that spring there was great consternation in 
the region of Fort Pitt because of Indian atrocities, 
and it was supposed the enemy was occupying the de- 
serted Moravian towns. Colonel David Williamson, 


with a force of some three hundred militia, was sent 
against them.' Disregarding the warning sent them, 
the Christian Indians made no effort to escape, and 
the entire company of men, women, and children, about 
ninety in all, was captured. For three days the captors 
deliberated, and then, as determined by the majority, 
all of the Indians were put to death in a "most cool and 
deliberate manner," one boy only escaping." De- 
nounced by the leaders on the frontier as an act dis- 
graceful to humanity and productive of dangerous 
consequences, they demanded that the perpetrators 
should be brought to punishment. But nothing further 
than the condemnation of the act resulted from the 
investigation by the assembly of Pennsylvania. Some 
of the guilty, however, soon met a just fate as members 
of the expedition under Crawford, for the Delaware, 
especially, sought to avenge the loss of their relatives. 

Colonel Crawford, who was a personal friend of 
General Washington, saw service at Brandywine in 
charge of a West Augusta regiment. He had seen 
service also in the West under General Hand and 
General Mcintosh and was reported to be a brave and 
active officer. But he was not the leader for a retalia- 
tory expedition against an Indian enemy and only one 
hundred of his troops were veterans in this kind of 

On May 25 they set out in four columns from the 
Mingo Bottom, a day's journey from Fort Pitt, in the 
direction of the Wyandot and Shawnee towns on the 

'Irvine to Washington, April 20, 1782. K^ashington-Irvine Correifond- 

e, 99. 
post, 71. 

ence, 99, note 2. 

'Major William Croghan to Colonel William Davies, July 6, 1782. See 


upper Sandusky. These Indians, having some five 
hundred warriors, constituted the most inveterate foes 
of the whites, and according to General Irvine's in- 
structions, their settlements were to be destroyed "with 
fire and sword (if practicable) ... by which we hope 
to give ease and safety to the inhabitants of this coun- 
try ...'" Colonel Crawford hoped to move rapidly, 
as directed, and efl^ect a surprise, but scouts reported 
his plans at Detroit before the advance was actually 
begun and Indian spies followed his every movement.' 

Owing to the rough route and to what seems a lack 
of foresight, three days more were consumed in the 
march than were actually necessary. By a forced 
march the attack might have been made according to 
orders which were to make the last day's march as long 
as possible and attack the place in the night. But, con- 
fident of success, they encamped ten miles from the 
first Sandusky town and set out leisurely at seven in the 
morning after firing a volley from their rifles. 

In the meantime, the commandant at Detroit, while 
keeping careful watch for Clark's coming up the Wa- 
bash, dispatched Captain Caldwell with a company of 
rangers, volunteers and Lake Indians to the defense 
of the Sandusky villages. "It will however not be ; 

prudent to weaken this garrison much more," Colonel i 

n • Peyster wrote, "till I am satisfied that Mr. Clark is t 

ni)t meditating a stroke at this settlement by way of I 

'tVashington-lrvine Correspondence, ii8, note i. 'A 

'Major De Peyster, unaddressed, May 14, 1782. Mich. Pion. and Hist. »• 

Co///.. 10:574-575. i|^. 




the Wabash.'" After accessions of bands of Wyan- 
dot and Delaware warriors, this force of some three 
hundred, two-thirds of them Indians, encountered the 
Americans on the early afternoon of June 4. The 
battle which ensued lasted until dark, with little ad- 
vantage gained on either side, notwithstanding the 
superiority of the Americans in numbers. 

At daybreak the following morning, the firing was 
resumed and was kept up at long range during the 
greater part of that day. The Americans had lost their 
advantage, for early in the afternoon a force of one 
hundred and forty Shawnee joined the Indians. Be- 
lieving that the force of the enemy was now superior, 
American officers determined to retreat. In the dark- 
ness they forced their way through two divisions 'tf 
the enemy. Discipline was impossible, and dri\ -i 
along by the Indians in close pursuit they finally fled 
in great confusion. At daybreak the main body, to- 
gether with straggling parties, a force of about three 
hundred men in all, had reached a spot five miles from 
the scene of action. Colonel Crawford was among tlie 
number missing and Colonel David Williamson, who 
was second in command, directed the retreat. So 
closely were they pursued by a force of rangers and 
Indians that they were forced to defend themselves in 
an open plain. In this action, the enemy was repulsed, 
the Americans entered the woods, and the retreat was 
continued without further molestation. On June 13 
they recrossed the Ohio and the next day were dis- 
banded. The losses of the British were inconsiderable. 

'Major De Peyster, unaddressed, May 14, 1782. Mich. Pion. and Hist. 
Colls., 10:575. 



Fifty of the Americans were killed or missing. Most 
of those who fell into the hands of the Indians were 
put to death after extreme suffering. 

Colonel Crawford, with Doctor Knight, who 
served as surgeon on the expedition, together with nine 
others, were separated from the main body of troops 
and were captured by the Indians. Taken to an Indian 
town, they were stripped of their clothing, their bodies 
were blackened, and they were forced to run the gaunt- 
let, men, women, and children beating them with sticks 
and clubs. All of the prisoners save Crawford and 
Knight were put to death at once but these two were 
selected for torture. Knight was compelled to witness 
the sufferings of his companion, who with a rope 
around his body was led to a stake. Crawford, appeal- 
ing in vain to Simon Girty to end his suffering by shoot- 
ing him, was then forced to walk barefoot over burning 
coals while his tormentors prodded his naked body with 
burning sticks. Knight was informed that he was to 
receive like treatment at a neighboring town. On his 
way thither, he was guarded by only one savage. The 
Indian, wishing a fire, unbound his prisoner and or- 
dered him to collect the wood. Having found a good 
billet. Knight felled his guard with it, escaped into 
the forest, and after twenty-one days of suffering 
through want of food, finally reached Fort Pitt. The 
Delaware justified their fiendish performances as a re- 
taliation for the cruelties of the Moravian massacre 
and asserted that not a single prisoner should in the 
future escape torture.' 

•Irvine to Washington, July ii, 1782. See post, 76-77. 


In the midst of the general consternation caused by 
Crawford's defeat, the savages, incited by their victory, 
appeared in large numbers on the upper Ohio and ad- 
vanced as far as Hannastown, some thirty miles beyond 
Pittsburgh along the old Forbes road.' This settle- 
ment was burned and twenty of the inhabitants who 
were unable to gain the fort were made prisoners or 
killed. Isolated settlers were cut off in the usual 
fashion and other settlements were burned. The in- 
habitants who did not escape to the forts were mur- 
dered or held as prisoners, crops were destroyed and 
stock driven off by bands in the New River region and 
upon the other back settlements of the Carolinas. 

Frontiersmen who had sustained the greatest losses 
through Crawford's defeat urged retaliation and be- 
sought General Irvine to lead them on such an expe- 
dition. They ofifercd to raise six or seven hundred 
militia and equip them with horses and provisions." 
In arranging for another campaign against the San- 
dusky villages. General Irvine, who lacked confidence 
in volunteers, proposed to send one hundred regulars 
as a nucleus for the force of nearly a thousand men. 
He was the more confident of success for Clark had 
promised cooperation by advancing against the 

Major De Peyster early received intelligence of 
this movement, which he rightly interpreted as a con- 
certed plan for the capture of Detroit. The defenses 
were strengthened and a gunboat was ordered sta- 

^IVashington-Ir'vine Correspondtnce, 176-177, 250, 383, 390-391, note 2. 
'Irvine to Major General Lincoln, July 18, 1782. Draper MSS., 



tioned at the mouth of the Miami River/ Messages 
were forwarded to Captains Caldwell and McKee, who 
were at Sandusky, and to Captain Joseph Brant, who 
intended to attack Wheeling, directing them to act 
solely on the defensive. But by the end of July the 
Kentucky settlements had received a staggering blow. 
Eleven hundred Indians, the greatest single body 
mustered during the entire Revolution, were brought 
together by Caldwell and McKee for an attack on 
Wheeling. While marching in that direction they 
were overtaken by Shawnee messengers imploring 
them to return for the protection of their villages 
against an attack by Clark. The alarm had grown out 
of the appearance of the armed row-galley at the 
mouth of the Licking. Most of the savages declined 
to go further, but the leaders, not content with a fruit- 
less expedition, determined to invade Kentucky. With 
a small body of rangers and three hundred Wyandot 
and Lake Indians they crossed the Ohio and on the 
night of August 15 appeared before Bryan's Station.' 
This post, situated five miles to the northeast of Lex- 
ington, was the northernmost settlement of Fayette 
County. These two, together with Boone's, McGee's 
and Stroud's, were the only settlements north of the 
Kentucky River. At the time, Bryan's Station was a 
palisaded post of forty cabins occupied by ninety men, 
women, and children. The enclosure, which was two 

'Captain Bird to General Powell, August 13, 1782; Major De Peyster 
to General Haldimand, August 18, 1782. Mic/i. Pion. and Hist. Colls., 
10:625-627, 628-629. 

'This station was built in 1779, chiefly by the Bryans of North Carolina. 
For an unknown reason from the beginning it was interchangeably known 
as Bryan's and Bryant's. See Filson Club Publications, 12:20-22, for a dis- 
cussion of this dual name. 





hundred yards long and forty yards wide, was sur- 
rounded by a wall twelve feet high. At each of the 
corners was a blockhouse two stories high with the 
upper story projecting two feet beyond the lower.' 
Its defense was dependent on forty-four men, heads of 
families, hunters and surveyors. 

The excitement during the night of August 15 was 
intense, for the settlers had been informed that a band 
of Indians which had been committing depredations 
had defeated a small company of militia sent in pursuit 
of tliem from a neighboring station. Some of the de- 
fenders of Bryan's were preparing to leave the fort to 
join those from other settlements in cutting off the 
retreat of the savages when evidence of their own 
danger was discovered. With such secrecy had the 
Indians advanced, that "no spy or scout gave warning 
of the storm.'" By daybreak the fort was surrounded. 
Before sunrise a few spies were sent forward to draw 
the garrison outside the gate, but through bad manage- 
ment this movement failed and the whole plan was 

Work of defense was immediately begun and two 
messengers were sent to Lexington praying for assist- 
ance. The spring which supplied the fort with water 
lay at the foot of the hill within easy reach of the am- 
bushed enemy. To deceive the savages, the women and 
girls volunteered to go, as usual, to secure a supply of 
water. So cheerfully did they leave the fort gate and 
descend the path that the Indians took it for granted 
they were ignorant of the presence of an enemy. They 

'Filson Club Publications, 12:23-24. 

'Executive Papers, August 31, 1782, Virginia State Archives. 


reasoned that if they captured the women the fort 
could not be surprised. Consequently, they allowed 
the pails to be filled and permitted the women to re- 
turn unmolested. Shortly afterwards a small body of 
Indians was sent to open fire on the fort from the side 
nearest the Lexington road. Such an attack, it was 
believed, would draw out a force from the stockade 
in pursuit and thus leave the others defenseless against 
the attack of the main body. Simon Girty and the 
other leaders were themselves deceived. Thirteen 
men rushed out of the gate towards Lexington, firing 
as they ran, as if in hot pursuit, but they returned as 
quickly. Believing that their ruse was successful, the 
main force of Indians ran whooping towards the west- 
ern gate. The defenders, fully prepared for such a 
stroke, opened fire on the approaching savages and 
drove them back in confusion. Before retreating, they 
set fire to some cabins outside the stockade, but a con- 
trary wind blew the sparks away from the fort and it 
was saved.' 

The enemy returned to the assault, no longer in the 
open, but from behind trees and stumps tried to direct 
their fire through portholes. The settlers strove to 
pick off any warrior who exposed himself. This ir- 
regular firing was kept up until early afternoon with 
but inconsiderable losses on either side. At that time 
a rescue party of some forty men under Colonel Levi 
Todd appeared. The two horsemen from the fort 
overtook Colonel Todd, who was a short distance out 
from Lexington on his way to cut off the retreat of a 

'Canadian Archives, Haldimand Papers, series B., 123:308; Stipp, The 
H'estfrn Miscellany, 85. 



band of savages which had been committing depreda- 
tions south of the Kentucky. He set out at once for 
Bryan's. To reach the fort along the Lexington road, 
they were compelled to pass by a field of tall corn in 
which the enemy was hidden. Warned by shots from 
the field, seventeen mounted men who were in ad- 
vance pushed on at top speed and screened by a cloud 
of dust succeeded in entering the fort in safety. 
Colonel Todd with the remainder of the force, mainly 
footmen, seeing that there was no hope of reaciiing the 
gate, ilcd towards Lexington, escaping from their pur- 
suers with the loss of two men killed and two 

Despairing of reducing the fort before the coming 
of other rescue parties, Girty, from a position in which 
he was protected, called on the garrison to surrender. 
He promised protection if they capitulated but de- 
clared that none might hope for mercy if the siege 
were continued, for large reinforcements were hourly 
expected bringing artillery with which the fort could 
be blown to pieces. But the defenders were familiar 
with the fate of Ruddle's and Martin's stations and 
were not to be won by an empty promise of protection. 
A young man of the garrison, Aaron Reynolds, is said 
to have met the proposal in true backwoods style. He 
assured the renegade leader that he was well known 
and despised by all of them, that they had no fears of 
his artillery, and that if any of his followers entered 
the fort they would not deign to use rifles to oppose 
them but would drive them out with switches. He 

'Crt/. of Va. Stale Papers, 3:300, 333. 


dared Girty to remain another day, for by that time 
their own reinforcements were promised and then not 
a single one of his followers should escape. The at- 
tack was continued throughout the night and inefTec- 
tual attempts were made to set fire to the fort. In the 
morning, Girty and his associates, convinced that the 
siege was hopeless, withdrew. They destroyed the 
growing corn, potatoes, and hemp, killed the cattle, 
sheep, and hogs, and took with them most of the set- 
tlers' horses. The retreat was conducted with delib- 
erate slowness and two days were consumed in covering 
the forty miles to the Licking River. No effort was 
made to disguise their route, and when they encamped 
at the Blue Licks on the evening of the seventeenth, 
spies were stationed in expectation that a pursuing 
force would soon overtake them. 

Shortly after the Indians retreated from Bryan's, 
armed forces from Lexington, Harrodsburg, Boones- 
borough and the smaller stations, in answer to the 
messages calling for assistance, began to arrive at that 
post. One hundred and thirty-five militia from Lin- 
coln County, without orders from Colonel Benjamin 
Logan, their county lieutenant, who was absent, led 
by Colonel Stephen Trigg and Majors Hugh McGary 
and Silas Harlan, hurried to the rescue. They were 
joined by the Fayette County militia led by Colonel 
John Todd and Colonel Daniel Boone. After a hurried 
council, it was determined to begin the pursuit at once 
for they were eager to avenge the losses caused by this 
invasion. Besides they were assured that the numbers 
of the enemy were inconsiderable and that they might 



safely be attacked by the force then available.' On 
the morning of August i8, one hundred and eighty 
mounted men led by Colonel John Todd and Colonel 
Stephen Trigg rode rapidly along the buffalo trace on 
the trail of the enemy. It was a force of picked men, 
well armed and noted for their skill in the use of the 
rifle. The morning of the nineteenth, having reached 
the lower Blue Licks, they discovered a few Indians 
moving leisurely up the rocky ridge on the north side 
of the river, three quarters of a mile away. 

The Kentuckians halted and held a council. Colo- 
nel Boone, the most experienced Indian fighter among 
tiicm, when called on for his advice urged delay until 
they should be joined by the troops under Colonel 
Logan, who was known to be coming to their assist- 
ance. All were then aware that the force with which 
they were confronted was probably superior to their 
own and the officers in command were ready to accept 
Boone's views. But the more impetuous were opposed 
to delay of any sort. They believed that their numbers 
were but slightly inferior and declared that a fierce 
attack would so confuse the enemy that their defeat 
would be assured. The headstrong McGary, still 
smarting under the taunts of cowardice with which he 
was shortly before accused by his companions, was out- 
spoken for an immediate attack, and spurring his horse 
into the river exclaimed: "Delay is dastardly! Let all 
who are not cowards follow me, and I will show them 
the Indians.'" 

The challenge was accepted and the whole force 

'See post, 92. 

'Stipp, T/ie IVestern Mijcellaity, 92. 


dashed precipitately through the stream. On the 
farther side, a single line of attack was formed, with 
Colonel Boone in command on the left. Colonel Trigg 
on the right and Major McGary in charge of the 
center. They rode rapidly to within sixty yards of 
the enemy, where they dismounted, and the battle was 
begun with a heavy fire from both sides. Neither had 
the advantage of position, for the ground was favor- 
able to both and the timber good. The attack by the 
left wing was so fierce that the Indians were driven 
back one hundred yards, but the right wing, out- 
flanked, was forced to give way. The center, attacked 
from front and rear, was forced back on the left and 
the whole line quickly broke and fled in greatest con- 
fusion. The entire action lasted only about five 

The retreat became a mad panic as the Kentuckians 
neared the ford. "He that could remount a horse was 
well ofif," wrote Levi Todd, "and he that could not saw 
no time for delay.'" The frontiersmen sufifered their 
greatest losses in crossing the river. Their retreat to 
the ford was partially intercepted by a force of Indians 
and many were tomahawked as they swam the stream. 
Benjamin Netherland was among the first to cross. 
Accused of cowardice for urging delay before the 
battle, he assumed command at this critical moment 
and rallied those who had crossed the river to the pro- 
tection of their struggling companions. By a vigorous 
fire they forced the Indians to withdraw far enough to 
enable the remaining whites to cross in safety. Then 

'Col'inel Levi Todd to Captain Robert Todd, August 26, 1782. Cat. of 
Va. Slate Papers, 3:334. 



the flight was resumed and did not cease until the fugi- 
tives met the force of volunteers under Colonel Logan 
which was advancing to cooperate in the attack and 
had reached a spot six miles beyond Bryan's Station. 

In the battle of the Blue Licks more than one-third 
of the Kentuckians, about seventy, including Colonels 
John Todd and Trigg, Major Harlan, and a number of 
other officers, were killed and some twenty more were 
captured or badly wounded. The losses of the victors 
were so slight, a Frenchman and six Indians killed and 
ten Indians wounded, that they were ready to with- 
stand a retaliatory stroke and even delayed their re- 
treat a day in expectation of such an attack. Three 
days later Colonel Logan, having gathered a force of 
four hundred and seventy mounted men, marched to 
the field of battle but the enemy had gone. After bury- 
ing the dead, Colonel Logan led his troops back to 
Lexington where they were disbanded. On the second 
of September the inhabitants of JefTerson County were 
likewise frightened by the sudden appearance of a 
band of one hundred Indians. Kinchcloe's Station was 
surprised and thirty-seven of the settlers were captured. 
The savages escaped, after committing the usual dep- 

There was general despair in all of the frontier 
communities after the disaster at the Blue Licks. A 
similar stroke, it was believed, would not only lead to 
the destruction of the Kentucky settlements but would 
bring the savage forces in larger numbers against the 
more interior counties of Virginia and the Carolina?. 
On August 26, 1782, Andrew Steele, one of the leaders, 


wrote to Governor Harrison, "the Ballance stands 
upon an Equilibrium & one stroke more will cause it 
to Preponderate to our Irretrievable Wo, & terminate 
in the Intire Breach of our Country, if your Excel- 
lency is not concerned In our Immediate safety . . .'" 
Numbers of young men, as usual in time of great 
danger, hastened to return to the older settlements. 
Men with families threatened to leave the country un- 
less protection should be sent them. Numerous peti- 
tions to the Governor and legislature of Virginia, de- 
scribing the general calamity, called for assistance. 
Others petitioned Congress to be taken under the pro- 
tection of the general government. Criticism of Clark 
was widespread for failing to establish other fortified 
posts in addition to Fort Nelson, which was held to be 
so far to the west that it offered no protection against 
the inroads of the enemy. 

Stirred by these messages. Governor Harrison re- 
buked Clark for failing to communicate with him for 
several months and for his neglecting to carry out 
orders for the establishment of additional posts which 
would, he said, have prevented such a disaster.'' But 
Clark held himself blameless for the situation in the 
West." The Falls of the Ohio, he insisted, must first 
be fortified and the completion of Fort Nelson had, he 
believed, saved the western country. Despairing of 
capturing so formidable a post, the enemy had divided 
his forces and sent one expedition against Wheeling 
and another to fall on the Kentucky settlements. That 

'Andrew Steele to Governor Harrison, August 26, 1782. See post, 97. 
'Governor Harrison to Clark, October 17, 1782. See post, 133-135. 
'Clark to Harrison, November 30, 1782. See post, 161-163. 


these posts had been surprised, he maintained, was due 
to lack of foresight in not keeping scouting parties 
constantly employed, as had been ordered. The con- 
duct of the leaders at the Blue Licks he characterized 
as "Extrcamly Reprihensible," due in large part lo an 
attempt to ofifset their former neglect of duty.' Plans 
had been made by Clark to put into operation the com- 
plete plan for fortifications. After strengthening Fort 
Nelson, he proposed to construct a fort at the mouth 
of the Kentucky and another at the mouth of the Lick- 
ing. County officials refused their assistance in fur- 
nishing the necessary men and supplies, and his own 
force, growing smaller each day because of desertions 
due to the failure to provide them with necessary food 
and clothing, was too small to garrison the additional 
posts. Another advance by the enemy which was ex- 
pected would, Clark asserted, make their labors use- 

Early in September Captain Caldwell was again 
at the upper Sandusky where he awaited the coming of 
the expedition from Fort Pitt. Runners were dis- 
patched to Detroit and to the other posts urging that 
reinforcements should be sent at once to his relief. At 
the time, owing to sickness among the rangers, his de- 
fense was dependent almost wholly upon the Indinns. 
Detroit officials, anticipating that Captain Caldwell 
would be forced to retreat before so formidable an 
enemy and that the Shawnee would be unable to with- 
stand an attack by Clark, prepared a second defense 

'Clark to Harrison, October i8, 1782. See fiosi, 135. 


which would cover the retreat to Detroit.' As usual, 
Major De Peyster, overcome with fear at the approach 
of the enemy, was ready to sacrifice his allies, and 
wrote Captain McKee as follows: "By the accounts 
of their force in the present sickly state of the Rangers 
and the Indians being so much distressed I fear you 
will be obliged to retreat at least till you are joined 
by the Miamies. I have sent all the Indians I could 
muster particularly the Ottawas of the Miami Riv'r 
. . . You must be sensible that my soldiers are little 
acquainted with wood fighting and III equipped for it 
withall. I had therefore only ordered them to take 
post where they can secure the ammunition and pro- 
visions and support you in case you are obliged to re- 
treat which I hope will still not be the case."" 

During September and October preparations con- 
tinued for the cooperative campaign in which General 
Irvine was to advance with twelve hundred men, 
militia and regulars, against Sandusky, and Clark was 
to attack the Shawnee stronghold. Nine hundred men 
were also to be sent against the Genesee towns. ^ Ken- 
tuckians quickly responded to Clark's call for a retali- 
atory expedition.* Parched meal, bufifalo meat, and 
venison were quickly collected, but other supplies 
were gotten together with great difficulty. The credit 
of the state was worthless and creditors, who had 
already advanced all of their property, were at the 
time beseeching Clark to aid them in the adjustment 

'De Peyster to Haldimand, September 29, 1782. Mich. Pion. and [list. 
Colli., 10:649-650. 

*De Peyster to McKee, October i, 1782. Mic/i. Pion. and Hist. Colls., 

'It'ashinQlon-Irvine Corretfiondence, 181-182. 

'Clark to Governor Harrison, October 22, 1782. See foil, 140. 



of their claims. His own available resources were ex- 
hausted. "I have already taken Every step in my 
power to get the Creditors of the State paid to no 
Effect . . . " he wrote Oliver Pollock ; "If I was worth 
the money I would most chearfully pay it myself and 
trust the state, But can assure you with truth I am En- 
tercly Rcducd myself by advancing Everything I could 
Raise, And Except what the state owes me am not 
worth a Spanish dollar, I wish it was in my power to 
follow your proposition to step forth & save my country 
from the disgrace that is like to fall on her. If we could 
point out the means nothing would give me such 
pleasure, And fully Recompense all the uneasiness I 
have suffcr'd on account of those persons. Many whom 
I know have advancd all they had on the faith of gov- 
ernment . . .'" He finally exchanged thirty-five hun- 
dred acres of land for the flour necessary for the expe- 

By November i the two divisions of Kentucky 
troops reached the mouth of the Licking, the appoint- 
ed place of rendezvous. Colonel Floyd, in charge of 
one division, consisting of regulars from Fort Nelson 
and militia from the western stations, ascended the 
Ohio with the artillery, while the other section, com- 
manded by Colonel Logan, marched from the eastern 
settlements." On the third of November one thou- 
sand and fifty mounted men with Clark in command 
set out for Chillicothe, the Shawnee stronghold. Rigid 
discipline was maintained during the march of six 

'October 25, 1782. See post, 144. 

'John Floyd to Clark, October 18, 1782. See pott, 137-138. 


days. A plan of attack had been worked out by Clark 
in minute detail. Three miles from the town, Colonel 
Floyd was sent forward with three hundred men to 
make the attack. But his approach was discovered, 
and warned by the alarm cry, the inhabitants made 
good their escape with the loss of ten killed and ten 
who were taken prisoners. Chillicothe and five other 
Shawnee towns were burned, and ten thousand bushels 
of corn and large quantities of provisions were de- 
stroyed.' Colonel Logan with a detachment of one 
hundred and fifty men captured the British trading 
post at the head of the Miami and burned such stores 
as they were unable to carry away with them. After 
vainly attempting for four days to bring on a general 
engagement, Clark returned with his troops to the 
mouth of the Licking where the divisions again sep- 

By this blow, Clark had not only saved the frontier 
settlements from danger of attack, but he had ofTset the 
designs of British authorities to bring about a union 
of the northwestern and southwestern tribes. This 
plan, closely akin to that of 1781, was well calculated 
to win the support of the Indians, for it promised the 
advance of a large force from Detroit, against Fort 
I^itt, the capture in succession of that post. Fort Nel- 
son, and the other Kentucky posts, and the retaking of 
the Illinois country. In this manner Kentuckians, it 
was said, would be driven across the mountains and 
"then the other Inhabitants into the Sea — "' Clark 

'Clark to Irvine, November 13, 1782. See post, 152-153. 

'Clark to the Western Commissioners, February 25, 1783. See pott, 204. 


had extended the radius of menace towards Detroit 
and had thrown the enemy into utmost confusion. The 
Indians were panic stricken at this evidence of strength. 
Their winter supplies were destroyed and the policy of 
retrenchment on the part of British officials due, in 
part, to the high prices fixed by monopolies, cut down 
the quantities of Indian presents.' Tn fact, further de- 
mands by the Indians for protection from Detroit 
were denied. So effectively had Clark carried out his 
policy of intimidating the Indians that, as stated by 
Boone: "the spirits of the Indians were damped, their 
connexions dissolved, their armies scattered & a future 
invasion [was] entirely out of their power.'" This 
testimony was corroborated by British officials, one of 
them declaring, "I am endeavoring to assemble the 
Indians, but find I shall not be able to collect a number 
sufficient to oppose them, the chiefs are now met here 
upon that business who desire me to inform you of 
their Situation requesting you will communicate it by 
the inclosed strings to their Brethren the Lake Indians, 
without speedy assistance they must be drove ofi from 
their country, the Enemy being too powerful for 

Sickness still thinned the ranks of the rangers; 
regular soldiers, it was claimed, were not suitable nor 

'Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls., 11:320-321. "I flatter myself, that the 
King's Ministers, must be convinced of my attention to Diminish the Public 
Expense, ... I have now to acquaint you Sir, that a Spirit of Monopoly, 
pervaded, this Province, a Combination has been made (c Succeeded, in 
Engrossing, into a few hands, the Rum, Brandy k other Spirituous, Liquors, 
which have been imported, . . ." 

'Testimony of Daniel Boone before a Committee of Investigation, De- 
cember 20, 1787. In "Answers of John Pierce to the seventeen questions 
submitted August 10, 1787," Bureau of Indexes and Archives, Department 
of State. 

'McKee to De Peyster, November 15, 1782. Haldimand Papers, series 
B., 123:336. 


were they equipped for a winter campaign. "The ad- 
vanced season, and the sickness which prevails amongst 
the few Rangers at this Post," Major De Peyster wrote, 
"prevents my doing any thing Essential for the relief 
of the Indian Villages, it is therefore to be hoped that 
when the Enemy have done all the mischief possible 
they will retire.'" He was aware that the road to 
Detroit was open and he fully expected an attack 
would be made by the Americans in the spring." In- 
dian leaders were again ordered to act solely on the 
defensive. In demanding reinforcements, De Peyster 
declared: "Light troops are therefore what we want, 
and believe me there v^'ill be amusement for a good 
number of them the ensuing campaign without acting 
on the ofifensive."' 

Messengers sent by General Irvine had informed 
Clark that the expedition against Sandusky was 
assured.* But as they were about to set out from Fort 
Mcintosh, the place of rendezvous, letters were re- 
ceived from the continental secretary of war counter- 
manding the order for the expedition.' Washington 
had been assured, on British authority, that all hostili- 
ties were suspended and that the savages were to com- 
mit no further depredations. Reports were still sent 
out by Irvine that he was about to march with a large 

"De I'cyster to Ilaldimand, Novemlicr 21, 1782. Mich. Pion. and Hist. 
Colts., II :322. 

'McKee to De Peyster, November 15, 1782. "Wliatever their Intentions 
may be, the Hoad I am afraid will be open for them to Detroit." Haldi- 
mand I'apcrs, Scries IJ, 123:336. 

'Ue I'eyster to Urigadier General Maclean, November 21, 1782. Mich. 
Pion. and Hist. Colls., 11:321. 

*l"he Wyandot center. This message was received by Clark Novem- 
ber 2. H'ashinglon-lrvine Correspondence, 398. 

't>ee post, 149. 


force toward Sandusky. These were well calculated 
to deceive the Wyandot and prevent their coopera- 
tion with the Shawnee against Clark.' 

With the return of Clark's victorious troops, the 
feeling of confidence among Kentuckians was restored. 
Their numbers had been perceptibly increased during 
the summer months by the coming of large numbers of 
immigrants. That Kentucky was the land of promise 
is well shown in a letter of James Monroe. At the time 
he was a member of the Virginia council, but evident- 
ly contemplated removal to the West.^ He expressed 
his admiration for the spirit of enterprise which had 
been manifested by Kentuckians and inquired specif- 
ically about the increase of settlements and their ability 
to protect themselves, the progress of society, tiie re- 
sources of the country in products and trade relations, 
and the prospect for setting up an independent gov- 
ernment. Settlers with land warrants crowded the 
odiccs of tlic surveyors. So keen was the rivalry to 
secure choice locations of land that the commissioners 
sent by Virginia to adjust the military accounts were, 
with difficulty, able to secure attendance upon their 

Clark took up at once with the commissioners the 
problem of establishing forts, for the letters from 
Governor Harrison specified that the original plan 
should be carried out. But obstacles were still in- 

'If^ashington-Irvine Correspondence, 400-401. 

'Confidential letter to Clark, June 26, 1782. See post, 68-69. 

'Executive Papers, Virginia State Archives, Lincoln County, December 
23, 1782. See post, 300. Meetings of the three commissioners vrere held at 
Harrodsburg and Lexington prior to December 23. Messengers were sent 
to Kaskaskia and Vincennes demanding that creditors and officers appear 
before them at Louisville. 


superable. By disposing of some of his own lands, the 
credit of the state being worthless, Clark had supplied 
the necessary stores at Fort Nelson/ Herds of buffalo 
were exterminated or had retreated so far beyond the 
settlements that the expense of hunting them was pro- 
hibitory.' A specific tax was in force in Fayette County 
alone. Men were not available for the performance 
of garrison duties and the artillery was inadequate. As 
Clark expressed it: "there is not a sufficiency of Can- 
non, for a Block hous, instead of Mounting four or five 
Forts . . .'" It was not difficult for the commissioners, 
when confronted by actual conditions, to understand 
how utterly futile would be the attempt to enforce the 
instructions of the Governor. 

Steps had to be taken, however, to protect immi- 
grants who should enter the country by the Ohio and 
through Cumberland Gap and also insure safety to the 
river trade. Fort Nelson, the commissioners agreed, 
served as a shield to trade and protected the inhabitants 
of Jefferson County.* Three of the commissioners 
favored the establishment of a post at the mouth of the 
Kentucky. The mouth of the Limestone was advocated 
by the fourth commissioner as a suitable site for a fort 
which would afford protection to Fayette County and 
at the same time would induce immigrants to locate 
between the Ohio and the settlements already estab- 
lished.' \ 

'Clark to Benjamin Harrison, November 30, 178*. See post, 164. ■ 

'Clark to the Western Commissioners, December 15, 1782. See post, \- 


'Clark to William Davies, January i, 1783. See post, 177. j; 

'Western Commissioners to Governor Harrison on March 9, 1783. :;! 

See post, 216-217. :t! 

The mouths of the Licking and Limestone were opposed by the three 
commissioners because the sites were so far up the river that it would 
be impracticable to supply them with provisions. 


Combatant and noncombatant alike at Detroit and 
all of the Kentucky settlements awaited the passing of 
winter with anxious foreboding. British ofUcials fully 
expected the coming of the Americans at the earliest 
possible date with the design of extending their fron- 
tiers in the Northwest as far as possible and thus in the 
event of peace to get control of the fur trade.' Clark's 
threats to march against the other enemy Indians as 
he had against the Shawnee kept the tribes in continual 
turmoil. They were already restive under the re- 
straints of British leaders and looked upon the policy 
of retrenchment in supplying them with presents as a 
step towards their complete abandonment to the con- 

Clark likewise beheld the coming of spring with 
apprehension. Messengers were dispatched to the 
Chickasaw and Creek nations to induce them to enter 
into treaty relations and to secure their lands which 
would naturally come within the Virginia boundaries 
if they could be acquired, as advocated by Clark, at 
moderate rates.' Although he was confident that no 
formidable Indian advance was probable before fall, 
Clark appealed to the commissioners to assist him in 
strengthening the defenses against Indian hostilities 
which still occurred from time to time. Again he 
urged the importance of Fort Nelson as the key to the 
country. As a protection to the eastern Kentucky set- 

'Haldimand to De Peysfer, March 12, 1783. Mic/i. Pion. and Hist. 
Colh., II :35i. 

'De Peyster to Haldimand, January 7, 1783. Mich. Pion. and Hist. 
Colls., 11:336. 

'December 19, 1782. See post, 170-171. Virginia in this manner was to 
establish her right to charter boundaries and counteract the claims set up by 
tome of the states of sovereignty by purchase. 


tlements he again advised the construction of one or 
more garrisons farther up the river. To complete his 
plan for foiling the enemy, he urged the mustering in of 
fifteen hundred troops vfho were to march against the 
Indian stronghold at the head of the Wabash. In this 
way he proposed to convince the Indians that their very 
existence depended upon peace with the Americans. 
A garrison of regular troops was to be stationed at 
Vincennes with supplies adequate to equip a force 
which might be brought together at any time for the 
purpose of convincing the Indians "that they were in- 
ferior to us, that the British assertions of our weakness 
was false, and that we could at all times penetrate into 
their Country at Pleasure . . .'" 

No further effort was made to carry out these plans, 
for by the middle of April the official announcement 
of the signing of the peace preliminaries at Paris and 
the cessation of hostilities had been sent to the frontier 
settlements. The proclamation of a general peace soon 

By the terms of the definitive treaty of peace, con- 
cluded at Paris, September 3, 1783, the Old Northwest 
was ceded to the United States. No reference is made 
in the diplomatic papers to the conquest of Clark as a 
factor in reaching a final agreement. The question has 
been a mooted one therefore, as to how far Clark was 
in military control of this territory and two views have 
been advanced. One of these is fairly presented in a 

'Clark to the Western Commissioners, February 25, 1783. See fiost, 206. 

'Preliminary articles were signed at Paris, November 30, 1782. Harri- 
son to Clark, April 9, 1783. See post, 221. The cessation of hostilities was 
agreed to at Versailles, January 20, 1783. Some five hundred prisoners 
were released by the Detroit authorities. 



■* letter of Governor Benjamin Harrison to Clark (July 

i:|; 2, 1783) in which he states that since an offensive war 

I against the Northwestern Indians has been given up 

;| that Clarlc's services in that region will no longer be 

^ necessary. But, he concludes, "before I take leave of 

you I feel myself called on in the most forciable Man- 
;; ner to return you my Thanks and those of my Council 

f for the very great and singular services you have rend- 

ered your Country, in wresting so great and valuable 
a Teritory out of the Hands of the British Enemy, re- 
pelling the attacks of their Savage Allies and carrying 
on successful war in the Heart of their Country 
. . .'" John Pierce, representing the United States, 
as one of the three commissioners appointed to adjust 
the claims of Virginia for debts contracted in carrying 
on the Revolution in the West, maintained that Clark 
by leaving the country with his force had relinquished 
the defense of it, as he could not be said to have "de- 
fended a country beyond him, in which he retain'd no 
garrison & from which he was at such a distance as 
to afford no immediate assistance." ' 

In the main, historians who have discussed the prob- 
lem have advanced similar views and the two following 
statements may be taken as illustrative. "Clark would 
have pushed on to capture Detroit also, but want of 
sufficient reinforcements compelled him to be content 
with holding Vincennes, Cahokia, and Kaskaskia. 
These posts, however, were sufficient to insure tlic 
American hold upon the Northwest, until, in the peace 

'Harrison to Clark, July 2, 1783. See post, 245-246. 

"'Answers of John Pierce to the seventeen questions submitted August 
10, 1787," Bureau of Indexes and Archives, Department of State. 


negotiations of 1782, the military prowess of Clark was 
followed up by the diplomatic triumph of Jay.'" The 
other is as follows: "The summer of 1779 marked 
the zenith of Virginia's power north of the Ohio; from 
that date there was steady decline. . . . For a year 
more there were a score of soldiers in those posts, 
acting as scouts; but even these were recalled in the 
following winter, and the villages were left to shift 
for themselves. . . . Virginia had really only weak- 
ened the hold of the mother country on a small corner 
of the disputed territory . . ."^ 

The fact that Clark concentrated his available 
force below the Ohio after 1779 does not demonstrate 
that he relinquished the defense of the Northwest. 
His own testimony points the opposite conclusion for 
he wrote: "I see but the one probable Method of 
Maintan* our Authority in the Illinois which is this 
by Amediately Evacuating our present posts and let 
our whole force Center at or near the Mouth of Ohio 
. . . "' If Clark's position at the close of the cam- 
paign against the Shawnee is considered, a more satis- 
factory interpretation of the influence of his eflForts be- 
comes evident. We have seen that this stroke marked 
the final aggressive movement in his offensive-defensive 
policy. It demonstrated the wisdom he displayed in 
selecting Fort Nelson as a base for such operations. 
At no time were the British prepared to reduce this 
post although they were well aware it constituted the 

'C. H. Van Tyne, The American Revolution, 284. 

•C. W. Alvord, "Virginia and the West: An Interpretation," Missis- 
sippi Galley Historical Review, 3 :34. 

'He refers here to the construction of Fort JefiFerson but the same view 
obtained relative to Fort Nelson. Clark to John Todd, Jr., March, 1780. 
Clark Papers, 405. 


key between the East and the Illinois country, that it 
dominated the western trade, and was the center for 
operations against Detroit. From this base, it was 
possible for Clark to reach Vincennes or Kaskaskia in 
a much shorter time than it could have been accom- 
plished by the British from Detroit; and Clark's in- 
formation of advances by the enemy was always 
early.' Moreover, the warriors of the tribes on the 
Scioto and the Miami, especially the Shawnee, "the 
first in at a battle, the last at a treaty," chief depend- 
ence of the British, could not be induced to engage in 
any expedition which would leave their villages ex- 
posed to attack by an enemy so readily brought against 
them. These facts must have been patent to the nego- 
tiators of the peace terms and served, no doubt, to con- 
firm Lord Shelburne in his decision to yield the North- 
west to the United States. 

'Answers of Thomas Marshall and James Knox to questions of the 
commissioners to adjust the claims of Virginia against the United States, 
December 8, 1789. Bureau of Indexes and Archives. 









— MARCH 5, 1782 

Evidence of Dancer and Suggestions for Defense — News of the Sur- 
AGAINST Detroit — Virginia Finances — Commissioners Appointed for 
THE Settlement of Western Accounts — Rise of Land Values. 

John Floyd* to Thomas Nelson,' October 6, 1781 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.]" 

Jefferson 6th October 1781 

As an Officer to whom the People of this County look for pro- 
tection as far as the Militia Law puts it in my power; I take tiie 
liberty of mentioning to your Excellency a short statement of the de- 

' John Floyd vjas appointed colonel of the militia of Jefferson County, 
Kentucky, by Governor Thomas Jefferson, January, 178 1. He served under 
Clark in the expedition against the Shawnee in 1780. In recommending his 
appointment, Claik described Floyd as "a Soldier, Gentleman, and a scholar 
whom the Inhabitants, from his actions have the greatest confidence in." 
As a member of the Council of War (September 6, 1781) he favored an ex- 
pedition against the Shawnee during the fall of that year. He rendeied 
noteworthy service in the protection of the settlements from Indian raids and 
finally met his death at the hands of the Indians April I2, 1783. James, 
George Rogers Clark Papers (I. H. C, 8), 500. 

'Thomas Nelson, Jr., a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was 
born in Yorktown, Virginia, December 26, 1738. He was a member of the 
Virginia House of Burgesses in 1761 ; and in 1774 when it was dissolved by 
Lord Dunmore he was one of the eighty-nine members who protested this 
violation of their rights. He was a member of the convention that met in 
Williamsburg August i, 1774, and that of March, 1775, and was appointed 
colonel of the Second Virginia Regiment by the convention in July, 1775. 
He resigned his commission as colonel on his election to the Continental 
Congress in 1775, where he served until 1777, resigning then because of 
illness. In August, 1777 he was appointed commander of the Virginia state 
forces. He returned to Congress for a few months in 1779 but again was 
forced to resign. He was elected governor of Virginia June 12, 1781, com- 
manded the Virginia militia at the siege of Yorktown, and was present at 
the surrender of Cornwallis. Upon his retirement from the governorship 
November 30, 1781 he was accused of maladministration for assuming ilic- 
tatorial powers during his term of office, but he was exonerated by the state 
legislature. He spent the remainder of his life in retirement, and died in 
Hanover County, Virginia, January 4, 1789. 

'This letter is printed with some variations in Calendar of Virginia 
Slate Papers, 2:529-531. 



plorable situation under which we at present Labour on account of 
the Savage War: amd which unless we are enabled by Governm* 
to take some offensive measures against them early next Spring, or 
have some reinforcements, will be the inevitable destruction of this 
Country. On account of the unsettled and dispersed situation of 
the Inhabitants it is out of my power to send you an exact Return 
of the Number of Militia in this County, but by the last returns 
made me by the Captains we had 327 including Officers, and I 
believe at this time we have about 300, and near one third of these 
are preparing to go into the Interior parts of the State and many 
others would follow the Example but are unable to remove by Land 
having lost most of their Horses already by the Savages; & the Ohio 
runs the wrong way. 

The Frontier of this County along the Ohio River is 277 Miles 
by computation, and the Inhabitants greatly dispersed & cooped up 
in small Forts without any Ammunition. Eighty four of the In- 
habitants of this County have been killed & Captured since last 
spring & many more wounded. We are now so weakened in the 
most exposed parts of the County, by having so many Men killed 
& others removing to Lincoln for safety, that when any murder is 
done we can not pursue the Enemy without leaving the little Garri- 
sons quite defenceless. The most distressed Widows & Orphans 
perhaps in the world make up a great part of our Inhabitants. 

I expect I need not mention to you that the Regular Troops 
who have hitherto kept this Country from destruction must mostly 
be discharged this Fall & Winter, having served out the time for 
which they were engaged. 

A great deal more might be said concerning the dangerous situa- 
tion of these Counties, but I have not been informed whether Gov- 
ernment think it absolutely necessary for the advantage of the Com- 
munity at large to defend this Country at so considerable an Expence 
as must be incurred thereby: and I therefore beg leave to offer your 
Excellency one or two reasons why it may be of advantage to defend 
the Kentucky Country. 

It is now beyond a doubt that the attention of at least 6000 
Savage Warriors is fixed on this spot and who will not disturb any 
other part of the Continent as long as we maintain our Ground. 


But on the contrary as soon as this Country is laid waste they will 
immediately fall on the Inhabitants of Washington, Montgomery, 
and Greenbrier &' in short from South Carolina to Pennsylvania. 
I believe all the Counties on the west side the blue Ridge were 
kept for many years penned up in Forts by the Shawaneese, Mingoes, 
Delawares, & a few of their Adherents; if so what will be the con- 
sequence when at least fifteen powerful Nations are united and 
combined with those above mentioned against about twelve hundred 
Militia dispersed over three very extensive Counties. Those Na- 
tions have absolutely been hitherto kept off your back Settlements 
by the Inhabitants of Kentucky. 

Two or three thousand Men in this Country would be suffi- 
cient to defend it, and effectually secure the back settlements on New 
River & its Waters as well as those high up James River & Roan 
Oke; but if this Country must brake up perhaps twice that num- 
ber will hardly be sufficient to secure so long & Extensive a frontier 
— Other advantages migiit arise from carrying an Expedition over 
the Ohio, besides securing the friendship of many Tribes of Indians 
who are as yet kept in suspence, and even some of those who have 
already taken up the Tomahawk against us, are still wavering; but 
this will not be the case another season. 

My own knowledge of the danger which this country is, & will 
next spring be exposed to, has induced me to take the liberty of ad- 
dressing your Excellency on that subject, which I hope you will 


I liave the honour to be your Excellencys most obdt 
and very hble Serv* 
Jn Floyd 

(To His Excellency Thomas Nelson^ Esq. Gov. of Va.) 


George Rogers Clark to Thomas Nelson, October 6, 1781 

[Illinois Regiment Commissioners Report, 1S34, p. 71. Va. State Archives.] 

Fort Nelson S* October 1781. 

On receiving information of a Bill by Capt. Robt. George of 
Fort Jefferson' of M"' Philip Barbour of N. Orleans to an amazing 
amount I examined Cap* George and others on the Subject and 
find the Case to stand thus. M'' Barbour arrived at that post at a 
time it was in distress, with a considerable Cargoe, offering it to 
them, and to take a Bill on the State for payment, finding no other 
means of certain relief Cap' George agreed to take it on three Per- 
sons fixing the rate of exchange, which as appears by the enclosed 
they did at fifteen for one supposing the ace' to be paid in Virginia 
paper Currency (and that to be about the rate of exchange) Mr 
Barbour agreed to take it and those Gentlemen not being acquainted 
with the Nature of Bills, M^ Barbour contrived to get one drawn 
for Gold or silver for the whole amount, also a Letter of Advice to 
the same purpose drawn on M'' Pollock^, consequently supposed He 
secured to himself fifteen times the sum He asked for His Cargoe — 
it appears to me that it was a scheeme between Messf" Pollock & Bar- 
bour before Barbour left Orleans, as p' the enclosed copy that acci- 
dentally fell into my hands, the original I have it being a cover to 
one set of the Bills he left for fear of an accident happening to him- 
self ■.— observe what he says to M' Pollock .nlluding to wliat they 
formerly spoke of — I understand they have already demanded pay- 
ment — I think it wou'd be well to pay the exact sum, in paper 

' Fort Jefferson was located five miles below the mouth of the Ohio 
River at a spot called "The Iron Banks." For the establishment of this 
post, see Clark Papers, cxxi-cxxiv. At the close of the year 1780 when the 
soldiers and inhabitants of the post were in great distress, Captain Philip 
Darbour sold a cargo of goods to Captain Robert George (see post, 77, note 
1), then in command at Fort Jefferson. See Clark Papers, 496-497. 

' For the influence of Oliver Pollock see Clark Papers, xcvi-xcix. Oliver 
Pollock wrote Captain George April 2, 1782: "I am very happy to find 
that the Supplies furnished your Post by Mr. Philip Barbour has been of 
so much Service particularly in turning your neighbouring Savages firm 
Friends which formerly held out the Hatchet against us. Notwithstanding 
this I think you paid too high for those Goods." Letters and Papers of 
Oliver Pollock, No. 50, Folio 136, Library of Congress. Pollock paid Bar- 
bour $32,500 on this account. In the adjustment of the revolutionary 
accounts this claim of Pollock's against the state of Virginia was held for 
investigation. It was finally allowed. Draper MSS., 52J72. 


dollars at they now rate it's what they deserve if those suppositions 
should be true which there is the greatest probability of. 

I make no doubt Pollock has Barbours receipt for the Payment 
of that number of Hard Dollars, but their premeditated Fraud if 
so (otherwise I ask their pardons) by no means excuses Capt George, 
as soon as the Auditors arrive he must acct. for this Cargoe, — if 
they have demanded the whole sum in Gold or Silver the conjectures 
in this Letter are certainly true. 

I am with respect, Sir, 
Y'' very ob' & most humble Serv' 
G R Clarke 
His Excellency 
The Governor of Virginia 
A Copy from the original in the Council Chamber — 

VVm Totham Clerk Council 

John Todd, Jr.,' and Benjamin Logan- to Clark, 

October 13, 1781 

[Draper MSS., 51J93. — A. L. S.l 

St. Asaph 13th Oct. 1781. 
Sir We rec^ your Letters relative to the proposed Garrison at the 
Mouth of Kentucky & though we were at the Council' so much more 
An.xious than the Rest in erecting this Garrison yet the frequent 
Changes in the Plan then proposed (every Alteration more & more 
oppressive upon the Militia of these two Counties) induce us to 
alter our Sentiments & send you our Reasons not doubting but when 
you know them you'll be of same Sentiments. 

'John Todd, Jr., as county lieutenant and colonel of militia for Fayette 
County, was one of the most prominent leaders in the West at that time. 
See Clark Papers, xcix ff. ; Alvord, Cahokia Records (/. H. C, 2), liii ff. 

'Benjamin Logan was at this time county lieutenant and colonel of 
militia in Lincoln County. After serving as a lieutenant in Dunmore's 
War, in 1775 he removed to Kentucky and was one of the founders of 
Logan's Station. Upon the organization of Kentucky County (:777) he 
was appointed one of the three justices of the peace and one of the four 
captains, Clark serving as major. In Clark's expedition against the 
Shawnee (1780), Colonel Logan was second in command.. Shortly after 
the battle of the Blue Licks (1782) he led a force of 470 mounted men on 
a retaliatory expedition but the Indians had escaped. See index, Clark 

"This council was held at Louisville, September 7, 1781. For a discus- 
lion of the problems, see Clark Papers, clxiii ff. 


We expected & those Expectations were founded upon the In- 
tentions of the Assembly that the new fortifications w* be built & 
garrisoned if not wholly at least principelly by the Regulars. The 
Assistance you required we are quite ready to give but we have no 
Intrenching Tools & our Militia are still very thin & what few 
there are will be much Busied in securing their Crops till some time 
in November Beside we have some disagreeable News relative 
to the unfriendly disposition of the Cherokees & expectation of Hos- 
tilities either against the Southern Settlements of this County or 
Cumberland from the Chickamogies joined by 60 Creeks not to 
mention the exposed parts of Fayette which may of Course expect 
a visit this fall from the Shawanese 

Upon the whole as Jefferson County must be excused from their 
part of the Fatigue of building & defending the new Garrison & as 
it is solely intended for our Defence on Calculating the Cost we 
conclude that we are willing to foregoe the many advantages which 
w** attend it for this Season and think it better to defend ourselves 
near home We therefore upon full consultation & mature deliber- 
ation recommend to you that the Design be dropped untill we can 
learn the will of the Assembly now sitting. The Result of their 
Determination shall be communicated to you as soon as known 

We will use our Endeavours to forward the provisions in Fay- 
ette to you but expect it to be rec*" at Lees Town or somewhere on 

We have the Honor to be Sir 

Your Obedient Hble Servants 
J NO Todd jr 
Benjamin Logan 
Addressed: Public Service The Honble 

Gen' Geo Rogers Clark 

at Fort Nelson 
p' Express 
Endorsed. Co' Tod 13'" Oc' 1781 Rec« 30"" 


John Crhtenden' to Clark, October 13, 1781 
[Draper MSS., 51J94.— A. L. S.] 

Harrodsburg Octob"^ 13'" 1781. 
Sir, — 

From my Indisposition, The Inclement weather, and other un- 
fortunate Contingencies, have not been able to leave this place until! 
To day. My horses have not been able to get shod as yet, but have 
great Reason to Expect to accomplish it at Claries Station on this 
days Journey when Shall be in Compleat fix to Expedite my Journey 
I am sorry to Inform you that fear it will not be in my power 
by Express to give you advices of my arrival to the settlement in 
Eighteen days agreeable to Instructions Therefore should be Mappy 
in order to save you trouble, and the publick Expence, in Dispatch- 
ing a second. That you would augment the time to twenty four 
days. As you will act on a Certainty in the Case Resting perfectly 
assurd if in my power it will be accomplishd in first Limitation 

My Health is much Repaird, No Company but Cap' Rogers 
The Doctor & myself. Great news from below if true (Cornwal- 
lace Totally defeated and found among the dead on the field 

I am your Devoted & 
Humble Serv' 
John Crittenden 
Addressed: On publick service 
The Honourable 

Gcnl G. R. Clark 

'Major John Crittenden was a member of the Virginia Convention 
(1776) from West Fincastle County. At the outbreak of the Revolution, 
he was made a lieutenant in on'^ of the \'irginia regiments of the Continental 
army and then major of the Virginia State Line. After the war he came 
to Kentucky and in 1784 was elected to represent Fayette County in ihe 
Virginia House of Ihirgesses. 


John Todd, Jr., to Thomas Nelson, October 21, 1781 
[Claric MSS., Va. State Archives.]' 

Lexington 21st October 1781 

May it please your Excellency 

I expect you will long before this reaches you have an Ace- of 
our proceedings in this Country by Letters from Gen' Clark sent 
by Majr Crittenden. After so much assistance given to our Coun- 
try by Government to enable us to act either offensively or defen- 
sively ; after so much money expended upon the Western Frontiers I 
feel desirous & anxious to remove any Censures that our little Coun- 
try may possibly labour under in the opinion of your Excellency & 
the World. I do not pretend to know to whom the Failure in the 
intended Expedition is owing but the Officers & men of these Coun- 
ties have persevered in rendering all possible assistance 

By Letters from your Excellencys predecessor we were led to 
expect an early Expedition 500 Men with Canoes &c were required 
from these Counties to be at the Falls by March last The men 
required were drafted & set apart for the Expedition & the Canoes 
chiefly made during the Course of the Spring & Summer the Drafts 
necessarily decreased. At a Meeting of the Field Officers at Louis- 
ville summoned on General Clarks arrival the Beginning of Sep- 
tember we found the Strength of the three Counties to amount to 
only 760 Men We offered the General two thirds of them if he 
chose to go on an Expedition but eather advised him to proceed in 
garrisoning the Ohio upwards agreeably to a Recommendation of 
the Assembly, or At least to attempt nothing more than a small 
Expedition up the Mimami it was our Opinion that if hut one 
Garrison sh'' be built it sh*" be at the Mouth of Kentucky as the 
most valuable post if there sh^ afterwards be troops to spare another 
should be at the Mouth of Licking, Opposite the big Mimami, at 
Laurences Creek or Limestone Run: but we seemed unanimous that 
the Mouth of Kentucky in a War with the Western & Lake Indians 
was a post of the utmost Consequence. The Sentiments of General 
Clark were different from ours in this Respect He imagined the 

'Printed with some variations in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 


Falls to be a post of the first Importance being, as he always ex- 
pressed it, the Key of the Country. 

As I wish to see military Service always properly husbanded I 
beg leave to offer a few reasons to your Excellency to shew that 
keeping our principal post at the Falls is injudiciously wasting of 
our strength 

1st the Situation of the Mouth of Kentucky is more in the 
Road of the Enemy in their War Excursions to any part of this 
Country than any part of the Ohio below that place, a few Settle- 
ments in Jefferson County only excepted, 

2ndly-The River Kentucky w^ afford a cheap and ready trans- 
portation of provisions which so abound in the upper Settlr'nents 
where as if the main army staid at the Falls an Outpost at the mouth 
of Kentucky w*" be always kept close in Garrison & being in con- 
tinual Terror could afferd no protection towards transporting the 
provisions & rather be a Trap for the exposed watermen. 

3rdly. The Moutli of Kentucky must be much healthier than 
the Falls, being free from the Stagnated pools which overspread the 
flat Lands near the Falls & which every year kill or incapacitate 
for Service greet numbers of our Soldiers 

To say that the Falls is the Key to this Country seems to me 
unintelligible. It is a strong Rapid which may in an Age of Com- 
merce be a considerable obstruction to the navigator but as we have 
no Trade we neither need nor have any Keys to Trade. If it be 
understood in a military sense I think it a mistaken appellation as 
the enemy can & do pass with as little molestation just above the 
Falls' as they would on any other part of the River 

On parting with General Clark we expected to furnish assist- 
ance in building the Garrison at the Mouth of Kentucky from the 
Militia but expected to be built principally by the Regulars & wholly 
garrisoned by them since which a Requisition has come to Col. Logan 
and myself to furnish Tools & build the Garrison and after wards 
defend by it Men drawn from the Body of our Militia untill he sh^ 
Have Leisure to relieve them which we are satisfied w^ not happen 
in any short time 

'The version printed in Calendar of I'irginia State Papers has "& just 
below the Falls," inserted at this point. 


On consulting with Col Logan we concluded to defer building 
the Garrison because we had no intrenching Tools, no professed 
Engineer, no money & we conceived it to belong to men who draw 
constant pay to garrison it. The Result of our Consultation we 
sent to the General with a promise to lay the matter before your 
Excellency or the Gen' Assembly. If the State had no Troops on 
pay we should have no cause to remonstrate but when they have 
Troops, & those Troops kept in the more interior & secure posts; 
when so much has already been expended ; to augment the Expence 
by putting the Militia on duty at a place distant from 6o to 120 
Miles from home we concieve to be impolitick & contrary to the 
Opinion of your Excellency to whom we submit the Matter. 

A Recommendation for Justices will be handed your Excellency 
by our Delegates Also for several Militia Officers If it is not in- 
consistent with the practice I wuld wish for a few Blank Commis- 
sions to be sent to the Court. Owing to so great a distance from 
the seat of Government our Officers loose generally half a year in 
the date of their Commissions 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest Respect Your Excel- 
lencys Most Obed' & very humble Serv' 

Jn" Todd jr 

John Crittenden to Clark, October 22, 1781 
[Draper MSS., 51J95.— A. L. S.] 

Fifteen Minutes after One Oclock 22" Octobf 1781. 
five miles East of the Block House 

D" Gen'- I am arivd in perfect Safety to the Settlements. Have 
met with a favourable Opportunity by M' Brackett Oings [Owens] 
whom will be Considerd as an Express (and payd as such) to ac- 
quaint you therewith. I am bound To Col' Shelby's to night where 
shall be Supply'd I hope with fresh Horses and push for Richmond 
Tomorrow. The news is That Lord Cornwallace occupies york 
Town and Glouester and is Certainly Surrounded by Gen' Wash- 
ingtons Superiour force, so that his fate is Inevitable 

I am Sir with Respect 

Your Obed' Serv* 

John Crittenden 


John Crittenden to Clark, October 27, 1781 
[Draper MSS., S1J96.— A. L. S.] 

Col' Arthur Campbells 27*" Octobf 1781/ 
Sir — I am this Ins' Informd by Col' Martain Superintcndant of 
Indian affairs^ in this Quarter That some time in the first of Sep- 
tember near Five Hundred Creek Indians in different parties did 
set out for the falls of Ohio, Of which he advertisd the Inhabitants 
of the Kantucky at large by a favourable Opportunity. Not know- 
ing you were in that Quarter which he suspects has faild from my 
not having heard of it. 

Various are the Reports Relative to Cornwallace, However it 
is Reducd to a Certainty that his fate is Inevitable his Excellency 
Gen' Washington with 13,000 Regulars and upwards of Seven 
Thousand Malitia having besiegd him for a Considerable time in 
Conjunction with a fleet consisting of thirty Eight ships of the freacli 
line and sixteen Frigates. 

My knee is nearly as bad as Ever. The Governor is at Camp 
Commands as Majf Gen' over the Malitia, you will therefore neces- 
sarily Expect to prolong the time 

I am with perfect Esteem 

Your Obed' Serv' 
John Crittenden 
Addressed: On publick Service 
The Honourable Brig^"' 

Gen' G. Rogers Clark 
Falls of Ohio 

'Arthur Campbell's was near the sllc of Marion, Virginia. 

Colonel Arthur Campbell was one of the leaders of southwestern 
Virginia. He served in the Virginia assembly for one year (1775). The 
following year he was chosen county lieutenant for Washington County, 
Virginia, and continued in this office for more than thirty ye.irs. lie w.ih 
the leader of the force against the Cherokee in 1780, and the next year 
joined Sevier in the erection of the proposed State of Franklin. Becau'^e 
of this interest, he was removed from office by Governor Patrick Henry but 
was reinstated by the legislature and received the endorsement of the people. 
He later joined his sons in Kentucky. See Clark Papers, clxvii, note i, 214, 
424-425. 595-596- 

'Colonel Joseph Martin was appointed Indian agent in 1777 and for a 
number of years performed the duties of that office while living at Long 
Island on the Hudson River. Prior to this time, he had been well known as 
a hunter and explorer and in 1769 he founded a station in Powell's Valley. 
He served 00 numerous occasions as commissioner for making treaties with 
the Indians and locating forts. Resigning his office in 1789, he returned to 
Virginia where, as a member of the legislature, he assisted James Madison 
in the preparation of the Resolutions of 1798. See Clark Papers, cxiii, 
note I, 385. 


Jonathan Clark' to Clark, November 8, 1781 
[Draper MSS., 51J98.— A. L. S.] 

Caroline, Nov. 8, 1781. 
D" Sir 

Captain Rogers^ is now here, by whom I fiatter'd my self with 
hopes of the pleasure of having a letter from you, but am disap- 
pointed. However am happy in hearing of your being well, and 
that Richard^ is in good health is a very agreeable circumstance. 

This letter I expect will be deliverd you by Major Crittenden, 
who I hear is at Richmond with letters from you to the Governor 
&' I wish he may get your business done to your satisfaction. 

The Assembly was to meet on monday last, much seems to be 
expected from them, I wish they may have it in their power to do 
any thing of consequence. The paper money is now at about one 
thousand for one — 

That Lord Cornwallis and the army under his command are 
capture'd, is a pleasing fact, I have not yet had the particulars, or 
would have sent them you, but expect you'l receive them together 
with the particulars of the action to the soutlnvard of the tentli & 
twelfth of September last, in which General Green prov'd success- 
ful!, by Major Crittenden — in that action our friend L' Colonel 
Campbell fell, his loss is very much regreated I have heard of no 
other of your acquaintance who fell — 

Your letter to the old Gentleman* gave him and the family much 

'Jonathan Clark was the oldest brother of George Rogers Clark. He 
served as captain in a Virginia regiment at Brandywine and Germantown 
and ^vas later promoted first to the rank of major and then to that of 
lieutenant colonel. In 1802 he settled near Louisville, Kentucky. » 

' Captain John Rogers was the second son of George Rogers and was 
a cousin of George Rogers Clark. He served as a lieutenant under Clark 
in the Illinois campaign and accompanied him on the expedition against 
Vincennes. Together with Captain Montgomery, he was given charge of 
Governor Hamilton and the other prisoners who were sent to Virginia. 
Governor Jefferson commissioned him captain of cavalry and he served 
in that capacity in the West until the close of the war. 

'Richard Clark was a younger brother of George Rogers Clark. 
During the spring of 1779 he went to the Illinois country where he took 
part in a number of expeditions against the Indians. He was with his 
brother in a campaign against the Shawnee and he also took part in other 
western expeditions. He lost his life in 1784 while traveling alone through 
the Indian country. 

'John Clark — "the old Gentleman" — was Clark's father. 


pleasure, they all desire you'l accept of their love affection well wishes 
&' &' he says he has nothing material to inform you of, except that 
he and the family arc all very well, and as he is no scribe he hopes 
you will excuse his not writing to you, he wishes to know whether 
Captain Bayley lias been paid for the land he had of him or not, Mf 
Randolph received the money and made himself liable for the pay- 
ment, and lie is sorry to hear the money is not paid — but perhaps 
it may be a mistake and the money may be paid. 

Mf Gwathmey and family (his wife excepted) are very well,' 
she has been very unwell for sometime, our relation M'' Achilles 
Redd is lately dead, the rest of the neighbours are generally well, 
please accept my sincere well wishes which I also desire to my brother 
Richard from whom I should have been very happy in a letter 

I am with every degree of respect and esteem 

Yr Aff. Brother 
Jona'' Clark 
M" John Clark's Caroline Nov. 8. 1781 

P. S. The old Gentleman does not wish any thing to be said 
to M'' Randolph about the land provided Cap' Bailey looks to him 
for the money, in that case it would not amiss if the note M'' Rogers 
gave was taken in, however you are to act in the matter as you think 

J. C. 
B. Gen'' Clark. 

Endorsed : Gen' Jon'* Clark. 

John Craig to Clark, November 14, 1781 
[Draper MSS., S1J99.— A. L. S.] 

End of Long Reach 14"" Novm'' 1781 
Dear General I am Happy in this Opportunity of informing 
you I am thus far without being Molested by the Enemy, but my 
men are almost Killed with Fatiguedand have been on Sliort allow- 
encc of Flour 12 days and often Several days without Beef. 1 have 
therefore (in Order to Enable & Encourrage them to Persevere to 
the End) Contracted with and Received 25 Galleons of Wiskey of 

'Owen Gwathmey was the husband of Ann Clark, the eldest sister of 
George Rogers Clark. 


John Waller for which I have made Bold to Draw an Order on you 
and your Honouring it will Infinitely Oblige me M[ay] I Con- 
gratulate you on the Surrender of Lord Cornwallis to his Excellency 
the the Commander in Chief its said the British Army Consists of 
8000 British 3000 New Levies and 2000 Armed Negroes and a 
large Train of Artillery 100 sail of Transports the Bearer will 
further inform you 

I am Dear General with Much Esteem Your Obed' Hmb' 

J Craig 
General Clarke 

Excuse my cold fingers I have left the Price of the Wiskey to 
be Determined by the Publick sale at the Falls 

Robert Todd' to Thomas Nelson, December 11, 1781 

[Executive Papers, 178 1, Va. State Archives.] ' 

Richmond Dec' 11 1781 
May it please your Excellency 

As my being an Officer in Clarke Reg' & paymaster of late it 
becomes a part of my duty to represent the wretched situation of 
the few troops remaining Westward Many of them have been in 
the service for two years past and have never received a Shoe, Stock- 
in?', or hat, & none of them any pay, What other clothing not here 
mentioned rec"* at fort Jefferson, are now worn out. Their being in 
this condition may perhaps be in some measure owing to bad occon- 
omy, in the application of the publick clothing, which I think would 
not be improper to enquire into Whatever disposition your excel- 
lency shou'd please to make; whether kept where they are or re- 
moved, clothing will be absolutely necessary, without it no great 
service can be expected from them 

As my Duty obliges me to be frequently at this place for some 
time yet your Excellency may readily receive such intelligence from 

'Robert Todd, who was a brother of John Todd, Jr., assisted in the 
defense of McClelland's Fort against an Indian attack December 29, 1776. 
He was wounded at that time. He was made a captain under Clark and 
for a time served as acting paymaster. In the campaign of General Anthony 
Wayne he was a brigadier general. 

"This letter is printed in part in Calendar of Virginia Stale Papers, 




me as I am able to give concerning the matter - - I am Sir 
with much respect your excellencys most Ob' & Humble Ser" t 

RoBT Todd Capt 

Clarke Reg' 
(To THE Governor of Virginia) 
In Council Dec 12, 1781 
referred to Colo Davies 

A Blair C C 

Plan for Kentucky Defense, December 11, 1781 
[Journal of Virginia House of Delegates, 178 1, p. 35.] 

TUESDAY, December ii, 1781. 

Mf Banister reported, from the committee appointed to examine 
General Clarke's letters, and to confer with Major Crittendon, 
that the committee had, according to order, examined the same and 
conferred with sundry persons acquainted with the subject contained 
in the said letters, and had agreed to a report and come to several 
resolutions thereupon, which he read in his place, and afterwards 
delivered in at the clerk's table, where the same were again twice 
read and agreed to by the House, as followeth : 

That it is the opinion of several persons who have conferred with 
your committee, that the country of Kentucky is in the greatest 
danger of being annoyed if not totally subjugated by the British and 
Indians from Detroit and the tribes between that post and the Oiu'o, 
if an expedition is not carried on against them early in the Spring: 
That the force requisite for this purpose would be two thousand 
men. That if this offensive operation could be carried into execu- 
tion it would secure to us the amity and attachment of a great num- 
ber of Indians, who would act in conjunction with us; but if neg- 
lected they will act against us in great force. That the consequence 
would be fatal to our interest in that country, as the people must 
either desert it or submit to British government; That an expedi- 
tion against Detroit, would require nine hundred pack horses, at 
ten pounds each, besides those already in the country, computed to 
be one hundred ; twelve thousand weight of powder, and twenty- 
four thousand weight of lead. That besides the flour now on hand, 
four thousand bushels of corn would be required, which might be 


obtained for four hundred pounds specie. That the distance from 
the falls of the Ohio to the object in view is between three and four 
hundred miles. That of the supplies necessary, should the expe- 
dition be judged practicable, there are on hand two hundred thou- 
sand pounds of flour at the falls of the Ohio, eight thousand weight 
of powder, sixteen hundred weight of lead and from six to eight 
hundred bushels of salt. This being a summary of inquiries re- 
specting an offensive operation against Detroit, your committee pro- 
ceeded to examine into the nature and extent of a defensive war for 
the preservation of the country, which your committee beg leave 
also to report specially, as follows: 

That it appeared from concurrent opinions of other persons ac- 
quainted with the country, that it might be defended by keeping 
up garrisons at the following posts: the falls of Ohio, the mouth 
of Kentucky river, the mouth of Licking creek, and at the mouth 
of Lime Stone creek. That the defence of these posts would re- 
quire six or seven hundred men, and two gun boats at each of the 
posts, which might be manned from the respective garrisons ; and 
thus supported, the inhabitants would be enabled to defend them- 
selves against the incursions of the enemy, as well as occasionally to 
attack them. That the distance of the falls to the mouth of Ken- 
tucky river is seventy-five miles by water ; from thence to the mouth 
of Licking creek, one hundred miles; and from thence to the mouth 
of Lime Stone creek, one hundred and ten miles. That the gun 
boats will be a great means of preventing the Indians from cross- 
ing the Ohio and attacking the posts or the inhabitants on the river. 
It farther appears to your committee, that there is a great prospect 
of increasing population in that country from the late emigrations 
to it; and that this circumstance may lessen the necessity of so large 
a force ns is above stated. 

Whereupon, your committee came to the following resolutions: 

Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, That the pro- 
posed expedition against Detroit, ought not for the present to be 

Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee. That some plan 
of difence ought to be adopted for the security of the inhabitants of 
this State residing in Kentucky; and that the Executive do, from 


time to time, take such measures, for that purpose, as circumstances 
may admit. 

• •*«••• 

Military Stores for Fort Nelson, December 12, 1781 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Fort Nelson 12"? Decern"' 1781 
Received the Military and Ordinance Stores Spacified in the 
Within Invoice by Order of General Clark from Martin Carney 

late Quarter Master 

Rec** by me 

Zephaniah Black=ford 

Conductor of Military Stores. 
Invoice of Military Stores Received from M'^Gavock and De- 
livered to Mf Zephaniah Blackford 
75 — Muskits 
26— Rifcls 
85 — Cartridge Boxes 

5 — Ditto Not fit for Service 
59 — Straps or Slings for Bayonets 
75 — Bayonets — 
9 — Powder Horns 
16 Shott Pouches 
1 1 pair Wipers 
4 pair of Bullet Moles 
189 Gun Flints 

Rec"" the Above Mentioned Stores from Martin Carney 
Late Q Master by Order of Gener' Clark 
Falls of Ohio 12''' December 1781 
Rec"* by me 

Zephaniah Blackford 
Cond Mil' Stores 
Invoice of Military Stores Deliver'd to M' Blackford 12';'' De- 
cember 1 78 1 — 

3 Setts of Mens Harness 
6 Lent. Stocks 
3 port iire Stocks 



I Budge Barrel- - 

3 Sheep Skins 

3 Setts of Harness for 4 Horses 

I D° D° for 2 D" 

228 6 pound Round Shott fired 

105- 3 pound D" D" D" 

40 Rounds of Royal Case 

84 6 pound Case fixed 

36 3 pound D" D" 

140 Empty Shells 

300 6 pound Round Shott 

759 pounds of Rifel Powder 

3401 pounds of Muskit D° 

3003 pounds of Cannon D" 

1 20 pounds of Slowmatch 

6 1/8 Dozen port fire 

400 6 Six pound Tubes 

22 1/2 pounds of Meal Powder 

6 Rheims of Cannon Cartridge Paper 

3 Rheims of Muskit D".. . D".. 

4900 Gun Flints- - 

36 Melting Ladles 

I pair of Bullet Nippers 

8 lbs of Muskit Cartridge thread 

I Ten Lanthren 

50 Six pound Empty paper Cartridges 

1453 lbs Lead 

I pair of Large Bullet Moles - 


Benjamin Harrison' to Clark, December 20, 1781 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1781, pp. 13-15, Va. State Archives.] 

Council Chamber December 20''' 1781 

The Delay of an Answer to your several Favors has been occas- 
ioned by a variety of Causes, which Major Crittendon will explain 
to you. 

Soon after the Arrival they were referred to the Consideration 
of the Assembly. The deranged Situation of the Finances of the 
State, and the reduced value of the paper Currency made this Step 
necessary. Their Determination on tlie Subject you have inclosed, 
by which you will find that an offensive war cannot at this Time 
be carried on. we must therefore turn our Attention to defensive 
measures and make use of every means in our power that this be 
done in the most effectual Manner. On your exertions this must 
rest. The Executive have the most entire Confidence in and Re- 
liance on your Abilities and Integrity, and therefore will leave much 
to your Discretion. 

You'l please immediately to call on the Counties of Jefferson, 
Fayette and Lincoln in proportion to their number of Militia for 
as many Men as will make up with the Regulars you have three 
hundred and four rank & file properly officered one hundred of 
whicii are to be stationed at the Falls of Ohio, and sixty eight in 
each of tiie posts of tlie mouth of Kentuckey River, the mouth of 
Licking Creek and tlic Mouth of Lime Stone Creek whicli posts I 
wish to have strengthened as much as possible. This number of 
Men it is thought will be sufficient for the present, but very prob- 
ably will not be so as the Spring .idvanccs in which Case you'l please 
to increase the number as exigencies may require always taking Care 
to have the Militia relieved as the Law directs. 

'Benjamin Harrison, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was 
born in Charles City County, Virginia, in 1726 and was educated at William 
and Mary College. He was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, 
a member of tlie Committee of Correspondence, 1773, and a delegate to the 
Continental Congress, 1774-1778. He became speaker of the Virginia 
House of Delegates on his return from Congress, holding this office until 
1781, after which he was twice elected governor. As a delegate to the 
Virginia convention of 1788 he opposed the ratification of the federal con- 
stitution. At the time of his death in 1791 he was a member of the Vir- 
ginia legislature. 



The plan of Gun boats I very much approve. They will cer- 
tainly render essential service. I wish therefore to have three or 
four of them built as soon as possible. If you are in Want of 
C?innon to mount on them, they shall be sent early in the Spring 
to Fort Pitt, or any other post most convenient that you shall direct. 

Major Crittendon is referred to Col" Davies for the Cloathing 
necessary for your Men and will settle with him the manner of 
getting them to you. 

You will very probably ask how the Business required to be done 
can be carried on without Money. The answer indeed is difficult. 
We have nothing to depend on for the present but the virtue of the 
people; that has been tryed with Success on many former Occasions 
and I hope may be so again when they are informed that the As- 
sembly are now closely engaged on the Subject of Finance and that 
they mean to do Justice to the public Creditors. The Executive 
on their parts will most certainly use the first means in their power 
to pay oE any Debts that may be contracted for the present purpose. 
I well know how necessary it is to keep up the public Credit, and 
shall on all occasions exert myself to support it. 

There will be no great Difficulty I hope to supply provisions 
as you have Flour in Abundance and Salt to cure Meat, a great 
Quantity of which may be got at the outposts by hunting. Some 
of the Salt may also be sold for Beef. If any of tlie Flour should 
be in danger of spoiling, I would recommend it to you to dispose 
of that also and to apply the Money to such necessary purposes as 
you think will be most advantageous. 

Major Crittendon delivered a verbal Message to the Board from 
you respecting the Resolutions of the last Assembly. It was a matter 
of great Surprise to us that we could not conceive how General 
Clarke could take that resolution as aimed at him whose Character 
l)a> ever stood unimpeached :* You must be sensible that great 
Abuses have been committed and that it was necessary for the As- 
sembly to correct them and to bring the Offenders to Justice. At 
such only the Resolution points. I have my hopes that on cooler 
Reflection you will think with me, and have no more unhappy Mo- 
ments on that Subject. A Resignation at this Time would be ex- 

' See the joint resolution of June 21, 1781, Clark Papers, 569. 


tremely injurious to the State in as much as it would throw the 
whole back Country into Confusion and perhaps occasion its I>oss 
the thought of which I am confident induce you if you have not 
done it already to lay aside your Resentment. 

I have now Sir only to assure you that I have the highest Con- 
fidence in you and Expectations that you will enter on y^ Business 
recommended to you, and that I am &c 

Benjamin Harrison. 

Muster Roll of the Illinois Regiment, December, 1781 

[Draper MSS., 51J103.— A. D.] 

Commanded by Col" John Montgomery' in the Virginia State 
Service, for the month of December 1781. 

'Captain John Montgomery with his company was ordered to join 
Clark at the Falls of the Ohio in 1778. After the capture of Kaskaskia he 
was sent by Clark with dispatches to Governor Henry. The next year 
(1779) he was appointed, together with Lieutenant John Rogers, to ac- 
company Governor Hamilton and other prisoners who were sent to Vir- 
ginia. As colonel, he was in command of the one hundred and fifty men 
sent by the Virginia authorities to assist Clark in the proposed campaign 
against Detroit. Before setting out for the Falls of the Ohio, Clark ap- 
pointed Montgomery to the command of the troops in the Illinois country. 
He was succeeded in this position by Captain John Rogers (April, 1781). 
See also index, Clark Papers. 














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GoDEFROY Linctot' TO BENJAMIN Harrison, January i, 1782 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 


Having been sloped for a long time in this village by a disorder 
from which I have barely recovered arising from misfortune. Fa- 
tigue & bad Provisions which I have been obliged to make use of 
during in the Indian villages, on account of my business as Agent, 
& tlie impossibility of being able myself in person to render you an 
ace' of my Conduct, as also an ace' of the expense attending upon a 
Journey to Richmond — I take the Liberty to send you by M 
Gration [Gratiot]- one of the citizens of this Country, an account 
of the necessary charges which I have been obliged to be at for 
presents made to the different nations to whom I have spoke accord- 
ing to the order which I received from his Excellency Governor 
Jefferson — I hope you will be pleased fully to pay tliem having 
been obliged to borrow different sums of some of my Friends to 
support among the different nations the Honour of the State to 
which I am truly devoted — I should have been happy to have had 
it my power to have met with General Clark that he might have 
approved of my Expences & conduct which I flatter myself he would 
have done with as much approbation as M Cuirzal [Cruzat]^ Span- 
ish Colonel Commandant upon the River Illinois 

If my Health at any time enables me to perform the Voyage I 
will immediately set to receive whatever orders you may be pleased 
to give but I hope if my Conduct is agreeable to you you will be 

'Daniel Maurice Godefroy Linctot, a French trader of influence with 
the Indians, was of great assistance to Clark. In 1779 lie was made 
Indian agent at Cahokia by Major Joseph Bowman. During that sum- 
mer he was sent up the Illinois River in command of a Cahokia com- 
pany. This advance defeated the project of Lieutenant Bennett who had 
priireeded as far as St. Joseph from Michillimackinac for the purpose of 
driving the American traders out of the Illinois country. The Indians de- 
serted and the British entrenched themselves at the mouth of the St. 
Joseph River. Meantime, Linctot crossed to Ouiatenon and this movement 
caused consternation among the enemy, for it was interpreted as an ad- 
vance on Detroit. I-ater in the year, accompanied hy some Indians, he 
made a visit to the CJovernor of Virginia by whom he was commissioned 
major of Indian affairs, because of his "sincere attachment to the cause of I; 

the United States." He was entrusted with keeping the friendship of the vj 

W.-iIianh tribes, and was stationed at Vincennes. Sec also index, Clark *" 

I'aperi, where the name appears as Major Geoffrey Linctot. 'i 

' For Charles Gratiot and Francisco Cruzat consult index, Clark Papers. j. 


pleased to pay my Wages, having received none of any person, & 
being reduced to the necessity of drawing for my Expences, or de- 
pending upon the generous Succours which I have received in many 
places of my Friends — I will receive whatever you will be pleased 
to grant, & be assured that according to my Station & the duties of 
my charge I shall have justly acquired it — 

I have the Honor to be with profound 
Respect Sir 
j'o. mo obt Hble Sev* 


Jan' if 1782 

State of the Treasury, January 7, 1782 
[Cal. oj Va. State Papers, 3:10.— Abstract.] 

Richmond, January 7tli, 1782. 
Jolin Conant, Surgeon to Gcnl : Clark's Army, having obtained 
from "the Assembly" an order for a Warrant for one thousand dolls: 
specie, for tiie purchase of medicines to be delivered at the Falls of 
the Ohio in March next, applied at the Treasury, but was informed 
there was no money on hand . . . He therefore now begs that instruc- 
tions be given to the "Commissaries of Stores" to sell flour sufficient 
to make up that Sum, otherwise the wishes of the Assembly cannot 
be carried out . . . 

John Crittenden to Clark, January 13, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J1.— A. L. S.] 

Lexington 13"' January 1782 
D" Gen'- 

I have Communicated the purchase of Flower made in Con- 
junction between us on behalf of the state to Col' William Fleming 
whom was so kind as to take Charge of some papers of mine Re- 
lating my Claim for Services Renderd under your Command in this 
Department, As Col' Fleming will probably wish for some Infor- 
mation from you Relative to my Claims, you will greatly Oblige me 
in making me D'' for Such Quantity of the Land as you may think 
necessary and furnishing the Vouchers Requird that tlie accounts 


may be Liquidated it being out of my power to attend and this shall 
Oblige me to Comply with the same agreeable to your Contract with 
Cap' Tardiveau^ I have made little progress in Obtaining the war- 
rents mentiond in your favour to me, I hope to have the pleasure 
of your advocacy to the Settlement as it may probably be later than 
you Expect I have nothing more worthy your notice 
Believe me S'' to be with 
the utmost Esteem 

to be your Humb'' Serv' 

John Crittenden 
Addressed : Gen' Geo. R. Clark, Falls of Ohio. 

Order for Organizing Western Troops, January i8, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

In Council Jan'' 18. 1782. 

The Board advise that the regular Troops of this State, now in 
the Western Country under the Command of General Clarke be 
reduced to one Corps of Infantry, to be commanded by a Major 
and formed into companies not exceeding Sixty eight rank & file to 
each Company under the necessary Captains & Subalterns: and that 
Gen' Clarke be requested to organize the said Corps and if the offi- 
cers cannot agree among themselves with respect to their respective 
commands, that he appoint them according to their Seniority - - 
Extract per ye Minutes 
A Blair C. C. 

John Todd, Jr., to Governor Jefferson, January 24, 1782 
[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives.] 

Lexington 24 Jans' 1782 
May it please your Excellency, 

I rec* the inclosed Letters a few days ago; as they contain some 
matters of Consequence I transmit them just as I recieve them. 
They are written with a freedom which spares no Character & may 
with additional Letters which I expect you have rec* throw light '; 

'For Barthelemi Tardiveau, see Cahoiia Records, cxxxvi ff., clii; also i 

Alvord, The lllinoii Country (Centennial History of Illinois, i), 369 ff. i 




up on our Situation in the Ilinois. Winston* is Command' at 
Kaskaskia M° Carty' a Captain in the Ilinois Reg' who has long 
since rendered himself disagreeable by endeavouring to enforce Mili- 
tary Law upon the civil Department at Kohos [Cahokia]. 

The peltry mentioned by Winston as purloined or embeazcUed 
by Montgomery was committed to their joint Care by me in Nov 
1779 & from the Circumstance of Col- Montgomery's taking up 
with an infamous Girl leaving his Wife ic flying down the River 
I am inclined to believe the worst that can be said of him being so 
far out of the Road of Business I cannot do the State that Justice I 
wish by sending down his case immediately to the Spanish Commcn- 
d.'int on the Missisipppi. 

A late Letter informed your Excellency of my Design of laying 
some Beef & Corn in Store for the Expedition planned last year I 
expect to get 30 or 40 thousand Weight of Beef & two or three 
thousand Bushals of Corn or Better Terms then will be got any 
wiicre in this Country. A Prisoner, Martin Wistill, taken spring 
was a year at Wheeling by the Shawanese t^vo weeks ago left his 
party being 7 Shawanese about half a Mile from Bryants Fort as 
they were stealing Horses. He says the Shawanese have built 4 
Block Houses at Logans Town 12 Miles beyond the Pickaway, that 
they are much Distressed for want of provisions & are keen for mak- 
ing an attack next Spring upon the Kentucky Settlements that Black- 
fish & Logan are dead &. I am uneasy lest Crockett siiould not 
arrive timeously at Licking & many of our Settlers seem desirous to 
fly immediately to the south side of Kentucky lest he should not. 

Two Certificates to W" Grant & Israel Grant dated the 1 6th 
This Ins' one for 627 Bushels Corn the other for 80 were signed 
by Jos. Lindsay Corns' & Countersigned. I wish the payments to be 
delayed till further Information to the Auditors. 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest Respect your Excel- 
lency's Most obedient & humble Servant 

J"" Todd, Jr. 

His Excellency, Thomas Jefferson 

'For a biographical sketch of Richard Winston see Alvord, Cahokia 
Records, Ixxxv ff. 

' For Richard McCarty, see ibid., 2, note 3. 


Officer's Rank, Illikois Regiment, January 28, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J3.— A. D.] 

Rank of the officers of the Illinois Regiment Louisville 28'* 
Jan' 1782 

John Montgomery L* Colonel 14 Decem' 1778 
Tho" Quirk Majf 17'^' Aug' 1779 
Robert Todd Cap*" 17 March 1780 
Isaac Taylor Cap" 18'* March 1780 
Abraham Kellar Cap" 19 March 1780 
John Baley Do 29 March 1780 
Rich"* Brashear D° so"* May 80 
John Girault D° 3"" June 1781 
Michael Perrault D° lo"" October 1781 
Joseph Calvit Lieut i June 1780 

James Montgomery D» 2 D° 80 
Abraham Chaplin D" 3 D" 80 
Richard Clark D" 4 June 1780 

Jarret Williams D° 5 June 1780 

William Clark 6 June 1780 

Benjamin Harrison to William Fleming,' January 29, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 46J69.— L. S.] 

In Council January 29*'' 1782 
The Executive are extremely pleased to find by your favor of 
the 26"" ult" that you will assist in the settlement of tlie accounts in 
tlie back Country. They approve of your plan in and will 

'Colonel William Fleming, after receivinR a classical education, was 
graduated in medicine from the University of Edinburgh. On coming to 
Virginia during the French and Indian War, he served as lieutenant and 
surgeon in Washington's regiment and as captain under General Forbes. 
He received a wound at the battle of Point Pleasant in Dunmore's War 
which unfitted him for military service during the Revolution, but as a 
county lieutenant he was an adviser on the defense of the frontier and he 
served two years in the Virginia legislature. In 1779 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for granting settlement and preemption rights in 
the county of Kentucky. In 1781 he was appointed one of the western com- 
missioners for the consideration of claims against Virginia growing out of 
the disbursements of public money by Clark and his officers (see post, 290). 
For a number of years after the Revolution he sat in the Virginia legislature 
and was a member of the state convention which adopted the federal con- 


furnish you with such accounts and documents as they can priK'irp, 
tho' they apprehend it will be impossible for them to obtain all that 
will be necessary. This deficiency we hope you will be able to make 
up on the Spot. The opportunity you have had of being informed 
of the intentions of the Assembly and Executive in appointing Com- 
missioners to settle this business where it was transacted, will no 
doubt suggest to you many Things that cannot be so fully explained 
either by letters or instructions much therefore must be left to 
the discretion of the Commissioners in whose abilities and judgment 
we place intire confidence. 

We know of no powers given to any person to draw bills on the 
State but to Col° Clarke and yet we find them drawn to an immense 
amount by Col" Montgomery a Capt° Rob' George and some others ; 
we have but too much reason to suppose a Collusion and fraud 
betwixt the drawers and those they are made payable to; most of 
them are for specie when they well knew we had none amongst us, 
and from the largeness of the Sums, proves the transactions must 
have been in paper and the depreciation taken into account, when 
the bargains were made; indeed George confesses this to have been 
the Case when he gave Philip Barbour a bill for two hundred & 
thirty two thousand, three hundred and twenty Dollars and uses 
the plea of ignorance. 

I am unwilling to charge M' Oliver Pollock of New Orleans 
with any sinister practices having in general heard well of him, yet 
I confess I have my doubts of him and wish his whole transactions 
from the first connection with Montgomery &c to be minutely 
enquired into. In short great Care and exactness is to be observed, 
thro' out your whole transactions, but this I need not mention as 
we can safely trust to your prudence. 

Col° Preston resigned his appointment and has recommended 
AP Granville Smith who is named in his room. We have not yet 
heard from that Gentleman, but suppose he will act. We agree to 
lengthen the time of meeting to the first of May. 

Each Commissioner is allowed three sumpter horses which they 
are requested to procure on Credit, and their pay shall be fully 
adequate to their Trouble and expences. 


We know not what to say to you on the subject of money to 
support you not having at present the Command of one shilling. 
We hope however that you will be able either to furnish it, or bor- 
row it, in either Case you may rest assured of its being replaced with 
interest out of the first money that comes to the treasury. 

So many of the Gentlemen that have been named for this busi- 
ness have refused to act that we are apprehensive it will not go 
forward unless a power is lodged with you to name others in Case 
these should do the same, we have for that reason left three blanks 
to be filled up by you in case of need, not doubting your doing it 
with proper persons who have no Connections in that Country. 
Should you make any appointment you'l please to inform us of it 

You have inclosed an order to the County Lieutenant of Wash- 
ington to furnish you with a guard to the first post where you will 
please to discharge them. We leave it in your power to fix the 
number, confident of your doing it as low as possible, as you well 
know how necessary Oeconomy is in the present State of our finances. 
I am with respect 
Your most obed' Hble Ser' 

Benj Harrison 
P S The Acc'» &c shall 
be forwarded as soon 
as possible 

Benjamin Logan to Clark, February 12, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J5.— A. L. S.] 

Fabruary 12"' 1782 

Honoured Sir from the treatment I received last night from 
Major Thomas Quirck' whom I beleave to be an Officer in Ileanoy 
Reigment under your Command & the Said treatment hapened in 
your presence I do request & demand the saticfaction for that treat- 

' Thomas Quirk served as ensign and lieutenant in the Seventh and 
Fifth Virginia Regiments. Resigning from the Eastern army in 1779, he 
spent the summer recruiting for Clark and taking reinforcements to the 
Illinois. Later in 1781 he went to Kentucky where he served as major of 
the troops stationed at Louisville. See Kellogg, Frontier Retreat on the 
Upper Ohio (If^is. Hist. Colls., 24), 195, note 2. 


ment that the Law Martial derects & that Law to be put in force 
as soon as may be. 

I have the Honour to be 

Your Most Obedient & Hum'« Ser' 
Benjamin Logan 
To Genaral Clarck 

Endorsed: Logan's Complaint Against Quirk Febru^ 12^ 1782 

J. M. P. Legras' to Clark, February 15, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J6.— A. L. S.] 

Au Generale George Roge Clark Brigadier General 

Sir, by an Outawa Indian arriv'd here the 31" Dec"^ from the 
Miamis, we learn that the Commandant of Detroit requir'd all the 
Savages of the Lakes and others ajacent thereto, to be ready, very 
early in the Spring to march against the Falls, and that Capt" Chaine 
was to go at their Head with Artillery, that in the mean time he 
desired some of them wou'd form small parties to see what was doing 
at the Falls* 

Par un sauvage de la 8oas arrive icy Le 31' dedexembre qui vient 
de la Riviere des Mis; cet Rapporte que Lorsqu'il Est partis du 
detroit L'automme derniere pour son hivernement que le Command' 
du detroit a dit a tous les sauvages des Lacs Et des Environs de se 
tenir prct de Bon printemps pour aller frapper a la Chutte, Et que 
le Capitaine Chaine irait a Leur tete avec De L'artillerie, et qu'en 
attendant qu'il seroit Charmc que quelqu'un deux formassent des 
pctits partis pour voir ce qu'il se passe; Voila Mon Sicur ce que 

' Colcincl J. M. r. Lepras wns one of the prominent Frenrhmcn at Vin- 
cennes when Clark captured that post, lie was captain of militia under the 
British but he began at once to espouse the American cause by furnishin(» 
powder and flour. He accompanied Captain Leonard Helm on the expedi- 
tion up the Wabash which captured seven boats containing supplies for 
Hamilton. During the year 1779 he was appointed president of the local 
court at Vincennes by John Todd and continued to preside over this court 
until 1786. 

' This translation was interpolated on the original manuscript between 
the subscription and the body of the letter. 


J'ai L'honneur de vous informer Et Soyes persuades qu'il ne Viendra 
Bien a ma Connoissance: Sans que Je vous En donne avis; J'aurois 
Bien Desire avant Le Depart Du Major Bosseron qu'il fut Venu 
quelques Nouvelles des Jlinois; Mais depuis deux mois nous avons 
du monde de ce poste qui y Sont alles Et qui ne sont point Encore 
Revenu Nous pensous que ce sont les Mauvais tems qui les En 
Empcchent par les Eaux Et les pointes Basses qui Sont inondes, 
plus que quand vous Est Venu prendre le poste Vincenne — Je ne 
vous Reccommande point le Major Bofseron Je sgay vos intentions 
a son sujet ; Jai fait part des Bonnes Nouvelles que vous aves Marques 
a M'' Dalton a tous les habitants Et Leurs Est dit que vous les 
invitics tl'aller chercher du sel. Comme M'' Dalton C'est trouve 
dans le Besoin de poudre Et de plomb pour les sauvages des ouyas 
Nos allies qui sont Vend Le saluer; Et les sauvages du poste Leurs 
ayant dit que J'en avoit; J'ai Ete oblige de L'assister Sur celle que 
vous m'aves donne pour le service publique Les Sauvages Luy Disant 
qu'il ne pouvoit pas Vivre avec Des glands Comme les Cochons ; 
J'ai fait part d'un peu D'amonition de quelque Minots de sel a Ceux 
qui sont au service Des Etats; si Q'est un Effet de votrc Bontc de 
M'en Envoyer d'autre Je vous Seres oblige; Ainsy qu'un peu de sel 
et de farinne; Car les Sauvages M'on mange une partie de ce que 
vous m'avies donne avant de me Rendre chez Moy; Cependant J'ai 
Encore de la poudre En Reserve au Cas d'attaque Je la Livreray 
aux habitants Lorsqu'il sera apropos — II y a Eut une Maladie 
Contagleuse a misere Et au Kas — il Est mort 54 persone Dont 
Madame Vale mere est du nombre Monsieur Charleville pere' Et 
sa dame ; Je n'ay Rien Re(;ue de la Nouvelle Orleans les marchan- 
dises fort Rare Et Bien Chere; Mr. Vaucheres Mon associe Est 
passe a la havana avec Le Gouverneur d'un Galvez Sous Sa pro- 
tection. Je Laisse au Major Bosseron a vous dire Combien Cela 
me fait detor ; J'ai Vendu une Negresse Et Son Enfant plutot que de 
me voir Executer pour Mes Debtes. Permettes Moy Monsieur de 
vous Remercier de toutes Les Bontes que vous aves Eu pour moy 
pendant Mon sejour a la Chutte; Et que tant que Je viveray J'en 

•Jean Baptiste Charleville was one of three sons (the others were 
Charles and Francois) of Joseph Chauvin dil Charleville, each of whom 
was elected to the position of justice of the peace for the district of Kas- 
kaskia. See index, Clark Papers. 


aurai une Vive Reconnoissance En Vous assurant de ma fidelite Et 
Du Respect avec Lequelle J'ai L'honncur d'etre 

Votrc trcs humble 
Et tres obeissant 
S* ViNCENNE Le 15' f"" 1782. Serviteur 

J. M. P. Legras 

Lieut Col' 
Addressed: Au Generate George Roge Clark Brigadier Gen- 
erale A La Cliiitte 

Endorsed: Col' Legras Feb'' 1782 

To General George Rogers Clark, Brigadier General. 

An Ottawa Indian, who arrived here the thirty first of Decem- 
ber, from the Mississippi River, reports that, when he left Detroit 
last autumn for his winter quarters, the Commandant of Detroit 
had requested all the Indians of the Lakes and parts adjacent, to 
hold themselves in readiness to march, early in the spring against 
the falls, whither Captain Chaine with artillery, would lead them 
and that in the meantime, he would be glad if some of them formed 
small parties for reconnoitering. I have the honor to report tliis, 
sir, to you; you may rest assured that nothing will come to my knowl- 
edge, without my informing you of it. 

I should have been very glad if news had come from Illinois 
before the departure of Major Bosseron. But two months ago, 
however, several persons went there, from this post, but they have 
not yet returned. We believe that the bad weather has delayed 
them, by high water, as the bottoms are worse flooded than when 
you came to take post Vincennes. I do not commend Major Bosseron 
to you. I know your intentions on this subject. 

I have communicated the good news you sent to Mr. Dalton, to 
all the inhabitants and have told them that you invite them to go in 
search of salt. As for Mr. Dalton, he has needed powder and bullets 
for the Wca Indians, our allies who came to salute him, and the 
Indians of the post. Having told what I had, I have been obliged 


to assist him with what you have given me for public service, foi 
the Indians told him that it was impossible for them to live upon 
acorns like swine. I have divided a little ammunition and some 
bushels of salt among those who are in the service of the States ; 
if in your kindness you send me anything else, I shall be obliged 
to you for a little salt and flour, for the Indians have eaten a part 
of what you gave me before my return home. 

Meanwhile, I still have powder in reserve, in case of an attack, 
which I shall issue to the inhabitants wiien it becomes necessary. 
There has been a contagious disease at Ste. Genevieve and at Kas- 
ka^kia; fifty-four persons have died, among them the elder Madame 
Vale and the elder Mr. Charleville and his wife. 

I have received nothing from New Orleans; goods are scarce 
and very dear. Mr. Vaucheres, my associate, has gone to Havana 
under the protection of the Governor, Galvez. I leave it to Major 
ISosseron to tell you how this has injured me. 

I have sold a negress and her child rather than see myself put 
under execution for debt. Allow me, sir, to thank you for all your 
kindness to me during my stay at the Falls. So long as I live, I 
shall retain a vivid remembrance of it. Assuring you of my fidelity 
and of the respect with which I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your very humble and obedient servant, 

J. M. P. Legras, Lieut. Col. 
St. Vincennes 

February 15, 1782. 
General George Rogers Clark, 
Brigadier General at the Falls. 
Endorsed Col. Legras, February 1782. 

Clark to Jonathan Clark, February 16, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 2L15.— A. L. S.] 

Cove Spring Kentucky Feb^ 16*'' 1782 
D? Sir 

I Received your fav' of the S* Nov'' last I am happy to find 
that all friends are well I was unhappy to hear the fate of Col. Camp- 


belP you did not inform me any thing of Johny or Edmond* Dicky 
left this last Fall I have not heard whether he got safe home I sent 
his Commission to him by M.' Rice Bullock of« Hanover, inform him 
of it Cap' Benjamin Fields of Culpepper Cty was to take two of 
my Riding Horses from F' Pitt to Caroline if they have arive pray 
send them to me by the first safe Hand that will undertake to bring 
them for any price, being so Repeatedly disappointed by government 
that I warmly solicited them for leave to quit this Department in- 
tending to Retire and Injoy myself in some polite part of the Con- 
tinent but have met with a Refutial such as put it out of my power 
to leave the Cuntrey with propriety they have been generous Enough 
(as I suppose they term it) to own that the misfortunes tliat I have 
met witli was owing to their own disability and neglect (in order 
to ple.ise me I suppose) they have given me the same powers hear 
that y° Governor iiave with you in tlie Military Dep' finance >kc 
but I doubt it will be out of my power to save tiiis infant Cuntrey 
from tliose impending strokes that now Hover over it its Fate will 
be determined by August if we are then fortunate all persons that 
incline to Come to tiie Cuntrey my [may] Move amcdiately as it 
will then be out of the power of the Enemy to distress us much 
more and if the old Gentleman Determine to move to this Cuntrey 
he might send out hands to Commence a Farm: I have Ingaged a 
man to Survey his Land but I know nothing about the payment for 
it M"" Randolf is gone to the west Indias but I make no Doubt but 
the Land is paid for they tell me it is one of the finest Tracts in the 
Cuntrey Lands Raise hear amazingly a few days past I was Refused 
Six Hundred acres of Lands for five Hundred Guineas, to be paid 
in three month I intended it for my Father in Case he moved amedi- 
ately as it was in the Hart of the Settlement knowing that it would 
Continue to Raise in Value I have some prospect of future happiness 

' For biographical sketch of Colonel John Campbell, see poit, 145, note 
I ; for his relations with Clark, see Clark Papers, 225 ff. 

'John Clark was a younger brother of George Rogers Clark. He 
entered the army as lieutenant in a Virginia regiment. At the battle of 
Germantown, he was captured by the British and was held as a prisoner 
until his exchange in 17S2. As a result of his imprisonment he contracted 
tuberculosis which caused his death in 1784. 

Edmund was another younger brother of George Rogers Clark, who 
served as lieutenant in a Virginia regiment during the Revolution. About 
the year 1800 he removed to Kentucky. 


in our living near Each other I can supply you with Lands if you 
Settle on tlie Ohio as fortune seems to determine that I posses an 
unpreceiicnted Quantity of tlie finest Lands in tlie Western World 
I can prejudge that I have this Campaign to Incounter greater 
dangers than I have heretofore their is no knowing the fate of war if 
I Fall I hope you will not suffer any part of my property to fall 
into the Hands of those that have no Right to it you will find it 
very Considerable give half to my Father and keep the other your 

I have now to add that I could wish to hold a Constant Corre- 
spondence with you its in your power to be of infinite Service to me 
by informing of me of the policy of the State Continent Europe 
Individuals &c as it may Occur to you 

I am with Respect 

yf Loving Brother &c 
G R Clark 

John Gibson' to Clark, March 5, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J8.— A. L. S.] 

PiTCHBURG march the s"" 1782 
Sr this is to Let you Know that your Bill that you Gave me on 
the Govrner of Virgenia was protested which has Ruined me and 
If you Do Not take Som Spedey methiod to make me hole I will 
take Evrey opertunitey in my power to Do my Self Justies Sr I hope 
you will Rite me an answer Emedentley your Compliens will 
obledge your Verrey Umbl Sert 

Jno Gibson 
N B S" I Expected you would Rote me before this time as 
Marger Critenten must have told you all my Disapointments 

'For the contract between Gibson and Clark, see Clark Papers, 571-572. 
This was not Colonel John Gibson but another of that name, an Indian 
trader anti merchant at Pittsliiir^h. On a number of occasions he procuretl 
powder and other supplies for Clark. 


TiMOTHE DE Monbreun' TO Clark, March 5, i 7S2 
[Draper MSS., 51J25.— A. L. S.] 

MoN General 

J'ai eu L'honneur de M'addresser a Monsieur Le Major Julin 
Williams votre representant pour lui demander soit ma retrait oil 
qu'il m'accordat, En maqualite De Gentilhomme Et d'officer au 
service De la Rcpublique de la Virginie que J'ai L'honneur de s ivir, 
ma paye de Lieutenant En bon argent ou Marchandises pour pouvoir 
faire subsister ma famille Lequcl ne ma pu accorder que des Provis- 
ions pour ma Subsistance comme vous le verre par sa reponse cy 
jointe Que J'ai L'honneur de vous Envoyer cy Indus, En conse- 
quence Mon general Je me flatte que Lorsque vous aures vu le Cer- 
tificat de Monsieur le Colonel Montgomery Et La reponse que M"' 
Le Major Williams dc mes Services et leurs incompetence Malgrc 
La bonne volonte Que ces Messieurs avoient de vouloir recompenser 
mes services Et le zele que J'ai Encore presentement desirent vous 
suivrc dans L'Expcdition que vous allcs faire, si toutes fois il vous 
plait m'accordcr La subsistance de ma famille pourque Je piiisse 
m'absenter et ne pas Laisser ma famille a la Mercy de mes amis qui 
est une chose liontcuse a un veritable Gentilhomme cet que Je Suis. 
J'esperc Mon General que m'appuyant sur le zclc avec lcc|ucl Je 
desire servir La patrie trouver En vous toutes les reponces qui nie 
seront necessaires pour Marcher avec Confiance sous vos drapeau\ 
a Labri desquels un veritable Militaire ne Desire rien autre chose. 

Jai L'honneur detre avec un profound respect 

Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur 

timote de monbreux l'' 
Mon General 
Kaskaskias le 5™^ Mars 1782 

[Addressed:] Monsieur Monsieur George Rogers Clark Ecuyer 
Marechal de Camps Commandant la patrie oriental de la Virginie 
au fort Pite 

' Influenced by Father Gibault, Timothe Boucher Sicur de Monbreun, 
who was living at Vincennes, took up the cause of the Americans. Reni'^ 
ing to Kaskaskia, he was appointed lieutenant in the Illinois battalion .<• 
was later granted a commission as deputy county lieutenant (1783). I)ui- 
ing the turbulent years which followed, he served as judge, usually the 
only one, and also preserved a good understanding with the Indians. In 
1786, he resigned and crossed to the Spanish side of the Mississippi. Fur 
a more extended account of his services, consult Alvord, Ca/iokia Records, 
xix, cxxiv ff. 



March 5, 1782. 
My General: 

I have had the honor to address myself to Major John Williams, 
your representative, to ask of him, either my discharge or that he ac- 
cord me, as an officer and gentleman in the service of the Republic of 
Virginia, which I have the honor to serve, my pay of Lieutenant in 
good money or in merchandise, so that I may support my family. 
This he has been unable to grant me as you will see by his reply 
which I have the honor to send you here inclosed. Accordingly, 
my General, I flatter myself that when you have seen the testimonial 
of Colonel Montgomery and the reply of Major Williams concern- 
ing my services and their inability [to help me], in spite of the good 
will these gentlemen bear me, that you will recompense my services. 
Moreover I am still anxious to follow you in your approaching ex- 
pedition, if you will please to give me enough to support my family, 
so that in my absence I need not leave it at the mercy of my friends, 
which is a disgrace to a true gentleman, such as I am. I hope, my 
General, in my zeal for the country's service, that you will so answer 
me that I may march with confidence under your banners beyond the 
shelter of which a true soldier desires nothing more. 

I have the honor to be with profound respect. 

Your very humble and very obedient servant, 

Mv GnNI.-RAL, 

Kaskaskia, March 5, 1782. 

Addressed: Mr. George Rogers Clark, Esq. Field Marshal, 
Commanding the eastern country of Virginia, at Tort Pitt. 


1782 — JULY 5, 1782 

Gunboats to be Used on the Ohio — Troubles Encountered in Equippino 
These Boats — Virginia Assembly Opposed to Offensive Operations 
— Disaffection Growing out of the Movement for an Independent 
State in Kentucky — Interest of James Monroe in the West. 

Clark to Joseph Lindsay, March 5, 1782 

[Draper MSB., 11J17. — Transcript fro.-n Pogue Papers.] 

Fort Nelson s**" March 1782. 
Sir - - The certain inteh'gence from Detroit of their intention of 
Taking this place early in the Spring makes it necessary that we 
alter our former resolutions^ you will please to make immediate 
preparations for furnishing three hundred Rations of Beef pr day 
at this post The militia of Lincoln is to March to this tiie i^^^ 
Ins' you may take the advantage of their route in getting your lirst 
Supply I expect you'll make every necessary arrangement in your 
Department you are to receive all Major Moore's purcliase of 
Cattle and be accountable for them You will be too busy yourself 
of course, Depute some person — encourage the people in your 
Quarter to act Spiritedly — if we repell this invasion they may not 
expect another - - we are going to Build armed Boats to Station at 
the Mouth of Miami to dispute the navigation of the Ohio either 
up or down. Take all the pains you Can to find out and encourage 
Boat-builders and good workmen to repair to tliis place immediately, 
they shall have good wages in hard Money; if you can find experi- 
enced Ship Carpenters that come immediately he shall liave almost 
what wages he will ask 

I am Sir your M' Obed' Serv' 

G. R. Clark 
Mr. Lindsay 

'The plan of the British had been to attack Fort Pitt but this wa^ 
given up on account of the report that it was in a good state of defense 
but that the Falls could easily be reduced. After Colonel Crawford's de- 
feat, Wheeling became the objective for McKee and Caldwell with their 
rangers and Indians. Reports of Clark's expedition caused them to return 
to Sandusky. The march into Kentucky and the Battle of the Blue Licks 
followed. See introduction, ante, xxxix-li. 



Clark to Benjamin Harrison, March 5, 1782 

[Clark MSS.. Va. State Archives.] 

Fort Nelson 5"" March 1782 — 

I wrote to you on the subject of publick affairs in this depart- 
ment by Mf Carney the iS'*" of Feb'' which I liope you have received, 
since which we Iiave received very allarming accounts from the 
Enemy at Detroit. They, last fall collected Chiefs of the different 
hostile Tribes of Indians and instructed them not to disturb tlie 
Frontiers, and particularly Kentucky until towards Spring, then 
to form small parties and take prisoners, to hear what was going on, 
by ^vhich Conduct the Country wou'd be off their Guard, that the 
whole would imbody in the Spring, reduce this post and lay the 
whole Country waste and make one stroke do for all. They arc 
actually makeing every preparation at Detroit, and the Conduct of 
the Indians have been agreeable to their direction - - This informa- 
tion through various channels from the Illinois cannot be doubted 
and if the defeat of Cornwallis or something similar dont prevent 
them, we shall certainly have them in great force sometime this 
Spring — Every preparation is making to counteract them, our 
greatest dependance is in armed Boats, but cannot fit out a Sufficiency 
of tiieni in time without the Supplies you promised, and those men- 
tioned in my last arriving in time. — 

If it was possible for the Troops with those Articles to arrive 
sometime in april, I should be under no kind of apprehension of their 
doing much damage to the Country; but without, the consequences 
are to be dreaded — 

Pray Sir, be as liberal as possible in your reinforcements and 
furiu'tures: If we can repel this invasion I have no apprehension 
of their making a second attempt It would be advisable to alarm 
Col'' Dabney* that he might use every precaution on his passage down 
till- River — 

'Charles Dabney was commissioned major of the Third Virginia Regi- 
ment, February 13, 1776, lieutenant colonel of the Second Virginia Regiment, 
February 16, 1778, retiring September 30, 1778. He served as colonel, Vir- 
ginia State Regiment, 1778-1781, and in 1781-1782 he commanded the Vir- 
ginia State Legion. In the fall of 1788 he served as a member of a board 
appointed to superintend the locating and surveying of the lands set apart 
for the Virginia troops. 


This inteligence hath occasioned us to alter our former plan of 
operation, and strengtlien ourselves by water as much as possible, 
as no Vessels they can bring across from the lakes will be able to face 
such as we can navigate the Ohio with, could we Get furnitures for 
them — Our dependance is in the exertions of Government of which 

we rest fully assured 

I have the Honour to be 

with the utmost respect 
Your Obed' Servi 

G. R. Clark. 

Col' Davis I 

(To Benj. Harrison, Governor of Virginia.) 
From G. R. Clark) 

John Floyd to Clark, March 8, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J9.— A. L. S.l 

Beargrass 8"' March 82 
Dear Gen^ 

I have seen the Field Officers & most of the Captains of Militia 
of tin's County since I rec^' your Orders so that I expect the propor- 
tion you call for will Rendezvous at Fort Nelson by time you men- 

It is not in my power at this time to return you the Lists, but 
wc have 370 privates exclusive of those at the Garrisons about the 
Salt Works wlio are not Enrolled for want of an Officer ; tlicy iiav- 
ing all removed since our Last appointment. 

What shall 1 do with such little remote settlem'' as Hardens? 
I hear they have only fourteen men. 

I have seen no person yet, qualified for the purpose of Boat- 
building," except old AP Asturgus who seems willing & even desir- 
ous of Building one, but has no person about him to wait on his 
Wounded Son, & to do the drudgery about his plantation. I wish 

'For the construction of the armed row galleys, see ante, xxxv-xixvi. 


you cou'd get him, as he appears to understand every part of the 

It will I find be a great mortification to the Inhabitants in gen- 
eral, if no Post is erected on the Ohio above the Falls. 

M' Pyatt I find has a great desire of having some command on 
Board one of those Vessels, & says he can engage some volunteers; 
if so, & you shou'd think him a proper person, perhaps it might 
answer to employ him in some Business of this kind, otherwise he 
means to remove to S' Vincenne. I am not well acquainted with 
Mf Pyatt but have been frequently applied to, to solicit you in his 
favour ; therefore hope you'll excuse the liberty I have taken on that 

And am Dear General your most obed' 
and very hble Serv' 

Jn Flo yd 

Addressed: The Honble Brigadier Gen' Clark Fort Nelson 

Endorsed: Col Floyd 8"' March 82 

John Evans to Benjamin Harrison, March 9, 1782 
[Cal. of I'a. State Papers, 3:89-90.] 

John Evans, County Lieutenant to Gov: Harrison. 

Monongalia County March 9th, 1782. 
"Dr Sir, 

"The murders commited on our Frontiers at such a time of the 
year, and the repeated applications of our Suffering Inhabitants, 
Occations me to trouble your Honour, praying that our Situation 
may be taken, under Consideration as we are few in number and 
much Exposed. Our fronteers are so Extensive that the few in- 
habitants there Settled are so scattering that the Enemy murder one 
part before the others can be alarmed to come to their assistance. 
Since the State of Pennsylvania have taken place the poor Residue 
of Virginia are all fronteers. 

The prayer of the people is that a company or two of Militia 
may be Ordered to their Relief, otherwise they will be under the 
necessity of vacating the Country — Colo. Clarke's Expedition fall- 


ing through, and so many men falling into the Enemies hands have 
encouraged them so that they are constant in our County — the 
Strength of our militia docs not Exceed three Hundred and fifty 
nnd tiicm settled at least Eighty miles in length, x x x 

X X X I have forbore running the State to the Expcncc of 
paying an Express and troubling your Honour 'till I find it will do 
no longer — the murders committed were early in February when 
the People were under no apprehension of the Enemy's being in our 
County. The express I hope may be paid for this trouble and Ex- 
pence, as I was much put to it to git one, times being so precarious. 
I have the Honour to be with due Respect 


John Floyd to John Crittenden, March 22, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J10.— A. L. S.] 

22'' March 1782 
Dear Major. 

My Brother who goes with the Draughts from Beargrass is a 
young & entirely inexperianced Officer & now on his first tour. 
Therefore any Instruction you'll please to give him so as not to 
stagger out of the Line of his duty he will receive kind at your 
Hands. I'm informed by Chenowith that the Men ordered for duty 
from his Comp'' refuse to march. I much wish a Guard of Regu- 
lars Commanded by a Determined & reasolute Officer to command 
the party to be ordered out to conduct them to head Quarters. I 
refer the Gen' to young Crawford a Gen' Volunteer for further 
information, whom I sent to caution those chaps against disobcdiance 
of orders. I am with much esteem your 

Perplexed Friend & most ob' Serv' 

Jn Floyd 
Addressed: Major John Crittenden Fort Nelson 
Endorsed: From Col» To Majr Crittenden Rec'' 22'* March 1782. 


Col. William Davies' to Benjamin Harrison, March 23, 1782 
[Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3:108-109.] 

War Office March 23d 1782. 

I received yesterday from Genl: Clarke, a letter of the 1 8th of 
last month. He is very anxious to be joined by Colo: Dabney, and 
represents that the infantry of the new legion altho' not very numer- 
ous, would be of infinite service to his operations, and if they should 
reacli him by the first of June, he hopes they will be sufficient to 
turn the scale. He writes in a very urgent manner for the Cannon 
your Excellency promised him, but at all events, he says he must 
have two brass four-pounders. The piece he has is a three-pounder, 
and this he represents to be too heavy. I am therefore apprehensive 
that the four pounder we have will be of no service to him, as they 
are all of them old fashioned heavy French pieces, and weigh nearly 
as much as the common six-pounders. H there are any here be- 
longing to the Continent, it perhaps might be as well to take them, as 
your Excellency has agreed to the exchange of our battering Cannon 
for lighter. Genl : Clarke writes also for rigging &c. for boats, and 
adds that without them he cannot execute his designs; and that un- 
less he receives considerable supplies by June, the consequences may 
be fatal to the Country. How to transport these various articles, 
together with the clothing appears to me a difficulty not easily over- 
come. Genl : Clarke seems to think it best, if Col : Dabney 's in- 
fantry is sent, that they should go down the Ohio with the whole 
of the supplies of every kind, and there are boats belonging to the 
State now lying in the Red Stone in Monongalia: if Col: Dabney 
cannot reinforce him the General desires that every thing that can 
be sent him, and particularly the two brass four pounders, may go by 
Holston on cars made for the purpose, with a small escort through 
the wilderness. Mr. Carny, however thinks it impossible. Genl: 
Clarke recommends this gentleman as very serviceable to him. He 
attends your Excellency with this Letter and perhaps may afford 
some information. I shall be happy to receive your further orders, 
and have the honor to be. 

Your Excellency's 

most humble Servant" 

'William Davies, son of Samuel Davies, a cler(;yman, left Princeton In 
T765 and entered the army, becoming inspector general under Steuben in 
■ 778. lie was aftervvardsi In the auditor'!* oIKce in Kichnioiid. 


Governor Harrison to Clark, March 24, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, Va. State Archives.] 

In Council March 24''' 1782 

Your favor of the iS"" ult" was delivered yesterday. Our cir- 
cumstances as to money matters are as wretched as they were when 
I wrote to you by Major Crittendon, and will continue so 'til the 
fall, when I hope our prospects will brighten greatly. I am nl;id 
the people are pleased to hear, Government intend to be punctual 
in their money engagements; if they give credit to it why are you 
in want of necessaries? A moments reflection would shew them 
that it was much more to their advantage to wait a few months for 
payment and then receive hard money, which all the world allows 
to be a proper medium of Trade, than to receive Trash immedi- 
ately that will not be worth half tiie sum before they can lay it out 

1 will use every means in my power to forward to Fort Pitt the 
Artillery' and necessaries for the Gun boats. Brass Field pieces 
such as you want I fear cannot be procured. We have only four 
left and those are old fashioned long guns that weigh as much as 
inodern iron sizes. Our only chance of getting them is from the 
Continent, which I have directed Col" Davies to attempt. If wc 
obtain them they shall be forwarded with the other things, it being 
impossible to send them to you by Land of which Mr Carny wiil 
satisfy you. 

The Plan of obtaining hard money from Orleans might be a 
good one if flour w.ns plenty and could be got on easy terms, but 
there are other difficulties and dangers, that I foresee you will have 
to encoimter which will render the plan abortive. 

Col" Davies was wrong in even hinting to you a probability of 
Col° Dabney's Legion being sent to your assistance. His whole 
Corps does not exceed two hundred and fifty men and these have 
our extensive coasts to guard. We have at present a large Body of 
French amongst us, but they must soon leave us on some offensive 
operations, when we shall be left to defend ourselves. How in- 
competent we are to this in our present situation last years experi- 
ence teaches us. 

I shall say nothing on the subject of offensive operations in your 

^jE^ealogical society 




quarter. The Assembly have interdicted it, which is a sufficient in- 
junction of silence to me. They meet early in May, when it is 
probable they will again take up the subject. 

I shall most readily communicate my Sentiments to you on any 
matters that may occur, and shall be glad to hear from you by every 
convenient opportunity. 

I am &« 

Benj Harrison. 

William Davies to Governor Harrison, March 25, 1782 
[Cal. of Fa. State Paperi, 3:110.] 

Col: Davies to the Governor. 

War Office March 25th 1782 

There are Six 6-pounders, and four 3s, all of brass, belonging to 
the Continent, now at manchester. The three pounders will prob- 
ably answer Genl : Clarkes purpose fully, though I suppose he will 
not require more than two of them, especially as by the order of 
Council, all of his regular troops are to be consolidated into two 
Companies of Infantry. I mention this the more particularly, as 
I shall send out the order of Council by Mr. Carny, and unless the 
Executive make some alterations in it, Genl : Clarke will be obliged 
to dismiss all his Officers of Artillery, and those of the infantry will 
be incapable of managing the pieces properly, at least 'till this cam- 
paign is over, and probably they will not understand their business 
until then. The other three-pounders at manchester, will answer 
extremely well for Captain Roane's company in the regular legion, 
and are much better adapted to the nature of a light Corps, than the 
licavy pieces we have of our own. As no application of mine to 
the Continental Commissaries of military Stores will be effectual to 
procure them, I must beg the favour of your Excellency to give an 
Order for them, should you approve of the measure. 
I have the honor to be, &c" 



Benjamin Harrison to Col. Isaac Zane,' March 25, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1781, p. 84.] 

CoL° Isaac Zane. 

In Council March 25"' 1782 

Wc arc called on by Gen' Clark for an immediate Supply of 
Artillery, and the necessary Stores for them to fit out four gun 
boats, and have no resource or means of complying with the request, 
but in your patriotism, which I hope and trust is top great to suffer 
a disappointment, particularly as the Defence and safety of the 
Country about the Ohio, in a great measure depend on it. The 
expense will not be great as four Carronades, howitzers or four pound 
cannon, and a few swivels and the different kinds of shot are all 
that is wanted and your Assistance to have them transported to red- 
stone Creek when ready The bearer will accompany them and stay 
in your neighborhood for that purpose. I need not tell you that 
the Treasury is at present without Cash. You know that too well, 
but I will assure you of being paid as soon as we are able which will 
be in the fall. I refer you to Col° Davies who will also write you 
a more particular Account of what is wanted. I am &c 

Benj Harrison 

William Davies to Clark, April 6, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J12. — L. S.] 

War office, April 6"' 1782 

Sir, I take this opportunity of acknowledging the receipt of your 

letter by M'' Carney. I have been labouring to afford you every 

assistance which an almost empty treasury could enable us to do. 

To you who know the difficulties which attend the support of such 

' Colonel Isaac Zane, son of a man of the same name who had come lo 
Frederick County, Virginia, from Pennsylvania, established a foundry at 
Cedar Creek near the present village of Marlboro. He soon became an 
important member of the community, residing at his works only part of the 
time and living sometimes at Stephensburg, sometimes at Winchester. He 
was an ardent patriot, and was a member of the Virginia conventions of 
1775 and 1776, also of the first general assembly meeting at Williamsburg 
under the new constitution of 1776. He was commissioned colonel of the 
Virginia line but apparently did not serve in the field, his iron works being 
of great importance to the army. He was a member of the assembly again 
in 1785, and of the Virginia convention of 1788 which ratified the con- 
stitution. He died in 1795, leaving a large estate. 



distant operations, I need not recount the thousand obstructions 
which unavoidably interfere, but when the consideration occurs of 
the total want of money, you must form very moderate expectations 
of the assistance we shall be able to afford. I have, however, had 
the good fortune to procure for you two light brass three pounders 
one hundred and fifty coats, a iiundred pair of overalls, two hun- 
dred shirts, about the same number of stockings, double the quantity 
of shoes and a parcel of hats. I cannot ascertain any of the articles 
with exactness, as many of them are to be collected on the rout 
between Richmond and Red Stone, as it was impracticable to send 
them to you by land, &, indeed, as it is, we shall leave the other 
troops exceedingly distressed, as we shall be obliged to deprive them 
of .ilmost every waggon to get the stores to Red Stone. 

I have wrote to Col' Zane and so has the Governor for some 
light howitzer carronades for the gun boats, as they are certainly 
the best for your purpose. As for rigging I am unable to give you 
much hopes. We are at a loss to ascertain how much would answer 
your purpose but the principal difficulty is how to procure it. We 
must, however, send you some of the canvass we have, which I fear 
is too thick, and we must add, if we can possibly get it at Winchester, 
or Fort Pitt, some thinner or strong country linnen. I wish it had 
been in our power to afford you more substantial support but by 
some inattention in the Assembly, by one general inadvertent ex- 
pression in a law passed at the close of the session, they destroyed 
the whole fund of tobacco, upon which alone the Commercial Agent 
founded his contracts; and as by their revenue act no money will 
get into the treasury before November, you may judge of the ex- 
treme poverty of our situation. In my letter by Major Crittenden 
I intimated that my good wishes should not be wanting to give you 
at least a part of Colonel Dabney's Legion, as a reinforcement. 
Government, however, think it an impracticable expedient, as tlie 
state would be entirely defenceless upon the movement of tiie French 
troops, which we may expect will shortly take place. It will be 
unnecessary in me to request your particular attention to the preser- 
vation of the cloathing I shall send. I know from long experience 
in service, that a rigid severity towards the officers for the neglects 
of their men is the only mode to preserve the men in any tolerable 


order. I hope you will pardon the observation, as from every ac- 
count, some of the inferior officers in their detached commands 
through that extensive country, have, I fear, taken the advantage 
of their remote situation from your immediate presence, and suf- 
fered the most ruinous waste and abuses to take place. I am the 
more solicitous on this head, as I can assure you, the readiness with 
which the future supplies for the western country will be furnished, 
must unavoidably be governed by the prudence and oeconomy mani- 
fasted in their expenditure, and the care and punctuality in their 
preservation and in the settlement of their accounts. Sliould you 
be able to find a leisure moment occasionally, I must beg the favor 
of you to exercise your authority in making every military depart- 
ment lay a full and distinct account of their whole conduct before 
you, for it is a great deal better to prevent a mischief than to punish 
it. Mr Carney tells me, that it is not usual for the Commissaries 
to demand receipts for the articles they issue, but look upon the 
orders as their vouchers. I told M'' Carney I should suggest this 
matter to you, that a stop might be put to this practice, which opens 
the door to every imposition. In the Continental army, indeed, we 
carry our precautions so far as not to admit figures in receipts, but 
the whole must be expressed in letters, and signed by some commis- 
sioned officer, whenever it can be done with propriety. 

Inclosed arc several papers of consequence to the arrangements 
of the different corps under your command. The Assembly have, 
you will observe, ordered that some discrimination should be made 
between such supernumerary officers as have misbehaved or been in 
service for a short time, and those who have been meritorious. Many 
have withheld themselves from duty and conducted themselves in 
such a manner as to make it proper that a trial should pass upon 
them before they are to be admitted to the emoluments of super- 
numerary officers. I must request you to take the most proper 
mode for pointing out such, as also to have the design of the in- 
closed papers executed, as far as your circumstances will possibly 
admit and make a report to me. 

M'' Carney has been extremely diligent and faithful to you, and 
seems most zealously disposed to promote your interest and that of 
the troops under your command, and has been extremely servicable 


in procuring the stores. I have directed Colonel Todd to apply all 
the specifics, or the money arising from the sale of them, as you 
shall think best for the interest of the service. 
I am, Sir, with great respect 

your most obed Serv' 

William Davies. 
Addressed : Gen. Clarke 

Commanding on the Ohio 
"Rec" July 20'" 82 (Pr) Maj. Walls." 

John Floyd to John May, April 8, 1782 

[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives.] ' 

Jefferson the 8th of April 1782. 
Dear Sir. 

The Savages began their Hostilities early in February, and are 
constantly ravaging the most Interior parts of the County, which 
makes it impossible for any one Settlement to assist another. Even 
the populous parts of Lincoln are infested, & from the Number of 
Horses already taken off by them, it is notorious to every capacity 
that their design is, to disable the Inhabitants from removin);, untill 
their present intended Campaign from Detroit against Fort Nelson 
can be carried into effect. This design is communicated to us thro' 
three different channels, & so well authenticated tiiat it can not be 
doubted : and the Conduct of the Enemy ever since last Fall coin- 
cides exactly with the Information. One fourth of the Militia is 
called for by Gen' Clark for the purpose of Fortifying the Fort 
against a Seige; but from the immediate danger in which every one 
conceives his own Family, the Authority of Militia Officers at such 
a distance from Governm' growing every day weaker & weaker, and 
the new invented Ideas of a Separate State, calculated on purpose 
for disaffection & an Evasion of duty, are so many causes to retard 
this necessary Business, and seems to threaten us on all sides with 
Anarchy, Confusion, & I may add Destruction. But even to sup- 

' I secured this letter in Richmond but the original is not now in the 
files. It is printed in CatenJar of I'irginia Slate Papers, 3:121-122, but has 
been over-edited. 


pose that tlie Works can be completed before tlie Arrival of tlie 
Enemy, it is tlicn impossible tiiat Gen' Clark with the inconsider- 
able number of Troops He now has can defend it: and a Dependance 
on Militia scattered over three extensive Counties under the Cir- 
cumstances before mentioned, is depending upon a very great un- 
certainty; especially when the Enemy have all the advantages of a 
heavy Current from high up the Miamia to the very place of their 
destination, they can float from the Mouth of that River to the 
Falls in less than thirty Hours. And to suppose that our Spies 
should discover their approach as high up as Miamia, it will then 
take eight days at least before we can be collected if we were under 
the Strictest Military Subordination. Should no reinforcements 
arrive in May, & if Gen' Clark be obliged to Evacuate his post 
rather than suffer such a Quantity of Military Stores to fall into 
the Hands of the Enemy, and the whole Indian Army let loose 
among the scattered Inhabitants unprepared to receive them, what 
must be the Consequence? Is it not evident that the whole must 
fall a Sacrifice? As a Means of averting the Storm which is gather- 
ing against us, & preventing those fatal Consequences, your imme- 
diate Interposition with the Legislative Body & with the Governor 
& Council ; is now called for by every Inhabitant of Jefferson County. 
This is our last Effort ; and your Exertions on this Occasion may 
possibly save our Families from the Hands of merciless Savages. 

You are sensible from your own knowledge of this AVestorn 
Country that no place can be better calculated for the purpo.-.e of 
carrying on the Indian War against (if I may use the Expression) 
the Interior Frontiers of this State than the Falls of the 
Ohio. Its Situation is exactly centrical to the Northern, South- 
ern, & Western Tribes. The distance to Holston, Clinch, New 
River, Green lirier, &c very trifling. Their Supplies already here 
provided, & the Communication to the British Posts in Canady very 
safe and easy. I would further observe that if this Country must 
be laid waste, which nothing but an early reinforcement or an Acci- 
dent can prevent ; those Settlements above mentioned must once more 
experience the disadvantages of a Savage War, & must contend with 
more than ten times the Number which have heretofore visited their 
Borders — One who is unacquainted with the true Situation of this 


County, & also with me, might probably conclude that those reflec- 
tions might proceed from Timidity. But you are acquainted with 
both and can Judge whether it is so or not. 

Our whole strength at this Time is three hundred & seventy 
Men, and who according to the best calculations I can make, have 
about Eight Hundred & fifty helpless Women & Children to take 
care of, & very generally deprived of every possible means of remov- 
ing back to the Settlement. 

This is at present as just a State of this County as I am able to 
give you, only I omitted to mention that this number of men were 
exclusive of the small remains of the Illinoise Regement. Who am 
Dear Sir with much respect your very hble Serv'' 

Jn Fi-OVD 
To John May Esq — .. — .. — 

William Davies to Clark, April lo, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J17.— A. L. S.l 

War Office Apr. lo 82. 
Sir — I had the honor to write you a few days ago by M'' May a 
duplicate of which I have sent by your brother. I now embrace 
this opportunity to inform you that M'' Carney has completed, tho' 
in a partial manner, the principal objects of his journey, and I have 
been able to send you a little of almost every thing you wrote for, 
except men. I must refer you to him for information on many 
points which perhaps you may wish to enquire about, and shall con- 
fine myself at this time to suggest to you that from the impossibility 
of transporting the travelling carriages of the three pounders we 
have been obliged to forward to you no more than the trails and 
hind wheels. This I came into the sooner, because by shortening 
the trail and fastening the shafts to it, and by having tile ammuni- 
tion boxes made longer and deeper but narrower, you will be able 
to spare a great part of the axle tree, so as to have the wheels a 
great deal closer together ; by which means you will make it very 
easy for one horse to draw, as well as much more convenient for 
the woods, than when there were four wheels and those much wider 
apart, from the axle trees' being so much longer. The pieces which 
General Morgan had with his light infantry were fitted in the man- 


ner I propose, and, were infinitely more convenient than in any otlier 

As a preat part of the exorbitant expenditures in the western 
country has arisen from the licentious practices and abuse of power 
exercised by coniniandini; ofliccrs of separate posts, under the mis- 
taken idea that their (luality of commandant entitled them to order 
and dispose of the stores at their posts as they should think best, I 
must beg leave to suggest that the low state of our finances at pre^- 
ent will not admit of any such pretensions in the officers under you, 
and I must request that you will issue the most pointed instructions 
to restrain any such unwarrantable claims, and to put it out of the 
power of the commanding officer to draw from the magazines a 
single article, but what by a previous estimate of your own, you 
may think necessary for the maintenance of the post; and even of 
those stores, which you may think proper to subject to this order, 
it will be highly necessary to make frequent scrutiny as to the appli- 
cation and propriety of distribution. 

These steps are taken in all armies in a greater or lesser degree, 
and in no part of the world can it be more necessary than in your 
remote situation — I wish you every success in the midst of your 
difficulties. I beg you to be assured of my desire to co-operate with 
you as far as inmy power. 

I have the honor to be witii respectful esteem 
your very obed Serv' 
William Davies 

John Neville' to Clark, April 14, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J18.— A. L. S.] 

WOODVILLE 14''' April 1782 

Dear General 

I arrived at Woodville The day you Lift Whclan [Wheeling] 
I was very sorry I had not the Pleasure of seeing you before set 
out upon your Expedition, and am also sorry you had to Deal with 
such a Set of Rascals as was is in this Part of the Country I mean 
the leading men of Washington a[nd] Westmoreland Counties, 

'Colonel John Neville accompanied Washington on the expedition witli 
Drnddock and afterward>i settled in the West near Pittsburch. During the 
Revolution he served as colonel of the Fourth Virginia Regiment. 


Who I am informed did every thing in their power to prevent your 
Campaign, I have had at least forty Quarrels on the subject some- 
times they made you a Flour Marchant at Other times a Land 
Jober and Trader for the State of Virginia &c &c — and tho I am 
unfortunate enough to fall in to Pensylvania I shall Live and Die 
in the Interest of Virginia, They have brought a number of Suits 
in Washington Court ag' Col- Cox for his assistance to you and it 
was once expected he would be ruined, but two or three suits are 
determined in his favor, wiiicli periiaps will he :i precedent for the 
rest Those very people who refused to go with you turned out in 
lar^e bodies this winter and kill'd ninty odd of the poor Moravian 
Indians," the Greatest part women and Cliildren, and anotiicr party 
fell on the Indians at Fort pitt and put (ivc to ncath and wounded 
the sixth who is since Dead and now threatens Col" Gibson bis 
Squaw and Children I am now the very Frontier and expect a 
very Troublesome Summer — 

M" Nevill rec^ your kind Letter from Whelan and is Greatly 
Obliged to you for the friendly Advice you Gave her, and found 
the Times Turned out Just as you Mentioned — your IJrotlicr and 
my pcrticular Friend Jon" is Married to Miss Hite I hope he may 
be as happy as any man in the world he justly Merits it — Should 
you ever Come into this Quarter again I hope wtthout ceremony 
you will make my Cottage your home for be assured my Dear Gen- 
eral no man Regards the name of Clarke more than my self M™ 
Nevill and the Girls present their Compliments to you and Except 
the Same 

your Hum.Ser' John Nevill 
Addressed: The Honb'* Brig^'' Gen' George Clark 
Favored by Capt Oldham. 

John Floyd to Clark, April 15, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J19.— A. L. S.l 

15th April 1782 
Dear General 

Agreeable to your wish I've sent for M"" M'^Gee who will be 
conveyed to you to day by Cap' Whittaker. I wish to know your 

' For the attack on the Moravian Indians, see ante xxxvli-xxxix. 


determination with regard to his Tryal whether by Regular or 
Militia Officers I think the Act you have mentions that Militia 
are to be tried by Militia Officers tho' I wish you to act in the 
Matter as you think best. I've sent you all the Letters or Ans'' 
I can get from Col' Cox. but I have reason to believe this Affair 
will have a very good effect on the Minds of People in that Quarter. 

I am D Gen' yours affectionately 

JN Floyu 

Addressed: Honblc Gen' Clark I"" Nelson Cap' Whittakcr 

Endorsed: Col. Floyd ig'" Ap» 

John Touu, Jr.. to Hkn'jamin Harrison, April 15, 1782 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.]' 

Lexington 15th April 1782 
May it please your Excellency 

The Inhabitants of Fayette County have been so harrassed this 
Spring by the Indians that I was for some time apprehensive that 
the whole County w'' be evacuated as panicks of that Kind have 
proved very catching and the fate of the Neighbouring Garrisons 
at Licking last year was fresh in their Minds. The only plan I 
could devise to prevent it & sufficiently secure the provisions laid up 
at Bryants & this place was to build a new Fort upon a very advan- 
tageous Situation at this jilacc & make it proof against Swivels & 
small Artilery which so terrify our people. I laid off the Fort upon 
the simplest plan of a Quadrangle & divided the work equally among 
four of the most pushing men with a Bastion to each autliori/.ing 
them to employ Workers from this & the neighbouring Stations S: 
assuring them of their pay myself. On the Faith of such assurances 
considerable Sums of Money have been lent & advanced to the \Vork- 
meti so that the Work in about 20 Days has been nearly completed 
in a Workman like manner The Gate is nearly finished & the 
Magazine contracted for. The whole Expence amounts to 
£11,341.10 as will appear by the Account herewith sent. It is in 
vain for me to assure your Excellency that Diligence & Oeconomy 
has been be [sir] used in this Business as the Work so abuntlay 

'This letter Is printed in Calendar of f'irt/inia Slate Papers, 3:1 30- 131, 
with punctuation edited. 


proves it I believe four times the Expence never before made for 
the publick a Work equal to this. An Emulation among the Over- 
seers & Rewards in Liquors to the Men proved powerful Incentives 
to Industry. Being a Charge of an uncommon Nature I thought 
proper to present it to your Excellency & the Council being better 
Judges of the Necessity & Expediency of the Work than the Audit- 
ors, who are probably unacquainted with the Circumstances of this 

By either of our Delegates your Excellency May have an Oppor- 
tunity of transmitting the Money 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest respect your Excel- 

Mo. obedient & humble Servant 
Jn" Todd jr 

John Floyd to Clark, April 17, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J20.— A. L. S.] 

17th April 1782 
Dear General. 

I shall in consequence of your Letter Order a Court Martial 
to sit at Fort Nelson on Saturday next, for the Tryal of M^'Gee & 
others; I have found Law enough I believe to inflict all the punish- 
ment he deserves. 

I shall send for Mundal to day. I shall also send another party 
over Salt River on Monday next, as there are yet two Gent some 
where about the Rolling Fork who must take shelter (if you please) 
in your Guard House for a few days. I am glad you mentioned the 
Spies as I am anxious to have them sent out, & will try before I 
come down on Saturday, who will undertake the Business that may 
be depended on; your Bond will not be refused. I think Cap' 
Owens at the Falls would answer the purpose of one exactly if will 
go. I am Dear Gen' with the utmost 

regard your most Ob^' & very 
hble Serv' 

Jn Floyd 

Addressed: General Clark at Fort Nelson By Serjeant Ross 

Endorsed: Co' Floyd 17"" Ap' 1782. 

Virginia Treasury, April 22, 1782 

[Cal. of I'a. Slate Papers, 3:133.] 

War Office, April 22d, 1782. 

Col: Davies informs the Executive that Major Harding is will- 
iiif; to supply boats 011 the Oiiio for Gcnl : Clarke, if the nidiicy 
can be furnished to pay for them. The Governor replies from the 
Council Chamber, "I am sorry to inform you that we have but 4.S. 
in the Treasury, and no means of getting any more." 

John Montgomery to George Webb, April 23, 1782 
[Va. State Library.— A. L. S.]' 

Richmond, April 23, 1782 

Agreeable to your Request I have over looket my rccets and find 
onlay two Rcccpts for Uills of Exchange drawn on Mr. OUivcr 
polick tlic one in favour of Mr. Lx;fat)g the first to the amount of 
three tiiousand five hundred dollars and there Apcars to be yet two 
otiicr Bills drawn on the treasury of Virginia for This the one in 
favour of Mr. pcrault in behalf of Oliver polick for which I Refer 
you to Capt John Dodges Bookes where you will see tiie amount 
of the Articles & the Use the were applied to the amount of Betwixt 
Eight and nine thousand Dollars at which time the trupcs must 
Either Avacuated the Cuntrey and run the Risk of Starving on 
their gunney if I had not a maid that purchas. The other in favour 
of Mr. Molvost to the amount of upward of three thousand Dol- 
lars the Exct Sum I Cant Certify By the Reason I had the Alis- 
fortune to Loose the Acount By Being oversit in the Masecipi. the 
Reason of my giving the Bill in favour of Molvost I was ordered 
to go in an expedition to Opee one hundred and forty Leagues By 
orders from General Clark where I was obliged to purchase Botes 
& provision for three hundred and fifty men & could not Git them 
on Eny other tarms, you may think hard of the Bill Being so high 
But notwithstanding the Sum we were Constrained to eate our 
Horses on our Return after fasting five days. 

Wiiicli I did Chcrfuley in behalf of my Cuntrey Had I made 

'Printed in Alvord, Kaskaskia Records (I. tl. C, 5), 197-198. 


a forton in the time people mout had Reason to Suspected me But 
to the Contreary I have spent one or at least my all But am in 
hopes to Be Eable to Live a poor and privet Life after wards, it 
is now almost fore years That I have not Receive one shilling from 
Coverment Not Withstanding I advanced Every Shilling I had 
& strancd my Credit till it Became Shred Bear Ralhcr than draw 
Bills on the State Still in hopes of som fund Being sent to seport 
the trupes But at Last was Compeld to it. I now ow two hun- 
dred pounds in the Illinois Which they have my obligation for for 
the seport of the trups that was Left under my Command, there 
will apear a Large number of Bills drawn Which Mentions so 
much money advanced me for the Recruiting Sarvis the Bounty 
for one hundred men at Seven hundred and fiftey dollors Each 
Agrcable to an act of Asembley for which I hope will Be Honoured 
as the Men are now for during the War and Bills drawn for pro- 
visions I have sent you an abstract By Major Crittinpton This I 
Certify to be a trew State of the mater And if aneything Else a pears 
it must Be a counterfit and I have the honour sir to Be your humble 

[,Itl/iressefi :] Honb. George Webb 

Arthur Campbell to William Davies, April 25, 1782 

[Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3:138.] 

Washington Co., April 25th, 1782. 

Your letter of the 4th Instant, with one of prior date from his 
Excellency the governor, came to hand, both of which discourage 
us in our operations against our Savage enemies. The want of 
money is a bad thing: but good advice from wise heads was at least 
expected. It is not the fault of the people, our being at war with 
the neighbouring Savages. They have struck the first blow, and 
are not going to desist until the terms of war are carried to their 
own Country. It is then only that they will be induced to sign 
a truce. 

The South Carolina men, with a determination that reflects 
honour on them, has lately penetrated the Indian Country on the 


sources of the Mobile. The last account received by a friendly 
Cherokee from the Tenassee, a large Detachment was in a critical 
situation: we were to have cooperated with them, which would 
have made the work easy: but for want of the energy of Govern- 
ment, we failed in our eflort. The Northward Indians has form'd 
an intercourse with the unfriendly Cherokees and continues their 
depredations, both on the frontiers of this and Montgomery County, 
leaving traces of real distress wherever their parties penetrates. In 
the Kentuckey County the scene is likely to be more bloody — - 

Genl : Clarke writes me that we will have a least one thousand 
more Indians added to our Enemies, this year than last, if measures 
are not taken early this spring to divert or crush their confederacys. 
Pardon this intrussion ! I am insensibly led into discussions to men 
living in security, which may let affecting scenes pass with indiffer- 
ence. I have a predilection for my native Country. It hurts me 
sorely to licar her Government despised, and her citizens destroyed 
by the Enemy. 

I am Sir, with Esteem, your very h'ble Serv'nt." 

William Davies to Benjamin Harrison, April 27, 1782 

[Cat. of I'a. Slate Papers, 3:141.] 

Col: Davies to the Executive. 

War Office April 27tli 1782. 
Enclosing a letter from Genl: Clarke just to hand, directed 
"by Express" but "was picked up in tlic road," urging immediate 
attention to the "article of Boats" — &c referring also to a com- 
munication from Col: Dabney, in regard to Capt: Armistead, who 
will be very serviceable to him, "and is contented to wait till the 
County can pay him" for his services — 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, May 2, 1782 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Fort Nelson 2^ May 1782-- 


Inclosed is a copy of my last to Col° Davis, The apprehension 
of the designs of the Detroit Gentry on this Country is reduced 

'This letter is printed with some variations in Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers, 3:150- 


to a certainty. They have their eye on this and the Spanish Illinois, 
if they carry their point its consequence is obvious. We are taking 
every measure our policy dictate to us, to put the depar' in as good 
a position of defence as our circumstances will permit — A late con- 
fusion among the Inhabitants, occasioned, I believe by some Emis- 
saries from the Northward ; hath retarded our progress in business 
considerably: but by the extertions of many of the principal Officers 
of the Country that deserve credit, we are like to reduce the people 
to subordination, in short they begin to suspect those that first con- 
fused them was their greatest Enemies: I believe in a short time 
it will be dangerous for a man to speak of New Government in 
this Quarter, except among a small party of blackguards, The body 
of the people now seem to be allarmed for fear Virginia will give 
up their interest — There is a formidable fortress that will soon 
be compleated at this post, but my greatest dependence is in block- 
ing up the Ohio at the mouth of Miami with Gallies: we have 
two Gondolas ready to mount, and a Gaily on the Stocks that will 
be furnislied in about twenty days, that I think will do the business'. 
She is seventy three feet Keel, calculated for the Navigation of the 
Ohio, to have forty oars, one hundred and ten Men; one six, six 
fours and a two pounder is her proposed metal : We liave great 
dependence on the Cannon you promised us arriving in time, have 
lately received some encouraging reports respecting them — We 
arranged our business on as small a Scale as possible to promise 
success — You may judge from your own circumstances the Citua- 
tion of our Credit — If the Country can be saved from the impend- 
ing blow, a rememberance of our past anxiety and trouble will give 
plcsure — Let our fate be what it will, I flatter myself that your 
Excellency will find that your business has been well attended to 
in this Quarter — If we should be so fortunate as to repel this in- 
vasion without too great a loss to ourselves the Indians will all 
scatter to their different Countries and give a fair oppertunity for 
a valuable stroke to be made among them — if you was to think 
it advisable to order about five hundred Militia from Washington 
and Montgomery Counties to rendezvous at Kentucky the first of 
July, it might probably be attended with valuable consequences — ■ 
Their fate depends on that of this Country, and I should suppose 


good policy wou'd require a body of them should immediately march 
to the support of this — My last letter will give you a full Idea 
of the Indian department, the body of Indians on the Ouabache 
have not yet declared War, I expect it to take place at the Grand 
Council this month at the Ouian - - [Ouiatenon] 

I am 

Sir. with the utmost respect 
Your Obed' Serv' 

G R Clark 
His Excellency ihe Governour 
OF Virginia 

Benjamin Harrison to the House of Burgesses, May 6, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, Va. State Archives.] 

In Council May 6, 1782 
- - - General Clarke by his last Letters expects a powerful attack 
this Spring on Kentucky from Detroit; iiis information comes from 
Ilinois, and lie thinks it may be depended on. We have sent him 
Artillery & stores down the Ohio; I hope they will get to him in 
time, but in this as in everything else we have been greatly obstructed 
by our poverty. Tlie iniiabitants of Monongaiiela, Montgomery 
and Green Briar are in great distress; many families have been eitlicr 
killed or carried off, the earliness of tlie attack gives them reason 
to apprehend it is only a prelude to what they have to expect, & 
that tho' mischief has been done, it was rather by reconnoitring 
parties coming before a much more powerful invasion, than intended 
as anything serious, a sufficient number of men have been ordered 
out to protect tlie Country for the present, & more will be sent if 
there should be occasion. The expence attending these various 
parties will when brought into an aggregate sum amount to some- 
thing considerable & when the losses of our people are taken into 
the account probably to more than would have been sufficient, to 
have set on Foot, two or three expeditions against these restless 
savages & have answered the purpose of protecting the Country 
much more effectually. I do not think a just idea of the expence 
of carrying on such a war, can be formed from what has hitherto 
been done, where parade & ostentatious shew, seems to have pre- 


vailed, all which should be discountenanced, provision might be 
laid up in different parts of the Frontiers in the fall which could 
be procur'd in commutation for money taxes, when this was done 
a sufficient number of Militia could be marched to either or all of 
these posts in a very short time, to make a sudden attack on such 
nations of Indians as were tlie most troublesome, which repeated 
two or three times would bring them to reason or force them to 
quit their Country altogether and settle at so great a distance from 
us as to put it out of their power to annoy us much. I give this 
Opinion with diffidence, yet think it worthy of consideration. 
Your most obedient & most 
humble Servant 

Benj Harrison. 

John Floyd to Clark, May 12, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J21.— A. L. S.] 

May 1 2th 1782. 
Dear General. 

The Inhabitants of the Spring Station [are] so much alarmed 
by the late damage they have sustained by the Enemy that they 
think they cannot [plant] their Corn without a small Guard of 
about [AtS. torn] for one Week & they promise if you can [send] 
them so far that the Time shall be made [up] Working at the Fort 
after they finish planting 

I shall this Week have all the Houses in the Ncighbourliood 
searched for Hemp &' [71/5. loni] of some but the Quantity very 
inconsiderable; [hope to] receive a few lb from one of the Men who 
was [MS. torn] you for the Guard. I've employed some Hands 
to make Ropes of poppaw Bark which they assure me if properly 
managed is as good as Hemp ; at any rate I will have it tried & 
wish to know the [amount of] the Cordage Wanted. The Bark 
I am [told] must be ten days in Water before it is fit for use. 

I wrote to Col' Cox yesterday to hasten the militia over, I 
can't conceive what detains them so long. I have indulg'd those 
in this Quarter who is indigent untill [M5. torn] finishes planting 
but the next Tour I shall send a considerable reinforcem' 


FLOYD rO CLARK. JUNE 16, 1782 67 

I am desirous of seeing you & will try to come down towards 
the last of the Week, after a tryal is made to procure what Hemp 
is in the Neiglibourhood. 

I am Dear Gen' with perfect Esteem 

Your most Ob^' Serv' 
Jn Floyd 

John Floyd to Clark, June 16, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J2.— A. L. S.] 

i6th June, 1782 
De.^r General. 

Yours of to day I have received ; & shall in consequence of the 
Contents thereof, order one half of the Militia on Beargrass & at 
the Falls to your assistance to morrow, & to be relieved by the other 
half next Thursday Morning. I am under some embarrassment 
on this occasion having before hinted to some of the people that they 
would not be again ordered out untill each Division had served a 
Tour ; but as you observe the Necessity of finishing your Fortifi- 
cation is too obvious to admit of any Delay 

I am happy to hear that the Gaily is likely to ans'' your expec- 
tation. It will be no small addition to the safety of this Country. 
My Rope makers are slow, but the last they have made answers 
my expectation fully: about thirty Fathom P' day of good Cordage 
I think will be made untill we have enough. No discoveries of 
the Approach of the Enemy can be discovered about the Kentuckey 
or Drennens Lick or on the Ohio below. 

1 am Dear Gen' witii the lughcst 
esteem your most Ob'" 
and very hble Serv' 

Jn Floyd 
Addressed: Brigadier Gen' Geo. R. Clark Fort Nelson P' 

Endorsed: Col' Floyd dated 16'" June 1782 — 


James Monroe to Clark, June 26, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J23.— A. L. S.] 

Richmond June 26 1782 
Sir, I take y' liberty tho' a stranger to address a few lines to you 
to make an offer of a correspondence. The rank you hold in y' 
western country & the reputation you have deservedly acquir'd for 
ability & propriety of conduct in y° general manag'ment & direction 
of alTairs in that quarter, I candidly own are my motives to this 
proposal. I wish to correspond with you upon the gen' affairs of 
that country as well the means of supporting y« operations there, 
a detail of y' operations themselves with the principles & motives 
w^ severally lead to each, as the progress of society, y^ increase of 
settlements, y' ability of y« people to protect themselves, y« resources 
of y' country in every degree of produce or trade & the prospect 
they have of attaining y' rank at a future day of independence to 
w^ all generous & enterprising people aspire. As I have a par- 
ticular respect for y^ exertions of these people & admire & esteem 
them for that spirit of enterprise w'' lias so eminemtly distin(;uish'd 
them during y* progress & operations of tilings under you in that 
quarter & sho'' be happy to render them any service w^ my situa- 
tion in y' councils of y' state may put in my power, when well in- 
form'd of y» temper & tendency of things there, so as to iiave some 
fix'd principle to act on I have taken y' liberty to propose these sub- 
jects as the ground work of a correspondence. As I am altogether 
a stranger to you it may be necessary to inform you I am at present 
a member of y' Council & shall most probably continue in that office 
for three years. I have been educated to y' law & my interest & 
connections are at present in this part of y' country but have some 
thoughts of turning my attention toward y'' quarter & perhaps some- 
time hence removing thither myself. I wish our correspondence 
to be private & as it shall be on my part conducted with intire con- 
fidence in you, so I wish you to do it in confidence that I shall be 
happy from y' opinion I have of y'' merit to pay y' greatest atten- 
tion to whatever you may propose which may tend to promote 5'' 
publick interest & be honorable & advantageous to you. I shall 
not inform W May of my correspondence with you but believe 
he will be able to give you any information on my subject you wo'' 


wish to obtain. As I said above I wisli our correspondence to be 
private for y« particular regulation of w^ however I sliall expect 
some instructions from you with w^ I shall be happy to comply. 
I am with great respect & esteem yf 
very humble servant 
Ja' Monroe 
Addressed: Brig^ Geni Ge' Rogers Clarke 
commanding y' troops 
on y' western frontier 

Martin Carney to William Davies, July 5, 1782 
[_Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3 :2o6.] 

"Redstone Old Fort" July 5th 1782. 
About the i6th of June he rec'd his of the 2d May giving ac- 
count of the "dangerous situation that the Kentucky Country was 
in," by the incursions of the Enemy, but he could not have made 
more haste than he did, Iiad his own life been at stake. The Guard 
promised him by Col: Joseph Nevill of Hampshire Co. to go down 
the river, never came nor has he heard one word from him Since. 
Since his arrival at Redstone Fort he has been employed in drying 
and repacking tlic Stores damaged by the bad conduct of the 
Waggoners, in his absence. Major John Harden has built a flat 
bottomed Boat in which to proceed down the river, but neither 
Major Walls or Lieut. Clarke or himself have a penny of money, 
a pound of provisions, or a man to "pull an oar;" and it will be im- 
possible to move until the water rises. He will leave for the Falls 
of Olu'o at the earliest opportunity, but cannot risk the stores with- 
out further orders, having now to keep constant guard over them in 
person. Hopes assistance will soon be sent him. The Credit of 
the State worth nothing in that County, and but for Col: Hardiiis' 
furnishing him with provisions, he could not have subsisted. lie 
had sent to Pittsburg to Gcnl : Irwin for assistance, but Col: Wall 
just from that place failed to get the aid needed to forward the 
articles down the River. 


Clark to Captain Robert Patterson, July 5, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 32J1.— Copy.] ' 

Fort Nelson, s**" July, 1782. 

Yours came to hand yesterday pf the Express. I approve of 
your staying at the Lick on ace' of getting prov' The want of 
workmen has occasioned the delay of the Galley so long; however, 
she is nearly finish* at present, and will set off tomorrow evening 
for the m' of Kentucky. You will, therefore, repair to the Ohio, 
and move slowly down till you fall in with her. I shall send other 
instructions with the Galley, which renders any thing more at present 

I am. Sir, with respect. 

Your m» h* s\ 
(Signed) G. R. Clark 
Capt. Robert Patterson, on the Kentucky, p'' Express. 

'This document was contributed by Dr. Louise Phelps Kellogg of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society. 




1782 — AUGUST 6, 1782 

Organization for Crawford's Expedition at Fort Pitt — Defeat of Col- 
onel Crawford — Retaliatory Expedition Demanded by the Inhab- 
itant of the Upper Ohio. 

William Croghan* to William Da vies, July 6, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 11S61-65.] 

Fort Pitt, June [July] 6"', 1782. 
Dear Colonel: 

[Speaks of having been captured May 12"* 1780, at Charleston, 
& greatly wishes to be exchanged.]'' 

Gen. Irvine commands at this post, where he has so few Conti- 
nental troops (about 200 for duty) that 'tis not in his power to go 
from the garrison against the Indians, who are daily committing 
murders through tin's country. The Pennsylvania militia formed 
an expedition against the Indians about three months ago; but in- 
stead of going against the enemies of the country, they turned their 
tlioughts on a robbing, plundering, murdering scheme, on our well- 
known friends, the Moravian Indians, all of wliom they met they 
in the most cool and deliberate manner (after living with tliem ap- 
parently in a friendly manner for three days) men, women & ciiil- 
dren, in all ninety three, tomahawked, scalped & burned, except one 
boy, who after being scalped made his escape to the Delaware Indians 
(relations of the Moravians) who have ever since been exceeding 
cruel to all prisoners they have taken. 

About six weeks ago, 500 volunteers of this country, commanded 

'Major William Cioclian was n nephew of Colonel George CroRlmn 
who served as Indian agent under Sir William Johnson. At the outbreak 
of the Revolution, he was appointed captain of infantry in the Virginia 
Line. During 1778 he was promoted to the rank of major. lie was 
captured by the British at Charleston in 1780 but was paroled. In 1784 he 
went to Kentucky and shortly afterwards married Lucy, the sister of George 
Rogers Clark. 

'This summary appears in the copy of the document in the Draper MSS. 
The transcript is in Draper's handwriting. 



by (our old) Colonel William Crawford, went on an expedition 
against the Indian towns' the men behaved amiss (were coward- 
ly) no more than about lOO having fought the Indians, who came 

out from their towns to meet them the firing continued at long 

shot with rifles for near two days the second evening our party 

broke off & retreated in the most disorderly manner Colonel 

Crawford and a few others, finding the men would pay no atten- 
tion to orders, were going on coolly in the rear, leaving the road 
in case the Indians should pursue, until the second day when they 
tliought they might venture on the road, but before they had marched 
two miles, a body of Indians fell in between them and the rear of 
the party, & took them prisoners. We had no certainty of this 
unhappy affair until yesterday, when Doctor Kniglit, who was taken 
with Crawford, came into the garrison in the most deplorable con- 
dition man could be in and be alive. He says that the second day 
after they were taken, they were carried to an Indian town, stripped 
and tlicn blacked, and made to march through the Indians, wlien 
men, women, & children beat them with clubs, sticks, fists, &c., in 
the most cruel manner. Col' Crawford and the Doctor were con- 
fined together all night; the next day they were taken out, blacked 
again, and their hands tied behind their backs, when Col. Crawford 
was led by a long lope to a high stake, to the top of which tiie rope 
about the Colonel was tied ; all around the stake a great quantity 
of red hot coals were laid, on which the poor Colonel was obliged 
to walk barefoot, and at the same time the Indians firing squibs of 
powder at him, while others poked burning sticks on every part of 
his body; thus they continued torturing him for about two hours, 
when he begged of Simon Girty, a white renegade who was standing 
by, to shoot him, when the fellow said "Don't you see I have no 

gun." Some little time after they scalped him, & struck him on 

the bare scull several times with sticks. Being now nearly exhausted, 
he lay down on the burning embers, when the squaws put shovels 
full of coals on his body, which, dying as he was, made him move 
and creep a little. The Doctor was obliged to stand by and see 
tlic cruelty performed. Wiien the Colonel was scalped, they slapped 
the scalp over the Doctor's face, saying "This is your great Captain's 

' For Colonel Crawford's expedition, see ante, xxxix ff. 


scalp; to-morrow wc will serve you so." The Doctor was to be 
served in the same manner in another town some distance off ; and 
on his way to his place of torment he passed by where Col. Craw- 
ford's dead body had been dragged to & burned, & saw his bones. 
Tlic Doctor was guarded by but one Indian, who seemed pretty 
kind to him; on the way the Indiati wanted a fire made, and untied 
the Doctor, ordering him to make it. The Doctor appeared willing 
to obey, and was collecting wood till he got a good chunk in his 
hand, with which he gave the Indian so severe blow as levelled 
him; the Indian sprang up, but seeing the Doctor seize his gun, he 
ran away ; the Doctor could not get the gun ofl, otherwise would 
have shot the Indian. He steered through the woods, and arrived 
here the twenty first day after he left the Indian, having no clothes, 
the gun being wood bound, he left it after carrying it a few days. 

For the twenty one days, and two or three more while he had 
been under sentence of death, he never ate anything but such vege- 
tables as the woods afforded. None of the prisoners were put to 
death but those that fell into the hands of the Delawares, who say 
they will shew no mercy to any white man, as they would shew 
none to their friends and relations, the religious Moravians. I 
believe I have not told 5'ou, that the whole of the five hundred who 
went out with Crawford returned, except about fifty. Colonel 
Harrison & Mr William Crawford, relatives of Col. Crawford, 
were likewise taken prisoners, but fortunately fell into the hands 
of the Shavvanees, who did not kill their prisoners. 

The people of this country will not suffer Pennsylvania to run 
the line as Virginia agreed to, but insist on Pennsylvania running its 
bounds agreeable to Charter, which will leave Virginia a very valu- 
able country, which Pennsylvania otherwise would have. 

I am with every sentiment of esteem, 
W. Croghan. 

Message from the Chickasaw, July 9, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

A Talk from Us to be Delivered by M" Simon Burnev 
To the Commanders Of Every different Station lietween This 
Nation and the Falls On the Ohio River, My( ) Friends AVe 


Mean to Conclude A Peace With you. As Brothers Never falls 
Out With Other, but they make Friends Again If it is Agreable 
to you it is Our desire To be at Peace with you that Our Corn 
May grow And Our Stores Increased for the Bennifitt of our 
Child [ren]. Thereafter, Youl Observe at the Same time Our 
making A Peace with you doth Not Intitle Us to Fall out With 
Our Fathers the Inglish for we Love them as They were the First 
People that Ever Supported Us to Defend Our Selves Against Our 
former Enimys The French & Spaniards & All their Indians. & We 
are a People that Never Forgets Any Kindness done Us by Any 
Nation. We Sends this by M'' Burney Who Says He Lately Come 
from Among you & you may Rely on Anything he Tells you On 
the Subject Of Peace Poymautauliaus Talks, We Was Formerly 
Very good Friends And I Thought We Should be Always So but 
we have had Some Small Diferences but now We Are good friends 
again Some Time Ago We had Nothing but good talks all Round 
Us & from all Quarters but now I can hear Nothing Hut what is 
bad I therefore this day Send you a Token Of Peace. I Remember 
the day that I was Not Afraid to Travel to Cha'Town Virginia 
Or Any Other Place Where I was Allways Well Used but Now 
it Surprise Me More than Anything to See & hear how Brothers 
fall Out, For my Part I could Wish To See it as it Used to be 
Formerly I have been No Where But here At this Place & At This 
Place I set down & hear All your disturbances. I heard by a 
Chickesaw fellow that has been Some time Among you tha' That 
you have Sent Many Letters to this Nation & you may think That 
We Received them and despised your Talks but be Assured that 
None Ever got here. We Are Not Like White people for when they 
fight they Sends A flagg to Each Other & then Renews The fight 
But I this day Send you a Flagg for a Peace not To Renew Any 
more Battles As there never was much fight Between you & us. 
As to Our parts We Never Have done you muc*^ Harm its True 
Some Of Our young fellows has Stole Some of your Horses but 
Still they Never Went Of themselves their was Other Nations 
Creeks Cherokees Waupunockys &c Who Led Them Out And what 
damage Was done was by Reason you Settled A Fort in Our Hunt- 
ing ground without Our Leave And at that place you Suffered Most 


from Us.' We Recev^ a Talk From the Illinois Wlierein they 
let us know that the Virginian French & Spaniards Are all As One 
& desires Us to be friends with Them. I dont doubt but they 
have Let you know by this time what They wrote here in Regard 
to a peace. & When you See this it will Satisfy you On Our parts, 
Red Kin^s Talk you must Rcmmcmbcr That Our fore fathers On 
both Sides were allways friends, but as for Our parts we have had 
a Small diflireiice but 1 dont know who was in the ron^ it is my 
desire that we Should Still be at Friendship With Each Other this 
Comes from my Mouth Who is King of this Nation and it is my 
desire tiiat after you See this talk tiiat wherever You Meet with 
Chickesaws that you may Eat Drink & Smoke Together As Friends 
& Brothers. I hope youl Send An Agreable Ans'' To this tliat you 
& us may Set down in Safety & plant, youl Receve this as A Talk 
from your friend & Broth'' Poymengers Talk. Now to Convince 
you Of our Sincerity in Mak? Peace I have Sen' Four young wat- 
iers & One white man that was with you before to Convin''* You 
Of A Peace With Us & I am desireous that they may Be Well 
Used & an Answer to this Talk by the Bearers that We may think 
Of Nothing here after but Our Planting & Hunting &C.&C. 



Mingo (j Homau 
Chickesaw Nation g"' July. his 




' Fort Jefferson. See Clark Paperi, cxli-cxlii. 


William Irvine' to George Washington, July ii, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 1AA257-2S9.] ' 

Fort Pitt, July 11'* 1782. 

Doctor Knif^ht (a Surgeon I sent with Col. Crawford) returned 
the 4''' instant to tiiis place. He brings an account of the melan- 
choly fate of poor Crawford. Tiie day after the main body re- 
treated, the Colonel, Doctor, & nine others were overtaken about 
thirty miles from the field of action by a body of Indians to whom 
they surrendered, were taken back to Sandusky, where they all, ex- 
cept the Doctor, were put to death; the unfortunate Colonel in par- 
ticular was burned and tortured in every manner they could invent. 

The Doctor, after being a spectator of this distressing scene, was 
sent to the Shawanese Town under guard of one Indian, where he 
was told he would share the same fate next day; but fortunately 
found an opportunity of demolishing the fellow & making his escape. 
The Doctor adds, that a certain Simon Girty, who was formerly 
in our service, & deserted with M?Kee, is now said to have a com- 
mission in the British service, was present at torturing Col. Craw- 
ford; & that he, the Doctor, was informed by an Indian that a 
British Captain commands at Sandusky, that he believes he was 
present also, but is not certain ; but says he saw a person there who 
was dressed and appeared like a British officer. He also says the 
Colonel begged of Girty to shoot him, but he paid no regard to the 

A certain Shlover has also come in yesterday who was under 
sentence at the Shawanese Town. He says a M'' W™ Harrison, 

'William Irvine was born in Ireland of Scotch parents. He was a 
student of medicine and surgery at Trinity College, Dublin, and served as 
a surgeon on a British warship. At the close of the Seven Years' War he 
came to America and settled at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. During January, 
1776, he was appointed to raise and command the Sixth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment. In an engagement against the British at Three Rivers, Canada, he 
was taken prisoner and was not exchanged until 1778. The following 
year he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general commanding the 
Second Pennsylvania Brigade, and won honors at the Battle of Monmouth. 
In September, 1781, he was appointed recruiting officer, and on the 
recoiiiinendation of Washington he was given command at Pittsburgh. 
From 1786 to 1788, he was a member of Congress and again from 1793 to 
1795. He commanded the Pennsylvania troops in the Whiskey Rebellion. 

'This letter is not published in C. W. Butterfield, IVashinglon-Irvine 
Correspondence. Consult this volume, 247-250, for letter of July 5, 1782. 

GEORGE TO TODD. JULY 14. 1782 77 

son-in-law to Col. Crawford, was quartered and burned. Both he 
and the Doctor say they were assured by sundry Indians whom they 
formerly knew, that not a single soul should in future escape tor- 
ture, and gave as a reason for this conduct the Moravian affair. 

A number of people inform mc, that Col. Crawford ought to 
be considered as a Continental officer, and are of opinion retaliation 
should take place ; these, however, are such facts as I can get : Doctor 
Knight is a man of undoubted veracity. 

This account has struck the people of this country with a strange 
mixture of fear and resentment; tiieir solicitations for making an- 
other excursion are increasing daily, and they are actually beginning 
to prepare for it. 

1 have tlic honor to be, Sic. Sic, 
W" Irvine 
His ExcELLiiNcv 

GiiN^ Washington 

Robert George' to John Topd, Jr., July 14, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J25. — Contemporary copy.] 

July 14"" Capt "Patterson came into the Cabbin and said, that 
unless his men were furnished with two pound of flour each man 
p"' day, and was allowed what Beef they could kill he would be dam'd 
if any of his men sho* stay on Board. — he also insisted to draw 
Back Rations at the same Rate from the time his men came to the 
mouth of Kentucke. — 

July is'*" This morning Cap' Patterson & M' MGuire his 
Lieut, came into the Cabbin, and said the Militia to a man refused 
to come on board; alledging that Militia could not be made Salors 
of, with other like Excuses ; and these ofhcers declared that in their 
opinion that the Men would sooner fight that come on board. 

' CapLiin Roliert GeorRc was one of the men who accompanied Captain 
James Willing in the attack on the Mississippi posts in 1778. See (.'Inrk 
Papers, 311, note i. Early in 1779 Captain George and Lieutenant Rich- 
ard Harrison were pivcn the command of the company of inen who had 
heen with Willing and took them up the river to Kaskaskia to join Clark. 
During 1780-1781 he was in command at Fort Jefferson. He served in the 
West during the remainder of the war and afterwards settled on Clark's 
Grant in Indiana. 


July 19"' Cap* Patterson came on board this morning and said, 
liis Men had gone off before day; — but at 8 "Clock we discovered 
not less than 10 of them in the skirts of tlie woods on the River 
bank, altho' Capt Patterson said there were none left but himself 
his two officers and one Spy 

rou^ guorgk 

Clark's Plan to Capture Detroit and Crawford's Defeat, 

July 17, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 11J7-8.] 

Extract of a letter from a Gentleman at Quebec, to his friend at 
Edinburgh, dated July 17th 1782:^ 

"The resolutions of Parliament to put an end to tiie American 
war, are, I am afraid, not transmitted to Canada, for the bloody 
work of butchery is still carrying on in the upper parts of this Prov- 

"A Colonel Clark, commanding a large party of Americans in 
the Illinois country, has been for some years meditating an attempt 
upon Detroit, but hitherto has always been defeated by the vigilance 
and activity of the Indians. This year Clark has assembled about 
4,000 men, and by late letters we have heard that he was on his 
march to Detroit. He had ordered a Major Crawford to advance 
before his main body, with about 500 men, and they had actually 
reached San Douskie, in the neighborhood of Detroit, when intelli- 
gence was brought to Major Depyster, the commanding officer at 
the fort: He instantly collected all the Indians he could, and sent 
a M'' Caldwell, a young American, with them, and a party of regu- 
lars, to surprise Major Crawford, before he was joined by Clark; 
he did so effectually, for he completely routed the party, and took 
about two hundred prisoners. 

"The Indians, who were the chief actors in this scene, pave over 
the prisoners to the women, who instantly tomahawked every man 
of them with the most horrid circumstances of barbarity. 

"It is not unusual for the Indians to put their prisoners to death, 
but the Americans had this spring destroyed an Indian village, and 

'This letter is printed in Almon's Remembrancer, 14:255-256. 


put their women and children to the sword, for which inhuman act 
the Indian nations are resolved to take full revenge, as Crawford 
and his party woefully experienced." 

Robert George to John Todd, Jr., July 19, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J25. — Contemporary copy.] 

BiGBONE Lick Creek July 19"" 1782 

I wrote you the 13'* Inst that Cap' Patterson had joined me 

with 38 Men (Officers included) It is now with the greatest 

pain I inform you, that since this party has had any Connection 
with us, there has been nothing but murmouring and grumbling on 
their part: - - - first they insisted on being allowed double Rations of 
Flour. — tliis was granted llicni — tlicn tlicy must be allowed to 
march on tiic shore and not work at the boat - - - tiiat grantc<l 

them; and indeed every Indulgence the could desire; at last this 

Morning they have determined to go off at all Events (aitho their 

Tour is not out this seven days) I shall inform Gen' Clark of 

the particulars, and obtain his directions, in the mean time I beg 
you will take the most Effectual Methods of bringing these people 
to Justice for their mutinous and disobedient Conduct. 

I am Sir Your most ob' Serv' 

RoB^ George 
CoL° John Todd C' Lieut of Fayette (Copy) 

John Hardin to William Davies, July 28, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 11S58-60.] 

"Major Hardin" to Col. W^ Davies, of V» B*" of War 

MoNONGAHALiA, July 28"" 1782. 

Perhaps you have not had the account of our worthy friends 
Col. Crawford, Col. W'p Harrison, & W^ Crawford nephew to 
Col. Crawford, & many others who fell into the hands of the Indians 
on the late expedition against tlie St. Dusky Towns, so full as I am 
able to inform you. The s'*" inst. I was at Fort Pitt, when John 
Knight, Surgeon's Mate to 7'" Virginia Reg', came in, & said he 


& Col. Crawford were taken together by the Delawares to a camp 
where tliere were nine more prisoners on Friday, & the Tuesday 
following they were all put to death but himself. He said they were 
all marched into the Town, nine were tomahawked, & himself & 
Col. Crawford were to be burnt at the stake. He saw Col. Crawford 
tied & burning nearly two hours, & behaved like a hero. The trai- 
tor, Simon Girty, was standing by ; the Colonel cried out to him 
"No mercy — only shoot me," to which his reply was, "Crawford, 
I have no gun," with a laugh — "how can you expect any other 
[treatment] — this in retaliation for the Moravians that were mur- 
dered last spring." The Colonel made no reply, nor was heard to 
make any noise the whole time of his torture. After about two 
hours he fell on his face; one of the warriors jumpt in & scalped 
him, & threw up hot coals & ashes on him, & then the Colonel got 
up & walked, & then the Doctor said he was taken away, & told 
he was not to be burnt there, but was to be taken to the Shawanee 
Towns where there were about thirty Delawares lived, to give 
them some satisfaction for the murder of the Moravians; & on his 
way he made his escape. He was 21 days coming in to Fort Pitt, 
& his subsistence the whole time was green goosberries, nettle tops 
& green May apples. 

One Slover has made his escape about twelve days since the 
Doctor, and gives an account of all the prisoners who were taken 
being put to death; that Col' Harrison was burnt, & afterwards 
quartered, and stuck up on poles. W''' Crawford was also burnt ; 

& himself was the last that was brought to the stake to be burnt 

here came an exceeding heavy rain, which prevented their burning 
him that day, & that night he made his escape & got into Wheeling 
in seven days. I have not seen Slover myself, but I saw his ac- 
i()\int in writing from good authority.- 

This is convincing that inexperienced men ought not to have 
their own way in war; that good men must suffer on their account. 
The murder committed on the Moravians is every day retaliated. 
Sixteen days ago, Hannah's Town was burnt by the Indians, & 
Miller's Fort also, twenty five persons killed & taken by the whole 
party of Indians, who consisted of about two hundred; they took 
& destroyed a great many horses, cattle & house-goods. There seems 


to be a great spirit in general amongst the people for another cam- 
paign, which I am in hopes will have the desired effect. 

I am, Sir &c. 

John Hardin 

J. M. P. Legras to Clark, August i, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J27.— A. L. S.] 

S^ ViNCENNE Le 1» auot 1782. 
Jai appris avec Etonnement Et peine le Depart prccipite Des 
Dcrniers Couriers, me proposant Profiter de Cette occasion pour 
vous Donner avis dc cc qui pout Etre a ma Connoissance; Je croyc 
qu nc terreur Panique a Decide leur Depart Cache II m'est parvenu 
une Lettre Ecrite Dela Chutte par s'' Black fort a Dresse au s' 
Cardin dont Je vous Envoye une Vraye Copie; Dont nous a vou< 
Eprove avec Surprise la Verite; La Nuit du Vingt au Vingt Dcii.\ 
II a Ete Emmene Nombre de Dix a Douze Chevaux presque urns 
appartenant aux Sauvages; apres quelques Recherche lis ont Decou- 
vert la Route que tenoit Ces gens la, et au Nombre de Vingt lis 
les ont pour suivie sur leurs piste et Rejoing La troisieme Journe 
sur le soir; tenant tout Jours leur Chemins sur la Chiltte; 11 les 
ont attaquc Et tuc un Rcpris Et Rcmenc Leurs Chevaux Sont plus- 
ieurs tue Et Blesse; lis les onts Reconnus pour Blanc quoicjue De- 
guise Et peint Comme font les Barbares; Celuy qu'ils ont tue Etois 
Blanc pour Certain Et peint ; II les Croyent aunombre de six hommes 
qu'ils ont Vu; le Chaouennon Binne Etois du parti Et deux onta^es; 
ce qui fait un'fort Mauvais Effets parmy les Barbares; Et les Mets 
Dans Lintrique; Comme allies sincere; tant qu'a Moy Je suis 
Etonne de Cette Entrcprise Et n'en peut Deviner le sujet; tous se 
Repose Sur Vous pour Dccouvrir Et arretter a la Venir pareil in- 

Dernierement quelques Sauvages aunombre de six a sept Et 
Nombre de femme Revenant De Chasse, Se Sont Rencontre Sur 
La pointe de ouabache avec une pirogue appartenant au s'' I'aite 
Marchand Et un Engage Charge D'environ trente a quarante gallon 
ouicheguy ; aussitot L'Engage apris La f uite ; Et abandonne le s' 
taite ; les sauvages loing de L'insulter ; luy ont fait des signes Dami- 


ties; Et Marque par quelque Morceau de Viande Dont il L'ont 
Regale a leur fagon; Le sieur Taite Voulant faire pour Le Mieux 
Ignorant Leurs Avidites pour les liqeures forte ; les apaye de Reccon- 
noissance par un Coup de ouicheguy qu'il leur a Donne a Boire; 
avec une Canne a meme un Baril Chacun a Leur toure ; ce feut 
Coup qu'ils ont Bu aleur soif Et avidite les a Enhivre, Et Deter- 
mine a En demander Davantage; cequ'il ne pouvoit plus leur Refuser 
Et sefont foule a Un point qu'ils sefont tue undeux, Et un de Noye 
Ce Coup Cause par la liqeuer les a decider a En demander Et prendre 
pour Continuer asefouler Et Nont Cesse Jusqu'a Leurs arrive; Le 
s'' taite Et son Engage se sont Rendii icy sain Et sauf; les Chefs 
Maragouin, Montoure Et Antaya se sont Joing a Nous pour Re- 
couvrir Et Retirer des Mains des Sauvages ce qu'ils ont pii Rendre 
icy II nous a Ete Remis un Baril d'Eauverre de Dis gallons ouiche- 
guy, quelques Mains de papier, Et livre de Compte Et habillement 
de L'engage, que nous avons aussitot Remis au proprieteure ; Vous 
ne deves point ignores que Les Outaouas qui ont fait Village En 
Cette Endroit ont Vole plusieurs Chevaux Cette hiver, Jene sgaye 
ou Commen Et que le Chaouennon Binne qui demeure avec Les 
outaouas avoit une Chevelure; ceque Jen'ay Sgu qu'apres Leurs 
Depart; lis ont ammene un Negre appartenant au Colonel paop 
qu'il ne m'a point Ete possible de Retirer Vu qu'ils demandoient 
dela liqeur que Jen'avon point; Et que Je N'aime point a leur 
Donner; II Est Rapporte qu'ils ont tue une Negresse; parce qu'elle 
nc Vouloit point les suivrc de Bonne grace; II y a lieu de pcnser 
que les Memes outaouas Loing de s'en aller aux Ilinois Comme il 
me L'avoit dit ont Monte La Belle Rivierre; Et a L'aide du 
Chaouennon Binne ont DeBauche nombre Dameriquain ; qui se 
seront joint a Eux par Lespoir du Butin, Et De Compagnie Voler 
des Chevaux Eloignant deux touts Sentiments d'honneur En Voul- 
ant Recconnoitre Ny allies, Ny amy Et authorite Les Chefs Marin- 
gouin Montoure Et antaya sont Venu prier les Marchands ainsy 
que M'' Vaudy interprette de vous Ecrire En Leur faveur, et devous 
assurer de leurs Sincere attache aux Etats; Mais que Malgre toutes 
les pelncs qu'ils Sedonne pour maintenir leurs Jeunes gens dans le 
Bon chemin qu'il sen Ecarte quelquefois Mais hors deleurs Con- 
noissance; Et que pour une Mauvaise herbe II ne faut point 


abandonner tout un Champ lis Sont Bien persuade que de votre 
part vous aves Ignores qu'il Se formoit un partie pour Venir Voler 
Leur Chcvaux que Vous L'auries arrette. 

Le Maringoiii arrivant du detroit Rapporte que les ameriquains 
au Nombre de Cinqs Cens Venant du Cotte du fort Pitte, se sont 
Combattu sur le lac Eries avec nombre de sept Cens hommes Venant 
du Detroit Le space de deux Jours Et une Nuit. qu'ils ont tue 
quaiitites de sauvages de Divers Nations Et Beaucoup DeBlesses 
Deux officiers anglois Blesse, Dont Est le Commandant En Chef 
du partie. 

Fatigue Et Epuise les Ameriquains sesont Retire avec une Lcger 
perte; il n'est fait mention que de Cinqs que ont Ete tue Et sept 
prisoniers qui ont Ete pris dans La Retraite et Conduit au detroit. 
Jen'ay Rien plus avous Marquer Et Veut finir En vous priant 
dene me point Refuser Une prompte Rcponse afin de tranquiliser 
les peuples Et nous faire part Des Nouvelles qui vous Seront par- 
venu ; Vous assurant de Mon sincere attachement et Celle des Cyto- 
yans de Cette Endroit pour La Cause Commune Et du Respects 
de Celluy qui Se fait L'honneur dctre avec Respect 

Votre tres humble Et 
tres obeissant Serviteur 
J. 1\L P. Legras Lieut Col* 
Jene vous marque Rien au sujet 
de Mr. Dal ton il vous Ecrites 

[Contemporary Translation] 
[Draper MSS., 52J28.] 

ViNCENNES, 1" Aug. 1782. 


I have Learn'd with Surprise and sorrow the departure of the 
last couriers, as I proposed improving that opportunity to acquaint 
you witii whatever comes to my Knowledge. I fancy a sudden 
terror has occasioned their going away incog, a letter written from 
the falls by Blackfort, and addressed to M'' Cardin, has fallen in 
my hands, of which I inclose a true copy, of which we have to our 
astonishment experienced the truth, in the night time from the 


20"" to the 22* ten or twelve horses have been taken away, almost 
all of them belonging to the Indians. After some inquiries they 
tliscover'd the road that the thieves had taken and twenty of the 
savages pursued their tracks, and overtook them the third day to- 
wards night, as they always directed their course towards the falls, 
they attacked them and killed one, retook and brought back again 
their horses, of which several kill'd and wounded, they knew them 
to be white people, though disguis'd, and painted as the barbarians, 
he that was kill'd, was undoubtedly a white man and painted, the 

Indians allow they were six in number, whom they have seen 

Hinne the chaouanon [sic'\ and two ottawas were of the party, which 
has a very bad effect among the Savages, and makes them uneasy, 
as faithful allies; for my part, I am Surpris'd at that undertaking, 
and can't guess at the object of it. every one depends upon you for 
discovering and preventing in the future Such incursions. 

Lately Some Indians Six or Seven in number, and a parcel of 
women returning from hunting came up at the point of the Ouabache 
with a Perioger [pirogue] Belonging to Taite a merchant and a 
hireling, loaded with 30 or 40 Gallons of whiskey, the hireling 
fled immediately and left Taite. the Indians, far from attacking 
him, beckon'd to him in Sign of friendship ; and testified it by some 
pieces of meat with which they regaled him in their own way. Taite 
intending for the best, and ignorant of their avidity for Strong 
liquors, made them an acknowledgment with a plentiful dram of 
whiskey, which they drank 'till they were all drunk ; then they 
ask'd for more, which it was not in his power to refuse, and they 
got intoxicated to that degree that one of them died, and another 
got drowned that accident occasioned by liquor induced them to 
ask for more in order to continue drunk, and there has been no end 
of it 'till their arrival. Taite and his hireling are arriv'd here 
Safe, the chiefs Maragouin, Montour, & Antaya Join'd with us 
in recovering from the hands of the Indians what has been fetch'd 
here, we have receiv'd a ten gallon Keg of whiskey, some quires of 
paper, books of accoumpts and the cloathing of the hireling, which 
we have immediately deliver'd to the owners, you are not ignorant 
that the Outawas, who have built a village here, have stolen many 
horses last winter, I don't know where or how ; and that the Chaou- 


anon Binne who lives with the Ottawas had a Sculp, which I was 
not inform'd of untill they were gone. 

they have brought in a negro man belonging to Co' Pope, whom 
it has not been in my power to get from them, because they wanted 
liquor which I had not and which I don't like to give them, it is 
reported that they killed a negro Wench, because she did not follow 
them willingly, we have room to think that the Same Ottawas, 
instead of going to the Illinois as they told me, have gone up the 
Ohio, and, with the assistance of Binne the Chaouanon, have Se- 
duced a number of Americans, who w/ll yoin them in hopes of 
plunder, and in order to go and Steal horses together, throwing 
aside all Sentiments of honour, and disregarding allies, friends, and 
all sorts of authority, the chiefs Maringouin, Montour, and Antaya 
came here to intreat the merchants, as well as M'' Vaudy interpreter 
to write to you in their behalf, and assure you of their Sincere at- 
tachment to the States. But that in spite of all their endeavours 
to maintain their young men in the right path, they Sometimes devi- 
ate from it, but unknown to them; and that a whole field should 
not be abandonncd for a few pernicious weeds, they arc entirely 
convinced that, on your part, you was quite ignorant of a party bce- 
ing form'd to come and Steal their horses, or else you wou'd have 
prevented it. 

The Maringoin brings news from Detroit that the Americans, 
five hundred in number, from fort Pitt have fought upon lake Erie 
against Seven hundred men from Detroit, for two days and one 
night, that they have kill'd a great number of Indians of divers 
nations, and wounded a vast many; two English officers wounded, 
one of them the cominandcr in chief of the party. 

fatigued and breathless the Americans retreated with an incon- 
siderable loss, mention is only made of five killed, and seven prison- 
ers, who were taken in the retreat, and carried to Detroit; 

I have notliing more to acquaint you with, and in finishing desire 
you not to refuse me an immediate answer, in order to quiet the 
minds of the people, and partake us the news that you may have 
received ; assuring you of my Sincere attachment, and that of the 
citizens here, to the common cause ; and of the respect with which 
I have the honour to be 

[J. M. P. Legras] 
I say nothing of M'' Dalton who writes you. 


Jacob Pyatt to Clark, August 4, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J29.— A. D. S.] 

To THE HoN^''" Brig' General G R Clark 

Sir. Permit the Officers of the Marines raised, and now raising 
for the Public service, in behalf of themselves and the said Marines, 
to lay before you the following Circumstances, and in the most re- 
spectful manner to solicit you in their present Situation. 

The Terms of which the Marines were inlisted, were Ten Dol- 
lars P'' Month and a suit of Cloaths: - - - many of whom being either 
discharged Men from Crocketts Regiment, or other wise necessi- 
tated, entered this temporal service merely on Account of the Cloath- 
ing offered ; and it is well known that many of them are in great 
distress for every Article of that Nature. 

It cannot be expected (nor would it indeed be just) that the 
Marines should receive the same Cloatbing as those who have spent 
Years in the service or have engaged for a considerable term. We 
only request that the General will be pleased on the present Occasion, 
to allow the Men such absolute necessaries, that health and common 
decency may plead for. 

We at tiie same time beg leave to solicit the General for some 
Necessaries for ourselves; the absolute impossibility of obtaining any 
Articles (if to be sold) without money, in this part of the world is 
too obvious to mention. - - - 

We therefore beg the General will be pleased to take this Address 
into Consideration, and afford us such relief as our present Circum- 
stances stand in need of, or that he in his goodness shall seem ex- 
pedient to grant. 

We are Sir with the utmost dutiful respect 
Your most obedient Servants 

Jacob Pyeatt Cap' 
in behalf of himself 
& the off. & Marines before 
Miami Galley August 4'^ 1782 


Clark to Joseph Lindsay, August 6, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 29J60. ]' 

Fort Nelson 6'" Aug'' 1782. 

This Express is to know from you what probability there is of 
your getting a drove of your Bullocks to this place in a short time — 
When you left this last you said that you were determined to have 
them down shortly. The Garrison is much in want, and your 
immediate presence here very necessary, as there is great quantity 
of Flour laying here, and I think a good supply may be purchased 
for the publick, especially for salt. — how we are circumstanced in 
that article you only know: but I think if you was here you might 
make a good stroke — dont loose the oppertunity for the first rise 
of water the Traders set out for Orleans, if they dont dispose of 
their cargoes — 

Capt. Froman is with me, seems desirous tliat the greatest justice 
shall be done tiie State respecting tlie salt pans, consequently, it would 
be well to settle that afifair with him — to let him go on as usual — 

I am. 

Sir, Your obed. sert. 
M* Joseph Lindsay G. R. Clark 

Addressed: Mr. Joseph Lindsay at Harrodsburg 
Endorsed: A true copy from the original in possession of VV. Lind- 
say Poguc, Es<l'' of Greenup Co. Ky. 

Clark to William Irvine, August 10, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 32J2. — Transcript.]' 

Fort Nelson io^ August 1782 
Sir By Major Walls I learn that you intend to make a grand 
push against the Enemy on the Lakes this fall, which information 
occasion me to send this Express to know of you the time you march 
and what is your object: If you will be so good as to favour me 
with such intelligence it may be much to the publick interest ; as 
it will be in our power to make a diversion much in favour of yours, 

'This document was contributed by Dr. Louise Phelps Kellogg. 
'Printed in H^ashington-lrvine Correspondence, 392-393. 


if nothing intervenes to prevent us. 
I am 

Your mo. Obed' Serv' 

(signed) G. R. Clark 
Gen"- Ervin 

John Flovd to Clark, August 12, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J32.— A. L. S.] 

1 2th August 1782 

Dear General. 

I've just understood that Cap' Chenoweth & his Warriors sent 
yesterday on an Excurtion to the 18 Mile Creek, have bent their 
course towards the Falls: if it is so, I hope you've taken care to order 
them on Board the Galley. Those were men that to my knowledge 
have not been a Night from home on duty except at the Falls, for 
12 M' & by their maneuvering before they set out, I expected noth- 
ing done but I hope they are on Board, if you took the Hint. 
I am Dear Gen' Yours Affectionately, 

Jn° Floyd 
Addressed: Brig'' Gen' Clark Fort Nelson By M'' Stcplicnson 
Endorsed: Jn' Floid 12th Aug' 82 


SEl'TEMUER 3, 1782 

Attack on Bryan's Station — Plan of the Battle of the Blue Licks — 
Loss OF Kentucky Leaders — Capture of Kincheloe's Station. 

The Battle of the Blue Licks, August 19, 1782' 
[Draper MSS., S2J35-37.— A. D.] ' 

The night before the action of Bryans Col Todd being at Col' 
Trigs' in all probability had the perusal of my Letters to Col' 
Logan as the Col had sent them by Isack McCracken to Co' Trigs 
for his perusal See my Letter to Col Logan 

Aug""' lb"" Col' Trig Received y" following Letter from Col' 
Levi Todd of Lexington 

D'' Col I Set down in a very disagreeable posture Just now 
defeated by a body of Indians who are now Round Bryans I am 
necessitated to apply to you for assistance expecting you you will 
deem it your duty before you can have an opportunity to Receive 
orders from your County Lt. I last night Received an Ac', from 
Col Boon of Cap*" Holders defeat at the Blue Licks and agreable 
to his desire ordered twenty men to Join others and go to the Blue 
Licks. They started this morning & about an Hour after an Ex- 
press arrived from Bryants That some Indians had shown them- 
selves and they believed a body was Round the [fort] - - I set [off] 
after the men & met them by 12 'o' the [clock] -- [&] at Bryants 
we were att.icked 

the Horse broke Some perhaps have got in though I cant say, but 
a few have Returned our loss I cant Judge of let your men assemiile 
by parties as quick as possible at Lexington Let my Brother and 
Co' Logan have the Earliest notice our situation Requires the greates 
hast I am — & — 

Levi Todd 

' Fur tlie Bailie of llic Blue Licks and it» significance, see iiilroiluctlon, 
ante, xlili (T., anil Roosevelt, H'inninti of the IVest, 2:197 f- 

'Note by Lyman C. Draper on the manuscript: "These copies are 
in Gen: G. R. Clark's chirography — probably borrowed the originals from 
Col. Logan for copying." 

' For Stephen Trigg, see Kaikaskia Records, 76, note 3. 



Col John Todd being in the neighborhood of Col Trigs y^ Col 
wrote the Following on the back of the Letter and sent it to Col 
[Trigg] which Came back 

Col*' Logan is Expected to be at Harrodsburg tonight if so 
have sent this Letter for his perusal and in mean time have ordered 
Cap*™ M^'Bride, Madison, Gordon Overton & Ensign Adams to 
appear at Cap" Gordons tomorrow Morning Ready to march to 
Lexington I Shall wait there untill the Express Returns with orders 
from Col' Logan if they should see him S. T. 

Col I^^gan having Returned home 17"' 11 oclock Col Trigg 
wrote the following to Col Logan which he Received at twelve of 
the Clock the Insuing night 

D" Coi, about Ten oClock last night I Rccciv^' the Inclosed 
by Express I thinking you was then at Harrodsburg sent amedi- 
atcly their but found you was gone home I called upon six Com- 
panies to wit Gordon McHridc Madisons Kincaids Overton & alli- 
sons for one half of their Companies it is now about a 1 1 oclock 
and not more than 60 Men Met we shall wait a few minutes and 
go on. Maj'' McGary and myself boath go over. I should not 
iiave taken this step without your orders but the case seemed urgent 
and had no doubt but you would approve of wliat I did I hope 
you will and take any other step you Choose 

Col" Trig Set out an[d] Incamped at Todds Cabbins Six Miles 
from Lexington by which time he increased to about a Hundred and 
thirty men arriving at Brians the 18 Joined by forty or fifty men 
of the Fayet Militia pursued the Enemy as far as Riddles that 
Evening 19'*" continuing y' pursuit descryd the of the heights of 
Licking on the oposite side som distance backe of the blue licks Cross- 
ing y^ River and action amediately commenced and in five minutes 
a Rout on our side Fifty of tlie Lincoln and 16 of tlie Fayet 
Troops fell including Col' Todd & Trigg Cap" &c &c on Col. 
Logans Receiving Col Trigs Letter he dispatched of Express to 
different parts of the County before day assembled 154 Men and 
Reached the Mouth of Hickman that night arrive Lexington about 
12 oCIock the 19"*, finding the people their quite unconserned and 
at their common diversions spent some time in Shewing them their 


Errour to little purpose pursuing his Rout passing Briants met the 
front of the Flying party within five miles of that place himself 
being weakened by the Conversation of the Lexington and Briant 
Inhabitants Ridiculing the pursuit saying their was a sufTicieiicy 
of men gone with Col Tod caused of many of the Volunteers to 
delay and the great Reason he had to suppose the body of the Enemy 
Considerable Returned to Lexington that Night forming the best 
position possible to Receive the fugitives in the night following 
dispatched of Expresses to different parts of Lincoln County order- 
ing every man that could bear arms to be amediately Marched to 
Bryants whare he made his head Quarters taking the most advisable 
Steps to Support that Frontier untill he should be sufficiently Rein- 
forced as to take the Field on the 22 about Sun Rise Col John 
Logan arrive at Lexington with 134 Men (not an officer except two 
Ensigns) in the Evening of the 23 Col. McGary (who had been 
sent back to Lincoln arrive at head Quarters witlie between 130 
and 140 men the wliole forces being Imbodied the number of 470 
men Col. Logan set out about seven marching untill near day 
Reposing about two Hours continued his route came in sight of the 
scene of action at the Blue licks about 10 Oclock in the Morning 
of the 24 after sending proper Reconitering parties Marched to the 
field it appearing that the body of Enemy had Retired for some 
daj's buried the dead and Retreated Ten Miles but Recollecting 
tliat the Enemy might have by a Circuitous March returned ti) the 
Inhabitants thot it advisable to make dispatch that possibly could 
to get back to the Inhabitants Lexington the 25'*" the Trops Marcli- 
iiig to their different homes the 26"" - 27"" a man was killed al 
Harrodstown and Several otiiers in a few days following 

a few days after Col Logans Return home he Received tiie fol- 
lowing Letter from Maj'' McGary 
28"" Aug''' 1782 


There has been some person a Spying about the Magazine at 
Harrodstown some nights past and as all the principal men of tliat 
place is lost I think it would be good to move the powder to Col. 
Bowmans though such orders you send shall be put in force 


Sir I understand I am much sensured for incouraging the men 
to fight the Indians when we came up with them I should have in- 
formed you of a grand scheam that was planed when I saw you only 
I thought perhaps it would cause a Riot and you may Judge the 
Matter yourself only it is hard to Judge dead men you saw Trigg 
did not wright to you untill he was shure you could not come up 
with us, and Todd took Cap'™ Craigs word for the Number of 
Indians so we Marched in order to gain great applause with our 
men as it was well known that you would have had the Command 
as almost all the men was of our County and their scheam met with 
a sad misfortune which I am sorry for So I suppose you have heard 
of my bad conduct perhaps by some person that was conserned in 
the scheam and if you think I am faulty I should be fond to have 
a hearing in the Matter sir if any thing should happen we have 
not one lb of Lead Cap'" Dentons Station Breaks up this day or 
tomorrow I have had no chance to send your Letter to Gen' Clark 
I hope you will instruct me on any thing you want done in this 
End of the County and you may depend on me as far as in me lies 

I am & 

Majr Madisons Ac' 
18"' Aug*' Col' Todd and Trigg Arrive at Bryants Station about 
ten oclock whare they ware informed by Cap'" Craig' that the 
Enemy had Retreated about Ten in the morning that their num- 
ber was inconsiderabl and that he was sure they might be over- 
taken and defeated by the party present to wit 182 men the pur- 
suit amediately took place following the Indian trail to Riddles 
near [blank in M5.] miles whare it was discovered that that the 
Enemy was far superiour to the number Supposed and by infor- 
mation of Cap'" Hoy to Co' Boon a large party of the Enimy 
was also discovered at the upper Blue Licks 8 Miles from the 
Lower the principal officers appeared to be confused in their 
council Each aflfraid to speak Candidly for fear of being Suspected 
for Timerity; but the whole Moved forward apparently without 
order ; orders then Issued for the whole when a attack should Com- 
mence to wride [ride] in among the Enemy before a gun was fired 

' Note by Lyman C. Draper on original manuscript: "of Bryan's Stn. 
L. C. D." 


Continuinp: the Route untill near day then Halted untill sun up 
on the ig"" witliin four miles of the Lick, then Marching in three 
parellel lines to the heights opposite the Blue Lick whare on dis- 
covering a party of the Enemy the whole appeared to be in the 
utmost confusion each Viewing the other with that consternation 
forboding destruction no gen' order given after this period the spies 
ventering across the River Reconnitering the Lick found the Enemy 
that was discovered had gone on Maj'' Mcgary crosed with his 
division after which Col' Trig with his and Co' Boon following 
Raising the heights on the opposite shore the Spies still advancing 
returned in full spead informed the party that the Enemy was but 
a small distance the Cry for action was the[n] given the whole 
Move on in the order they then ware without ever forming the 
front geting Repulsed before the Rear got near the Enemy a gen' 
Rout took place having an unguarded ford to Retreat through the 
Victory became compleat on the Side of the Enemy pursuing the 
flying party untill they met Col' Logan then Six miles of Brians 
having the advantage of the Horses of those they had killed Total 
Loss 66 Including officers 



Property Lost at the Battle of the Blue Licks, 
August 19, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 
Rec'' of Col' Benjamin Logan a List of Appraisments of Horses 
Guns &c lost at the Battle of the Blue Licks Aug' 19"' 1782, Con- 
taining the following Accounts with Appraisment Bills 

i I £ I s I D 

No I 
















Edward Corn for one gun shot pouch horn k 


The Estate of John M''Murtry for a Mare gun 

Sc shot pouch 

George Smith for one horse Sadie & Bridle fi 


The Estate of Thomas Farrier for Horse Sadie 

Bridle & gun 

James Allen for one Horse Sadie bridle gun & 


Robert Poague for a gun 

James Hays for a Horse 

J nines Kay for a Horse 

The Estate of John Garden on horse sadle 

Hridle \' gun 

Samuel Woods for a gun 

William Aldridge for a horse sadle and Bridle 

Josiah Wilson for a Sadie & Bridle 

John Hart for a horse 

John Summers one mare 

James Herrod for a Horse Sadie Bridle & gun 
Anthony Sowdusky one Mare sadle Bridle & 

Sadie Bags 

Joseph Collens for a horse 

Daniel Griggs one gun ap^ to L i2"o-o to be 

paid vvith 

Jarvis Green one gun ap<l to L 12 to be paid with 

Jacob Coffman for a Mare Sadie & Bridle 

Elisha Buett for 3 Mare Sadie Bridle & stroud 
Elijah Allen for a horse Sadie Bridle & gun... 
The Estate of Arch' Woods for a Mare Sadie 

Bridle & gun 

The Estate of William Robinson for one Mare 

Sadie Bridle & gun 

Robert Scott for mare 

John Hinch a Mare Sadie Bridle & Sadie baggs 
John Peak for a gun L 5 Sadie L 6 to be paid 

with L 4 

Gabrial Madison for a Sadie & Bridle 

William Lam for a mare 

The Estate of Joseph Lindsey for a horse & 


A Stray Mare the mony to be kept in the 

Treasury till the owner appears and Proves 

his Property 















■ 8 





















Benjamin Harrison to the County Lieutenants, 
August 21, 1782 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1781, p. 309.] 

Letter to sundry County Lieutenants. 

Council Chamber Augi' 21'* 1782 — 

V'ou will receive directions from the Commissioner of War to 
hold men of your militia in constant readiness to march at the short- 
est warning, this order takes its rise from information just rec* from 
the continental Secretary at War that an Attack is expected on 
fort Pitt; the loss of which post will so materially affect our fellow 
Citizens in the back Country that no Arguments can be necessary 
to stimulate you or your Militia to exertion if the fort should be 
invested. Gen : Edward Stevens is appointed to the command of 
the Troops order'd out, will give you directions where to rendezvous 
your men if they should be wanted and will forward the necessary 
marching orders. I refer you for more particular Instructions to 
the Commissioner of War and am &c. 

B. H. 

The same to the different County 
Lieut or Com^ Officers in the list given 
To be in readiness 

Hampshire 150 

Frederick 150 

Berkley 175 

Slianandoah 150 

Rockingham 1 00 

Augusta 200 

Loudon 300 

Fauquier 225 

Culpeper 250 


& File 

Office r- 

Benjamin Harrison to County Lieutenant of Frederick 
County, August 21, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1781, p. 310.] 
The commanding officer of Frederick County 

Council Chamber Aug"^ 21''' 1782. 

You will receive herewith an Order from the commissioner of 
War to send immediately 75 Men to assist the garrison of fort I'itt 


in defending that post against an attack that is expected will very 
shortly be made on it, the Consequences that will flow from the re- 
duction of it will be so distressing to the Inhabitants of our back 
Country, that your Humanity will suggest to you the Necessity of 
an immediate compliance with the Order. If provisions to last 
you to the fort can not be obtained from the Commissioners nor on 
the credit of the State you must have recourse to the Invasion Law. 
You may assure those who shall furnish provisions that they shall 
receive Warrants for payment out of the present Taxes, which I 
hope will save you from the disagreeable Business of impressment. 
It will he necessary that the Officer commanding the Troops should 
take particular care to settle his pay roles properly, and that he take 
a rec* from the Continental Commissary or proper Officer for the 
provisions used on his March in order to the Accompts being settled 
with the continent. 

I am Sir &c. 

B. H. 

The same to the commanding 
officer of Berkley County. — 

Andrew Steele to Benjamin Harrison, August 26, 1782 
[Cat. of Fa. State Papers, 3:269-270.] 

Lexington, Ky., August 26th, 1782 

Through the Continued series of a Seven Years vicessitude, noth- 
ing has happened so alarming, fatal & Injurious to the Interest of 
the Kanetuckians of Particular & all its votaries in General, as the 
present Concatination of Hostilities, wherewith I am now to acquaint 
your Excellency. 

The Fifteenth of this Inst: Bryan's Station was Beseiged by a 
number of Indians, whereof I am not able to form a Just Estimate: 
the Attack continued warm for about Thirty Hours, During which 
Period, the Enemy burned several exterior Houses, Killed three of 
our men & made large Depredations on the neat stock & Crop — 
they then Retired leaving three of their Savage party dead on the 
ground, besides a number of circumstantially so — 


The Seventeenth, we were Reinforced from Lincoln, with one 
hundred & fifty Horse men, Commanded by Lieut: Col: Sicplicii 
Trigg & Joined by a few of the Fayette Commanded by Colo. J no. 
Todd, who compos'd an Army of one Hundred & Eighty Two. We 
followed them to the Lower Blue Licks, where Ended the Direfull 
Catastrophy — in short we were defeated — with the loss of seventy- 
five men — among wliom fell our two Commanders with many 
other officers & soldiers of Distinguished Bravery. To express the 
feelings of the Inhabitants of both the Counties at this Rueful} 
scene of hitherto unparalelled Barbarities Barre all words & cuts 
Description short. 

The Twenty fifth, five Hundred of the Lincoln militia min- 
manded by Colo. Benjamin Logan (who hitherto had neither been 
consulted, nor solicited to our assistance) marched to the Battle 
ground in Expectation of a second Engagement, but the Enemy had 
march'd several Days before, from the order of their march, with 
many other accruing circumstances, their number was supposed to 
be nearly six Hundred. 

Forty seven of our Brave Kanetuckians were found in the field, 
the matchless massacraed victims of their unprecedented Cruelty — 
We arc led to conceive that none were captivated, from a number 
found at the crossing of the Creek tied & Butchered with knives & 

Labouring under these Distressing Circumstances we Rely on 
your goodness (actuated from a principle of Universal Benevolence 
which is the Distinguishing Characteristic of the truly great & noble 
soul) that we will not only become the subjects of your Commiser- 
ation, but of your Patronage & Protection also, the Ballance stands 
upon an Equilibrium & one stroke more will cause it to Preponderate 
to our Irretrievable Wo, & terminate in the Intire Breach of our 
Country, if your Excellency is not concerned In our Immediate 
safety — 

The Author of this narrative is a Person in a private sphere 
of life & hopes that your forgiving Candour, will induce you, to 
not only pardon the Intrusion, but the many Inaccuracies that may 
appear through the whole of this Illiterate & undigested Detail — 
as it comes from a wcl-wisher to American Liberty & your 
Excellency's most obed't H'ble Servt." 


Daniel Boone to Benjamin Harrison, August 30, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— A.L.S.] ' 

Boones Station, Feyatte County August 30^^ 1782 — 

A present Circumstance of Affairs Causes me to write to your 
Excellency as follows, on the 16"' of this Instant a Large Numhcr 
of Indians with Some white men Attacted one of our fronteer Sta- 
tions Known by the name of Bryans Station, the Seige Continued 
from about Sunrise till about ten oclock the next Day, then they 
Marched off. Notice being Given to the Different Station adjacent, 
we Imediately Collected 181 Horsemen Command^ by Col" Jn' 
Todd, Including some of Lincoln County Militia, Commanded by 
Col. Trigg, and having pursued About 40 Miles, on the 19"" In- 
stant, we Discover'd the Enemy Lying in wait for us, on Discovery 
of which we formed our Columns into one Single Line, and March"* 
up in their front, within About forty yards before there was a gun 
fired; Col. Trigg on the right, my Self on the Left. Maj'r M'^Gary 
in the Center. Majo'' Harlen with the advance party in the front — 
and from the manner wee had form"*, it fell to my Lot to bring on 
the attack, which was Done with a very heavy fire on both Sides; 
and Extended back the Lines to Col. Trigg, where the Enemy was 
So Strong that the Rushed up and Broke the right wing at the first 
fire, So the Enemy was Immediately on our Back So we were 
obliged to Retreat with the loss of 77 of our Men and 12 wounded, 
afterward we were Reinforced by Col. Logan which with our own 
men amounted to 460 Light Horse with which we March'd to the 
Battle Ground again But found the Enemy were gone off So we 
proceeded to Bury the Dead — which were 43 found on the ground, 
and Many more we Expect Lay about that we did not See as we 
could not tarry to Search very Close, being Both Hungry and weary, 
and Some what Dubous that the Enemy might not be gone quite off, 
and by what Discovery we Could make we Conclude the Number 
of Indians to Exceed 400 — Now the whole of our Militia of this 
County Does not Exceed 130. By this Yr Excellency may Draw 
an Idea of our Circumstance, I know Sir, that your Situation at 

'This letter with some variations is printed in Cattndar of Virginia 
State Papers, 3:275-276. 


present is Something Critical But are we to be totally forgotten. 
I hope not. I trust about 500 men Sent to our Assistance Imme- 
diately and them to be Stationed as our County Lieutenants Shall 
See most Necessary may be the Saving of this our part of the Coun- 
try, but if you put them under the Direction of Gen' Clarke they 
will be Little or no Service to our Settlement as he Lies 100 miles 
west of us, and the Indians Northeast, and our Men are often CalW 
to the falls to Guard them. I have Encouraged the people here 
in this County all that I could, but I can no longer Encourage my 
Neighbours nor my Self to Risque our Lives here <it such Extra- 
ordinary hazzards, the Inhabitants of these Counties are very much 
alarm'' at the thoughts of the Indians bringing another Campaign 
into our Country this fall, which if it should Be the Case will Break 
these Settlements, so I hope your Excellency will take it into Con- 
sideration and Send us Some Relief as quick as possible — this Sir 
is my Sentiments without Consulting any person I Expect Col. 
Logan will Imediately Send to you by Express, By whome I most 
humbly Request your Excellencies answer meanwhile I Remain Sir 
Your Excellencys Most obedient Hum* Serv' 

Daniel Boone 

John Bowman' to Benjamin Harrison, August 30, 1782 
[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives. — A.L.S.]' 

Lincoln County August 30''' 1782 
Sir I take the liberty to Ad^' your Excellency on a Subject which 
I make No Doubt May be agreable to you on the 20"" of this Ins' 
arived hear M'" Siman Burney with two chickasaws warriers With 
a written talk from the cheiffs of that Nation Seting forth their 
Willingness to treat with the State of Virginia on a peace, a Coppy 
of which you will Receive by the convayance, and Being Impressed 
with a sence of the Destressed cituation of this frontear Settlements 
I could not Restrain my self but Rather thought it my Duty to 

' Major John Bowman was a brother of Colonel Joseph Bowman who 
was the trusted lieutenant of Clark. It was John Bowman who led an 
expedition consisting of three hundred Kentuckians against the Shawnee 
in 1779. This was the principal cause for the failure of Clark's march on 
Detroit that year. Colonel John Bowman was the first county lieutenant 
of Lincoln County, Kentucky. See Clark Papers, cviii-cix. 

' This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3 •.2^^-2^%. 


Recomend it to you in whoes hands the Reigns of Government are 
put, and not Doubting of your Willingness to facilitate tlie Hapiness 
of the People under your care and Protection, therefore it is the 
wish of all I believe that your Excelancy might Appoint Commis- 
sionors to Meat the Cheiffs of that Nation at the french Lick on 
Cumberland River it being the Place they Seame to wish to meat at, 
in order to Establish a peace with them, Should your Excelancy with 
the Honorable Councel think Proper that Sume Step Should be 
taken with those People and would wish to Appoint Commissioners 
in this Quarter for that Purpose, I will mention the following Gen' 
who in my Opinion are the Most fit men amongst us for that Pur- 
pose Col John Donelson,' Col Benjamin Logen and Cap John 
Huching the also Inform us that the Creek Nation will take the 
Same Mesa( — ) with them, which would be a fortunate Circum- 
stance to this as well as our Neighbouring or Sistren States to the 
Southward and the joint Intrust of All — 

The Chickasaws Cheiffs urging in their own justification that 
When Gen' Clark came in to their Country and Built a fort and 
Settled many famileys in their Countrey the thought themselves 
obliged to Defend their Native Country by arms and that the should 
not have taken up against us on any other grounds which as far 
as I can judge of facts I Raley Beleve it to be the case 

If a peace Could be Conncluded with those two Nations the 
Chicasaws and Creeks it would Effectuly put a stop to the Chero- 
kees and Cheeckamogga Indians Committing Depridations on any 
of our frontears and Compleat the Happiness of the inhabitants 
who have long suffer'' by them and we Conceive tht Such an Aliance 
Might Greately Discurrage the Shawney and other westren Tribes, 
Should this not be an Obstacle in the way I am Told that Gen' 
Clark Sent an Express to Post S' Vancent to M'' Dolten their, the 
Purport thereof is injoined on M'' Dolten to Keep it Secret the 
Same Evening Sume Disefected Men that harbours amongst us 
Stole about fifteen Horses from the french at that Place, — on their 

'Colonel John Donelson served at a Virginia commissioner (1771), 
appointed to run the Cherokee boundary line. Early in March, 1778 he 
was in command of a company of men at Boonesborough. He was in 
charge of the expedition which went by water from the Holston settlements 
to join James Robertson at Nashville in 1779-17S0. 


Missing their Horses next Morning they Emediately Demanded a 
Sight of the Express which was Denied them they then Desired 
M' Dalten Not to send the Messenjer away until he new his Arrent 
Notwitlistanding the caution the Express was Dispached that Eve- 
ning and came safe to the falls this Raised a Jellosey among the 
french that it was with Concent of Gen' Clark the men went their 
and if this Breach is not Spedely Made up the consequences their 
of is to be Dreaded, the french say that if this be the Treatment 
from us they will be obliged to Defend their Property by Engaging 
the Deflrent Tribes of Indians to the westward of them that are 
Now at Peace to Come to war against us — 

Our Scater^ Inhabitants ar Daly Deminishing Having Lost 65 
of our militia in a Late unfortunate Action with them the Particulars 
whereof you will have from Col" Logan the Commanding oliiccr 
of this County 

I would Beg leave to Assure your Excelancy that my hartey 
wish and Earnes Desire for the Public weal was the onley Ocation 
of My Troubling you with the above Observation 

I take the Honour to be your Excel- 
lancy's Most Ob' Hb" Ser» 
John Bowman 
Favored by 
Mr. Patterson 

Benjamin Logan to Benjamin Harrison, August 31, 1782 
[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives.] ' 

Lincoln 31"" Aug' 1782. 

I beg leave to present your Excellency & Council with one of 
the most melancholy events that has happened in all this western 
Country — On the 14"" ins' Cap* Holder from Fayette pursued a 
party of Indians who had made prisoners of a couple of boys in his 
neighborhood ; he overtook them and was repulsed with the loas of 
four men — On the 16"' a considerable army appeared before 
Bryants station under the command of the noted Simon Girty and 

'This letter, with slight variations, is printed in Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers, 3:280-283. 


many other white men : they attacked the station closely and de- 
feated different parties endeavoring to throw in assistance, but with- 
out much loss on our side — An Express was immediately dispatched 
to Col' Jn' Todd who at that time was in this County in the neipli- 
borhood of Col" Trigg — On the 1 7''' at night I received a letter 
from Col" Trigg wherein he informed me of what had passed — 
orders were immediately given for every man to turn out & on 
Sunday the 18''' I crossed the Kentuckey with a considerable de- 
tachment & the day after arrived at Bryants where I understood 
the Indians had raised the seige & were followed by Col' John Todd 
with 135 of the Lincoln Militia under Col' Trigg and 45 of the 
Fayette under Col' Boone dreading the consequences that might 
ensue from this precipitate affair I immediately pushed within a 
few miles from Bryants we were met by abo' 25 men who informed 
of a total defeat at the Big Blue licks on Licking I covered their 
retreat and marched back to Bryants where I collected 470 men 
& the 24"" went to the battle ground & buried 43 — Our loss in 
this action is 50 missing from Lincoln & 15 from Fayette: among 
whom are Col' Todd & Trigg (Trigg was quartered) Major Har- 
lin, Cap'* M'^Bride, Gordon, Kinkaid & Overton & Lieut' Givings, 
Kennedy M'^Murtry, Rogers & M^'Guire, and M'' Joseph Lindsey 
our Commissary. From the situation of the ground on which our 
men were drawn upon (the plan whereof I have taken the liberty to 
enclose) I hardly know how it was possible for any to escape. 

I am inclined to believe that whe." vour Excellency and Council 
become acquainted with the military 'operations in this country that 
you will not think them so properly conducted as to answer the 
general interest of Kentuckey — From the accounts we had received 
by prisoners who had escaped this spring we were confident of an 
invasion from the De Troit Indians: — Common safety then 
made some scheme of defence necessary for which purpose I was 
called upon by General Clarke to attend a Council and after con- 
sulting matters it was determined to Build a fort at the mouth of 
Licking & sliortly I received his orders for No men to attend this 
business with a certain number from Fayette — Before the day of 
ri.-ndezvous I was instructed to send the men to the falls of Ohio 
in order to build a strong Garrison and a new Galley thus by weak- 


ening One end to strengthen another the upper part of the country 
was left entirely exposed & the enemy intercepting our designs 
brought their intended expedition ag" the Frontiers of Fayette — 
The immense expences incurred by the State in this western country 
we know is enough to prevent the Government from giving us any 
farther aid, but when your Excellency & Council are informed that 
the people have never been benefited by those expenditures we shall 
hope your compassion will be extended to a detached, distressed part 
of your country. As it is not in the power of the people to answer 
the misapplica- [tion] of anything done by a proper Officer — 

General Irvin commanding at Fort Pitt as a Continental officer 
might probably be more .issistance to this country could he receive 
proper supplies from the state of Virginia than any other measure 
that could be adopted as he has the same enemies to encounter that 
trouble us — And Stores of every kind seem to be of little account 
to us (ammunition excepted) — 

Col" Trigg being killed there is a field officer wanting in this 
county, however I am at a loss how to proceed on the occasion for 
all our Magistrates have been killed except three and tliere can be 
no Court to send a recommendation — Col' Harrod wlio formerly 
acted as a Col' and who agreeable to sincerity ought to have re- 
ceived a commission is now in being & I tliink a very proper person 
for that purpose. 

Before I conclude I must beg leave to suggest to your Excel- 
lency & Council that a defensive war can not be carried on with 
Indians and tlie Inhabitants remain in any kind of safety — For 
unless you can go to their Towns and scourge them they will never 
make a peace, but on the contrary keep parties constantly in your 
country to kill and the plunder they get answers them instead of 

Some days past a white man one AP Simon Burney with his 
Indians arrived at this place in company with two warriors with 
talks from the Chickcsaw nation — wherein they inform us of their 
desire to conclude a peace and the reason that urged them to war 
which was General Clarke's sctling Fort Jefferson in their hunt- 
ing ground without consulting them first and are now enquiring 
for him. They own they have done mischief in this as well as 


the infant Settlement on Cumberland. Should your Excellency & 
Council think proper to hold a treaty with these people — Col' John 
Doneldson who has before served as an Agent for the State is willing 
to transact any business of that kind. 

Since writing the foregoing lines I have received certain infor- 
mation that Kinchelan's [Kincheloe's] fort in Jefferson was burned 
& 37 Souls made prisoners 

Your Excellency & Council will please to indulge me a few 
moments longer when 1 take the liberty to add the situation of 470 
persons who surrendered themselves prisoners of war to a British 
officer then on command from De Troit with a great number of 
Indians — As well as I recollect these unhappy people were cap- 
tured in June 1780 And from authentick intelligence that we have 
received they were actually divided in the most distressing manner 
that could be invented — Many of the men were taken to De Troit 
& their wives retained among the indians as slaves — Some of the 
men are now at Montreal and others in dilTerent parts towards the 

As the British were the perpetrators of this crual piece of mis- 
chief — 1 think by the Articles of the Cartel for the exchange & re- 
lief of prisoners taken in the S: Department & Subsequent measures 
taken by the different commissaries for that purpose: it is their 
business immediately to deliver up in this Country or at some Ameri- 
can post All the prisoners there taken — Or retaliation be had on 
our parts. Unless they are guarded back they will never get thro' 
the indian country. 

I have the honor to be, 

With the highest respect & esteem 
Your Excellency's most ob* 
& Most Humble Servant 
Benjamin Logan C L. 



3 Sw*zir 

The Indians kept the path from Bryants to the licks and when 
CoI° Todd arrived at the Top of the Hill on this side of the river 
the enemy made a shew of ab' 30 in the bent. Our men marched 
over upon the Hill. The Indians had a very strong line in front 
which extended from one point of the river to the other They had 
flankers and also a party in the rear in order to prevent a retreat 
As the river was very deep only at the licks and the cliffs so steep 
that a passage was impracticable only wliere they first niarclicd 
in — thus circumstanced the savages sure of victory rushed imme- 
diately up and threw our men into confusion — What escaped re- 
turned mostly by the way of the Lick — Many were killed after 
they were made prisoners as they were seen tied 

From Bryants Station to the Blue licks ab' 40 miles i.*^' from 
tiiere to the Olu'o ah' 20 or 25. The Bent of the river was generally 
ah' J/2 mile over & from the top of the ridge each way inside down 
small dreans — in these places lay many Indians undiscovered until 
the attack began. 

It appears near all the warriors are this side of De Troit even 
on this expedition — Some allies 600 or more 

Major Bulger was mortally wounded and is since dead. 


John Floyd to Clark, August 31, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J38.— A.L.S.] 

31 August. 1782 
Dear General. 

The Spies have returned without making the least discovery of 
the Enemy altho they went three miles above Boons old Station; 
neither has Col' Cox any intelligence of them. I rcc*" Ace'' from 
him Yesterday. I am really weary of Conjecture with regard to 
Bushes Indians; if you'll please to send him out this evening on 
Horse back I will send others with him to the Spot. I had other 
Spies out yesterday almost to Bullskin along the Old trace & below 
it, they made no discovery. I've been since endeavouring to en- 
gage some to go across to Kentuckey as they must in that rout cross 
the Indian Trace; but I like your plan best & will drop the other 
if youll please to send Bush out. 

Just as the Express left Col' Coxes, And'' Vaughn arrived from 
Lincoln who says Col' Logan with his party marched no farther 
than the field of Battle Buried the dead & returned. I hear no alter- 
ation in the ace* only that Col' Boon is not killed, & Col' Trigg 
& Todd both found at the Battle Ground. I am apprehensive it 
is Levy Todd. It is to be doubted that more have fallen than we 
have heard of. I thank you for the news from the Westward, I 
am much astonished to hear of Daltons Conduct but what is it now 
adays that men will not be guilty of? 

I am greatly embarrassed & grieved for the loss of our Friends 
& so many brave Men as fell in Fayette. Dear Gen' when shall 
we liavc it in our power to retaliate? Shall we ever? 

I am D'' Gen' with the utmost Esteem your 

Ob<" Serv' 
Gen'- Clark Jn» Floyd 

John Floyd to Clark, September i, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J39.— A.L.S.] 

i'» Sep« 1782 

I have embodied the whole strength of Beargrass which is fit 
for action, & find that the number does not exceed 65 men ; The 


Field Officers &* being here also, I have laid your Letter before them 
who are of Opinion that if the Enemy are determined to march off, 
it will be too late to pursue them tomorrow morning, & if waiting 
for an attack, that the party will be too weak to risk an Engagem' 
as a defeat would perhaps be fatal to this County. I shall use all 
my endeavours to send Spies to Kentuckey, Drinnens Lick &' I now 
wait to hear from Col' Cox. perhaps liis Intelligence may make 
it necessary to apply again for your reinforcem' Your Hint of the 
Enemy being yet about the little Posts at Salt River brings to my 
mind a Circumstance which I forgot to mention this morn? Tlie 
Express from the Salt Works informed me that the man who came 
there last night with the Intelligence discovered a party of the 
Enemy at the Mud Garrison & had like to have been taken by 
them, but I did not enquire in what manner. If you think it pru- 
dent to endeavour with all the Force I can raise to endeavour to 
join Col' Cox without waiting to hear from him, please to let me 
know it this Evening as it will be useless unless we can march early 
in the Morning. I am informed that it was last Night that Col' 
Cox & his party were at Whittakers Station & not the night before 
as I informed you in my last. 

I am Sir your most Ob'" Hble Serv' 

Jn' Flovt) 

Since writing the above your Troops have arrived & upon deliber- 
ation it is thought by the whole of the OiBcers that an Excurtion 
before we are certified the Enemy are on their retreat would be 
imprudent, for which purpose I have sent out Scouts & detained 
Mf Williamses party till morning expecting in the mean time to hear 
from Salt river. I am much perplexed & entirely at a loss how 
to act for the best. J. F. 

2* Sept 82 

The Spies I sent out yesterday have not yet returned which 
prevents my being able to send you any Intelligence to-day, neither 
have I heard from Col' Cox so that it appears that Mr Williams 
& the party from the Falls may return. I expect the Spies in to 
night & shall send to you immediately after. 

Your most Ob^' 

Jn' Floyd 

Addressed: General Clark Fort Nelson P^ Express 

Endorsed : Col' Floyd Sep' 2 82. 


John Gibson to William Davies, September 2, 1782 
[Cal. of Va. Stale Papers, 3:286.] 

Fort Pitt Septem. 2d 1782 
"Dear Colonel 

This moment I was honoured with yours of the 22d of August 
per Express. Inclosed is a return of the officers of my Reg't now 
here and of those three who went last from this place to join the 
troops with you. Inclosed is a narrative* of Doctor Knipht, by 
which 5'ou will be made ac(|uainted with the inhuman sufferings of 
our late worthy friend Colo. Crawford, and of the Fortitude with 
which lie bore them to the last. I am sorry to hear that the As- 
sembly of the Ancient Dominion has done nothing for us, however 
still hope they will consider our services. An Expedition is in 
agitation here against Sanduskey, Genl : Irwin to command, the 
proposal from the people. they are to furnish one thousand men 
from the militia, and also horses, flour and cattle at their own Ex- 
pence unless the states will in future pay them. The Genl : takes 
one hundred of the regulars from this post which is nearly half the 
number here. I am much afraid it will not be carried info execu- 
tion as the people are much divided. Should the Expedition take 
place I am to goe with the Genl: and hope in a few days after our 
return to pay you a visit at Richmond — The General is hurrying 
the Express &c — 

Just as I was closing my letter I rec'd a letter from Clarke at 
the Falls of Ohio dated the loth of August, he writes me every 
thing was then quiet, that he had sent the Express as he had learned 
by Major Wailes, Genl : Irwin intended carrying our Expedition 
into the Indian Country, in order to fix the time when the Genl: 
would move, that he might make an Excursion at the same time." 

I am &c. &c. 

* Not found 

John Floyd to Clark, September 3, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J40.— A.L.S.] 

3^ Sep' 10 OClock 82. 
Sir My Spies have this moment returned & brought Intelligence 
of the Savages who took Kinchelows Station. Yesterday about 2 


OClock P M the Savages crossed Harrods Old Trace on the Ridge 
beyond Brashears Creek. I directed the spies to go as far as tlie 
trace the Enemy marched along to attack the Station : they did 
so, & found they had marched in two Columns about 200 yards on 
this side their first Trace it appeared that about 30 had niarclicd 
oi? Supposed to have gone on Sunday with the prisoner*. And 
on their return Saw the sign of the main body about half a mile 
on tiiis side; so that they had only gone a few minutes before. M' 
Pomcry one of the Spies thinks their whole number does not exceed 
150 & perhaps not so many. If you tiiink we can defeat them let 
no time be lost in letting me know it, tiiat I may collect all the 
men who are able to march. I am now convinced they are on their 
retreat so that it will not be any great risque in drawing the men 
from the Stations. I am also convinced that the Enemy have de- 
layed some to give us an Oppor'l' to attack them, & it is truly morti- 
fying to think they should miss oi it, yet I am sensible of the Evill 
consequences that might attend our engaging them to a disadvantage. 
I have not heard a word of Col' Cox which really Sui,ii>tb me. 
The last time I wrote him I directed if he went in pursuit of the 
Enemy to send an Express with an appointm' where we miijht meet. 

I still think he will send to day. - - 

I now wait for your advice & Instructions how to act please 
to hurry the Express back. I am Dear Gen' your most Ob^' 

Hble Serv« 
Gen"- Clark Jn° Floyd 





OCTOBER 19, 1782 

Effects of Crawford's Defeat and the Battle of the Blue Licks — Cam. 
FOR N'oi.unteers — Criticism of Ci.ark — Additionai. Forts to iit; liuii/r 
ON THE Ohio — Origin of Criticisms on Clark and His Associates. 

William Irvine to Benjamin Harrison, September 3, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 11S144-14S. — Transcript.] ' 

Fort Pitt, September 3'' 1782. 

From about the middle to the last of July, the Indians were very 

troublesome, & threatened an investiture of this post Hanna's 

Town was attacked & burned, ab' 20 \\'ere killed & taken there & 
in the vicinity; Wheeling was at the same time in some degree 
blockaded, a large party of Indians kept skulking about it five or 
six days; in short, they appeared in all quarters; the alarm & con- 
sternation of the inhabitants for two weeks was such that a total 
evacuation of the country was to be dreaded. Since the i'' of 
August everything has been perfectly quiet, & the people have in a 
great degree got over their panic. 

I am now preparing for an excursion into the Indian country. 
My troops are chiefly to be volunteer militia, who propose not only to 
equip & feed themselves, but also such Continental troops as I can take 
with me. If we succeed in burning the Shawanee, Delaware & 
Wyandott towns, it will put an end to the Indian war in this quar- 
ter. I am made more sanguine in this business by an express from 
Gen' Clark last night, in order to concert measures for a descent 
from his quarter at the same time; if we can regulate our movements 
so as to strike different towns at the same time, the probability of 
success will be greater, & the business more effectual. Yet I am 

'This letter, very much edited, is printed in tVashinglon-lrvine Corre- 
ipondence, 270-271. 


not without my fears. You know that the militia are as brave as 
regulars, yet it is impossible to bring them to act with necessary 
promptitude or exactness indispensable in war. 

Gen' Clark's express informs me of Maj'' 'Wales having arrived 
safe at the Falls with his stores. 

W" Irvine 

William Irvine to Clark, September 9, 1782 
[Draper MSS., S2J44.— A.L.S.] ' 

Fort Pitt September 9"' 1782 

I received your favor of the lo"* August, eight days ago, my 
reason for detaining your Express so long, was if possible to inform 
you positively what you might depend on from us. — As the pass- 
age may be precarious I must refer you for full information to Mess" 
Sullivan & Floyd 

Being informed by Major Craig that you are not well supplied 
with three pound Shot have sent 50U 50 

I also send the last news papers for your amusement 

I am with regard 
Dear Sir 

Your Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W" Irvine 
The Hon".-^ Brig? GenV Clark Fort Nelson 

Levi Todd^ to Benjamin Harrison, September 11, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 11S203-205. — Transcript.]- 

Enclosed is a copy of the recommendations made at our last 
court. So great a change proceeds from a cause truly lamentable; 
the loss of our County Lieutenant, and a number of subalterns at 
the late attacks, but particularly at our defeat at the Blue Licks, 

' This letter, considerably edited, is printed in IVashington-Irvine Cor- 
rest'ondence, 396. 

'For Colonel Levi Todd, see Clark Papers, 374, note i. 

'This letter, with some variations, is printed in Calendar of Virginia 
Stale Papers, 3:300-301. 


where the enemy p"ut us wliolly to the route. The circumstances 
& particulars are these: 

On the i6"^ of August, a party of Indians appeared at Bryant's, 
& by their behavior a large party was supposed to lie around tlie 
Fort. An express was sent here ; my brother being absent, I went 
with about 30 men to make discovery, & force my way into tlie 
Fort; near Bryant's I was joined with about ten more. Finding 

tlie enemy lay around, we forcing our way 17 men on horseback 

rushed in; the greater part of the rest being on foot, were prevented 
& overpowered, obliged to seek safety by flight, with the loss of one 
killed & three wounded, one of whom died the next morning. I 
immediately dispatched an express to Col. Trigg, the nighest oflScer 
in Lincoln, demanding assistance, and also notice to Col. Jn' Todd, 
then in Lincoln. 

The enemy commanded by Simon Girty made an attempt to fire 
the Fort, but were prevented with much loss ; they, however, kept 
up a smart fire till the morning of the 17th, when they went off. 
The same evening Col. Jn' Todd & Col. Trigg arrived with a party 
of men, who with what we could raise, soon made 170. On the 
morning of the 18"" we pursued their trail; on the morning of the 
igth ^yg came within sight of the enemy, about three fourths of a 
mile north of the Lower Blue Licks. We dismounted & began 
the attack with vigour from our left, the enemy retreated & we gained 
ground ; our right within a minute or two gave way, & suffered 
themselves to be flanked by the enemy. Our line then gradually 
gave way from our right to our left, till the whole broke in confusion. 
The action lasted about five minutes. Our loss, as near as we can 
ascertain, is sixty six, among whom were commanding officer, Col' 
John Todd, Col. Trigg, Capt' Gordon, M'^Bride, Kinkaid, & Over- 
ton, Major Harlan, Major Bulger (wlio since died of his wounds,) 
Mr. Jos. Lindsay, & several gentlemen of note. The enemy, we 
suppose, consisted of three or four hundred. They took some prison- 
ers, we suppose, tho' very few; upwards of 40 were found, but wc 
think a number more lay near the battle-ground. The enemy must 
have suffered considerably. A great part of our men fought with 
much resolution & activity. 


The conduct of the officers is by some censured & charged with 
want of prudence in attacking at any rate ; but as we had no chance 
to know their number, we thought ours was not much inferior, and 
suppose we should by a fierce attack throw them in confusion & 
beat their lines. 

We arc much alarmed in this county, and fear the consequence 
will be very detrimental, if Government cannot give assistance, 
tho' our great dependance is that if the County Surveyor would 
attend, we should be strengthened with additional settlers not a few. 

I am. Sir, your Excellency's most obed' & very humb'* serv', 

Levi Todd 
Lexington, Fayette County, Sept. 11, 1782. 

Daniel Boone et al. to Benjamin Harrison, 

September 11, 1782 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Lexington Fayette County Sep' ii'" 82 

The Officers Civil as well as Military of this County beg the At- 
tention of your excellency & the Hble Councel. The Number of 
the Enemy that lately penetrated into our County, their Behavour, 
adding to this our late unhappy Defeat at the Blue Licks, fill us 
with the deepest concern & Anxiety, the Loss of our worthy Officers 
& Soulders who fell there the ig'"" of Aug'' we Sensibly feel & deem 
our Situation truly Alarming, We can scarcely Behold a spot of 
Earth but what reminds us of the fall of some fellow adventurer, 
Massacred by Savage hands. Our Number of Militia decreases. 
Our Widows & Orphants are numerous Our Officers & worthiest 
Men fall a Sacrifise. In short Sir, our Settlement hitherto form'd 
at the Expence of Treasure & much Blood seems to decline & if 
something is not speedily done we doubt will wholly be depopulated 
the Executive we Believe think often of us & wish to protect us, 
but, Sir, we believe any Military Operations that for 18 Montlis 
past have been carried on in Consequence of Orders from the Execu- 
tive, have rather been detrimental than Beneficial, Our Militia are 
called on to do Duty in a manner that has a tendency to protect 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Paper], 3:301-302. 


Jefferson County, or Ratlier Louisville, a Town without Inhabitants 
a Fort situated in such a Manner that the Enemy coming with a 
design to Lay waste our Countrey would scarcely come within one 
Hundred miles of it, & our own Frontiers, open & unguarded. Our 
Inhabitants are discouraged tis now near two Years since the di- 
vision of the County, & no Surveyor has ever appeared among us, 
but has by Appointment from time to time deceived us, our princi- 
pal expectation of Strength are from him, during his absence from 
the County Claimants of Land disappear when if Otherwise they 
would be an additional Strength, we entreat the Executive to 
examine into the Cause and remove it spedily - - If it is thought 
impracticable to carry the war into the Enemys Country we beg 
the plan of building a Garrison at the Mouth of Lime stone & 
another at the mouth of Licking formerly prescribed by your Ex- 
cellency might be again adopted & performed, A Garrison at the 
mouth of Limestone would be a Landing place for adventures from 
the Back parts of Pensylv* & Virg*, adjacent to a Large a Body of 
Good Land which would be Speedily Settled — would be exactly 
in the Enemys princiapal crossing place, not more than fifty Miles 
from Lexington, our Largest settlement, & might readily be furnished 
with provitions from above, till they would be supplied from our 
settlements here — Major Netherland we expect will deliver this 
he will attend to give any perticular information that may be deem'd 
necessary — 

Humanity towards Inhabitants destitute of Hopes of any other 
aid; will surely induce your Excellency to spair from the Interior 
parts of the State 200 Men and a few pieces of Artillery for these 
purposes above mentioned We are Sir y'' Excellencys 
Mo' Ob< & Hbie Serv' 

Danirl Boone 

Levi Todd 

P Patterson 

R Netherland 

Eli Cleveland 

W" Henderson 

W" M'=Connalle 

John Craig 

W*" M Connell 


Andrew Steele to Benjamin Harrison, September 12, 1782 
\_Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3:303-304.] 

Fayette Co. Ky. Lexington Septem. 12th 1782 

The present Important & allarming Crisis claim the serious 
Attention & mature Deliberation of Your Excellency & the Honour- 
able House. The frequent Incursions & Hostile Depredations of 
a Savage Enemy upon our Exterior Posts, our Despersed Legions, 
our veteran army defeated, our Widows Tears & orphans cries 
grate strongly on the Ear, nay Thunder at the Door of your Coun- 
cil, not only for acts of consideration, but Protection & redress. 

To express the feelings of the Inhabitants at the Ruefull scenes 
of Barbarities daily perpetrated amongst us, barrs all words & cut 
Description short. So fatal is the stroke that a second similar to 
tliat we have already Rcc'd will close the Catastrophy & Terminate 
the Intire Devastation of our County. I would beg leave to in- 
form you that annually since the seventeen Hund'd & seventy eight, 
an army of not less than three Hund'd Savcges Infested our Terri- 
tories & since seventy six, Eight Hundred & sixty Effective men fell, 
the matchless massacread victims of their unprecedented Cruelty. 
A few of tlic primitive adventurers yet survive, who supplicate your 
Excellencies Immediate Interposition in their beh.nlf, in granting 
them such strength, as may enable them to carry on an offensive 
war, or at least Act in the Defensive with safety, for if some mode 
of preservation is not speedily adopted the wealthy will fortliwitli 
Emigrate to the Interior parts of the Settlement & the Poor to the 
Spaniards. Dreadfull alternative!! Nature recoils at the thouglit! 
— further, from the Jealous apprehension of the Inhabitants I am 
under the Disagreeable necessity of Informing your Excellency tiiat 
from the Detainour of our County Surveyor (from whom their 
greatest Expectations of strength was derived) they are Induced 
to believe you have either withdrawn that Paternal care which they 
have long Rely'd on or rather the Executive Body are Dubious of 
the authenticity of their Claim to those Western Territories — I 
would also observe that the many Military Operations hitherto 
Effected, or rather Intended for our safety (the Seventeen Hundred 
& Eighty Indian Expedition excluded, the Honour whereof is Justly 


due to tlie militia) have centred at Louisville, a Town distant one 
Hund'd miles from the Center of our County, to which together 
with Fort Jefferson, Elinois & St. Vincennes, may the Innormous 
Expence of the Western fronteers be Attributed & not to the Coun- 
ties of Kanetucky, which in competition would be less than a Mathe- 
matical Point. To Conclude, Permit us, once more the Indigent 
Offspring of an oppulent father, if not Equally to share, yet to par- 
take of your Kind patronage & Protection & beg you would adopt 
such measures as your Superior Wisdom may suggest to Promote 
the Peace, wellfare & Tranquility of your Suppliants in particular 
& the Interest of the Commonwealth in Genl. Then shall we Con- 
gratulate ourselves in having you the Illustrious Patron & Protector 
of our Lives, Laws & Religious Liberties, when the annals of His- 
tory will rank your name among the Bravest Patriots & Wisest 
Politicians & Gratitude like a Torrent will flow from the Heart 
of every Kanetuckian, whilst we Experience with what firmness 
you have supported our Interest. Our universal Joy & fervent Ex- 
pressions of Allegiance & Gratitude. 

Those public Testimonies of our Felicities will be Too convinc- 
ing Proofs to Require any argument to support them. 

The Author begs leave to subscribe himself, a Friend 

to the Commonwealth & your Excellency's 

most obed't humbl. Servant" 

William Irvine to Clark, September i6, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J45.— A.L.S.] 

Fort Pitt Sepf i6"' 1782 
Dear Sir If the bearer M"" Floyd arrives safe he will inform you 
of the disaster which befel Sullivan & himself, and also of my 
views, and the time I propose marching. By what M^ Floyd in- 
forms me, you can reach your object in five days less than I can mine, 
if so we shall be still able to form a Junction in case you should not 
march till he arrives if he has a speedy passage — which will doubt- 
less be necessary to insure success to either. If any possible mode 
can be adopted for keeping up a correspondence, after we reach some 
distance into the Enemys Country it will be highly expedient — I 


will attempt it on my part, and am persuaded you will do so too. 
I am Dear Sir 

Your Obedient 

Humble Servant 

Wf Irvine 
General Clark 

[Notes on slip attached to the above letter as follows:] 
March from Ohio 21" Sepf towards upper Sandusky, Troops com- 
posed Regulars — & Militia — 50 days provisions - - M 850 R 


750 Regulars 1200 Militia --two 12 pounders, two Sixes, i How- 
itzer to March from Wheeling, against Detroit about the 21°' Sepf 
Addressed: The Hon""'" Brigadier General Clark 

By Express Falls of Ohio Public Service 

William Fleming to Benjamin Harrison, September 26, 1782 
[Cal. of I'a. Slate Paprrs, 3 :327-328.] 

Botetourt Septem. 26th, 1782 

I wrote your Excellency by Express of the 4th Inst: to which 
I have had no return, but received the papers & instructions of the 
Qtli by a rider dispatched by Mr. Hay C. A. who delivered the 
travelling stores &c., and $150 specie. I am sorry to observe the 
money is by no means adequate to the purposes: however that diffi- 
culty may perhaps be got over, tliis morning Mr. Peterson liandcd 
me an open letter from Col: Logan for the Executive, informing 
your Excellency of the melancholy catastrophy of many valuable 
pcoi)!c in tliat Country. Your Excellency will perceive that Coun- 
try is in a great confusion and disorder, and be convinced the powers 
desired by the Commiss'r, in the letter I had the honour of writing 
your Excellency by Armstrong are not altogetlier unnecessary — 
permit me to transcribe part of a letter I received from Col : Bow- 
man, of the 30th of August last dated "Lincoln" "some of our men 
have been stealing horses from the French at Oport [O Post],' 
which has occasioned great disturbance among them. The Frem li 

' O Post was the name commonly used for Vincennes by the traders. 


sent 50 of the Oport Indians after their horses, retook all their 
horses, one of our men is missing, we suppose he is killed. 

What has raised the Jealousy of the French, is that Genl: Clark's 
Express arrived but a few days before the horses were taken, to Mr. 
Dalton to contrive the cannon privately from Oport to the falls. 
The French demanding a sight of the express, it was refused, which 
has confirmed their opinion that Genl : Clark is concerned in sending 
the men there for that purpose, and if this breach is not made up 
shortly we may expect all the Western Indians on our backs." I 
must suppose Genl : Clark has sent for the heavy cannon agreeable 
to instructions, to be removed with as little noise as possible, how- 
ever the taking the horses in a clandestine way, as it is represented 
in the above extract, may make it more difficult for the Commiss'r 
of Acc'ts to settle & examine into the business of that part of the 
country. I design, with the other Comssrs. to set out the first of 
Oct'r. we may be detained a few days in Washington county, to 
make up a sufficient party to pass with security to Kentucky. Mr. 
Granville Smitli is come up, but is wavering in his resolution to 
go out, as he tiiinks it will be exceeding difficult to provide horses 
& other iiccessarys witiiout money, meeting witli Col: Logan's 
Express, I thought it migiit not be amiss to write by him. 

I have the honour to be, with great respect Your Excellency's 

most obt. Humble Servant." 

William Christian' to Benjamik Harrison, 

September 28, 1782 

[Ca/. of fa. Stale Papers, 3:331-333.] 

MoNTCOMiiRY Co. Scptem. 28th, 178^. 

I take the Liberty of addressing a few Lines to your Excellency, 
upon the Subject of the Kentucky Country, and flatter myself it 
requires no apology, as you are acquainted with my being a Repre- 

' Colonel William Christian represented Fincastle County in the Vir- 
Rinia legislature (1774) and commanded a regiment from that county iji 
Dunmore's War. During 1776, in charge of a force of seventeen hundred 
men, he marched against the Cherokee and burned their towns. He was 
one of the commissioners to treat with this tribe (1781). After the Revo- 
lution he removed to the neighborhood of Louisville where he was killed 
by a party of Indians (1786). 


scntative for tlut Country. A few days ago, the Report of an 
Expedition made by the Savages into Fayette reached this far, and 
pcrliaps may be at Richmond before this Letter; but as I have seen 
a Letter from Colo. Levi Todd, I will enclose an extract from it, 
for j-our Satisfaction, as you may not yet liave had any well authenti- 
cated account from thence. 

Tlic number of men killed is a lamentable thing for that Coup 
try, and the loss of some of their principal and best officers adds 
greatly to their sorrow. Besides this disastrous Event, a few Days 
after, 37 people were taken in a station upon Salt river, about 40 
miles from the Falls. These successes will surely encourage the 
Shawanese to new Enterprizes. Kentuckey it is supposed does not 
contain above lOOO men at present, the general Part of the young 
men having come off this summer, as is commonly the case when 
Danger appears there. The Settlements are so much scattered, 
that it is difficult, and takes some Days to collect a Force together, 
particularly to go to any Distance from their own Families, when 
no other man knows what number of the Enemy have entered the 
Country, nor where the first Stroke will be made. The last Blow 
has cast a Gloom over the whole Country, and indeed Sir, their 
Distress is so great, that I need not attempt to describe it. And 
moreover, all accounts agree that there is Danger from the Wabash 
Indians, who are disgusted with our Procedings in their Country. 

It is true numbers of People are now on the Road, moving out, 
but from the encumbrance of women, children and stock, the men 
will be of little service in fighting for the Country this year. And 
I am doubtful many of them will turn into Carolina towards the 
Cherokees where they may live in safet)'. If no succour is sent to 
Kentuckey, and the war with the British continues another Year, 
it is more than Probable the whole of the Inhabitants will be killed, 
taken to Detroit or driven away: And when that is no longer a 
Barrier, Washington, Montgomery and Greenbrier must suffer. 
These Counties have suffered this year from small Parties, but Ken- 
tucky employs the attention of the Bulk of the Sliawncy Nation, 
^'our Excellency will please to reflect that any Force which may be 
marciied from I'ort Pitt against their immediate enemies, will be of 
no service to Kentuckey, or the Rest of our Frontiers Southwest of 


Augusta, which seems to be the distance allotted to the Shawnese 
and Mingos. I believe Colo. Crawford's Expedition was against 
Sanduskey, and if General Irvine carries on another, it will prob- 
ably be the same Course, and do as but little good — 

From your Excellencies known humanity and willingness to 
releive every Part of the Country under your Care, I can have no 
doubt, but you will readily fall upon any measures which may 
appear to you eligible for the Support of Kentuckey. I would 
therefore propose to your consideration the Expediency of having 
Garrisons erected upon the Oliio, and defended by regular Troops, 
as 1 hope you could spare a Regiment from the lower Country. 
l?csides the Falls, the mouth of Kentucky and mouth of Licking 
would be proper Places. Perhaps Spotswood's Legion could be sent 
out: Such of them as are equipt as Dragoons would be of essen- 
tial service against Indians. Even musket men with bayonets would 
be of more use than it is generally thought: as the Indians of late 
depend more upon the use of their Tomhaks and Spears, than their 
Fire — 

In the mean time Sir, until something more permanent can be 
done for the country, I am induced to offer myself to your Excel- 
lency and the Council, to aim at raising five hundred Volunteers 
in tlie Counties of Augusta, Rockbridge, Greenbrier, Botetourt, 
Montgomery & Washington to hasten out on Horseback. And 
when arrived there I would expect to be joined by what Force that 
country could spare, and would suppose the whole might form a 
Brigade of looo men: and with them I would hope to be able to 
make an excursion throughout the Shawnee country. Considering 
the Finances of our country, I should expect every man to find him- 
self a Horse, arms and accoutrements, and also Provisions & Forage 
to carry him as far as Washington Court House, where some supply 
might be procured out of the Taxes of that County, to last from 
thence to Kentucky. I would wish to avoid all unnecessary Parade 
& Expence, and also the being encumbered with Beeves or Pack- 
horses. I suppose the men would expect to have their Horses and 
accountrements valued, & if lost, paid for at some future Day; and 
no doubt they would think of being entitled to the same Pay as 
others in like service, & for the Provisions found themselves. The 


men who would go from here would not be too many for actitig 
as mounted Infantry & Dragoons. Perhaps I could procure a few 
proper Horsemen from Henry, Bedford & Amherst. And I have 
a chance for some in Sullivan County upon Holston. Col : Preston 
of this County and Col : Campbell of Washington, have both offered 
me their assistance, and I expect I should have the assistance of the 
Officers in the" other Counties. Tiie season of the year may be 
thought unfavourable for sucli a scheme: but I conceive it would 
be no great obstacle to such men as would be excited to go from 
motives of Generosity & zeal for the People of Kentuckey. Horses 
can live well all the winter at Kentuckey, and in the Siiawney 
Country, and a successful attack upon Indians in the winter, would 
Distress them vastly more than at any other Season. If the whole 
number of volunteers I mentioned cannot be got no doubt a con- 
siderable part can, and ever so few going out would Inspirit the 
People of Kentuckey, and give new life to their operations. 

Should your Excellency & the Council think well of my pro- 
posals, I hope you will hold out such encouragements for the Volun- 
teers as you think Right ; and give me such instructions and Powers 
as you may judge proper. The Bearer Capt: MacCorkle will be 
able to give any further Information you may want, and can convey 
your Orders to the several Counties & to me. 

I beg your Excellency to believe I have not the most distant 
wish to acquire any lasting Command in the Western Country ; 
a few months will afford Time for all I expect to execute so that 
any Appointment you may vest me with, cannot interfere with any 

other Person there. If the Plan is approved it • 

endeavour to go through with it. And if not, I will not Doubt but 
your Excellency will do the best for that Country that you find can 
be done with a good Prospect. 

I am Sir, your most obedient & humble Servant." 

Arthur Campbell to William Davies, October 3, 1782 

ICal. of I'a. State Papers, 3:337-338.] 

Washington Co. October 3d, 1782. 

From Col : Cliristian and the accounts sent by Major Nether- 
land, the Executive may be fully informed of the State of tiie War 


in the Kentucky Country. What if it should be the policy of the 
British Ministry to drive in from the other side the Apalachiaii 
mountain before the signing the preliminaries of peace. 

At any rate they are uniting the Savage Tribes, and endeavoring 
to sow the seeds of deep laid animosity, which will lengthen the 
Indian war to a longer period than most imagine. Nothing now 
will put an end to it, but a decided blow in the enemies country, 
and a peace given them in the hour of their panic and misfortune, 
afterwards conducted by a proper Supcrintendency, or that Canada 
becomes ours, or our Allies. 

The method of arming and arraying our militia ought to be 
varied. The Bayonet and Scymeter must be introduced to enable 
us now to face the Indians. And Evolutions suited to the woods 
should be learned both by Foot and Horse. All our late defeats 
have been occasioned thro' neglect of these, and a want of a proper 
authority and capacity in the Commanding Officers. Never was 
the lives of so many valuable men lost more shamefully than in 
the late action of the iQth of August, and that not a little thro' 
the vain and seditious expressions of a Major McGeary. How 
much more harm than good can one fool do. Todd & Trigg had 
capacity but wanted experience. Boone, Harlin and Lindsay had 
experience, but were defective in capacity. Good however would 
it have been, had their advice been followed. Logan is a dull, 
narrow body from whom nothing clever need be expected. What 
a figure he exhibited at the head of near 500 men to reach the field 
of action six days afterwards, and hardly wait to bury the dead, 
and when it was plain, part of the Indians were still in the Coun- 
try. Genl. Clarke is in that country, but he has lost the confidence 
of the people, and it is said become a Sot ; perhaps something worse. 

The chance is now against General Irvine's succeeding: disap- 
pointed in Clarkes co-operation, which he was promised, and it is 
said set out with only 1200 men. Simon Girty can out number 
him; and flushed with so many victories, to his natural boldness, 
he will be confident. 

This state of our Western Aflairs calls for the united wisdom 
and most serious attention of the Executive. 


The Carolinians are gone on with their Expedition against those 
Clierokees, they say that gives an asylum to Tories. 

I wish they may succeed, but still dread the consequence of mul- 
tiplying our Enemies. Two Chickasaw Chiefs have been at the 
Carolina Settlement on the Shawanee or Cumberland River, from 
thence they came to our Settlement on Kentucky. Peace are their 
profession, but complain of our making settlement at the Iron Bank, 
on the Alississippi. 

I esteem your person, and like your politicks, therefore sciul you 
this communication, merely for your private information. 

I am sir with usual respect your 
very humble servant" 
&c. &c. 

Benjamin Harrison to County Lieutenants, October lo. 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 6-7, Va. State Archives.] 

County Lieutenants of Washington & Montgomery. — 
In Council Octo'' 10th, 1782. 

Some very alarming accounts from Kentuckey may render it 
necessary to send an aid of Militia into that Country, if it should 
so turn out, you will receive the information from General Clarke 
to whom I have given Orders to call on you for any number of men 
not exceeding should the General be so circumstanced 

as to be obliged to demand Assistance, I doubt not but your Hu- 
manity and Duty will be sufficient Incitements to an immediate 
compliance with his request. 

I am &c. B. H. 

William Irvine to Clark, October 3, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J46.— A.L.S.] ' 

Fort Pitt October 3^ 1782 

Since 1 dispatched Mr Floyd, sundry obsticles have intervened 

to prevent my moving at the time propos'd, I have therefore thought 

proper to send this Express, as well to inform you of the causes of 

'This letter, considerably edited, is published in IVaslnngton-Irvine 
Corrtspondence, 398-399. 


my detention, (that you may know what to depend on), as of my 
present expectations and Views — If he can not arrive at the falls 
in time I flatter myself he will meet you, & perhaps at such a place 
as it may be no great inconvenience for you to halt a few days, in 
case that step should appear expedient, on his Account of my in- 

I can not be more explicit for reasons I mention'd in my former 
letter — but I presume much depends on keeping good time, I mean 
that the one should not be long before the other. 

I am Dear Sir 

Your Obedient 

Humble Servant 

WV Irvini; 

P: S: you will give credit to what the bearer Mr Tate informs 
you from me, or to his companion James Amberson, & I have prom- 
ised you will alow them provision, while they remain with you, and 
assist them to return if necessary. 

To General Clark 

Addressed: Hon*^ Brigadier General Clark Falls of Ohio By 

Endorsed by Clark: Received from Gen' Erwin at the Mouth 
of Licking Nov' 2^ 1782 

Daniel Boone to Thomas Marshall,' October 8, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J48.— L.S.] 

StR The Officers Civil & Military of this County Assembled do 
in Answer to your Request recommend that Every preperation 
Necessary be made towards opening the Surveyors Office & Pro- 
ceeding to Business but tliat no Entries be received or otlicr 

' Colonel Thomas Marshall was a friend and neighbor of Washington. 
He served in the Virginia House of Burgesses for a numlier of years and 
dtiriti^ the Kevolution was commanding ollicer of the Tliird Virginia Kcgi- 
meiit, heing promoted to lieutenant colonel on August 13, 1776, and colonel 
on February 21, 1777. In 1783, together with Judge Samuel McDowell, he 
was appointed surveyor of the public lands in Fayette County, Kentucky, 
lie was also named surveyor general of public lands in Kentucky which 
had bien appropriated by Virginia to the officers and soldiers of the Vir- 
ginia Line. In 1783 he moved to Kentucky and settled in Fayette County. 
He was father of John Marshall, chief justice of the United States Supreme 


Business actually done before Monday the 14"' Inst, at which 
Time we wish you to proceed unless Orders from Gen' Clark 
be issued in the County for drafting Men & making other prep- 
erations for carrying on an Expedition into the Enemys Country 

Daniel Boone 
Fayette Octob'' 8'" 1782 

Addressed : Col. Tho* Marsh?l 

William Davies to Clark, October 12, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J49.— A.L.S.] 

War office Ocf 12, '82. 
Sir The Executive, having taken into consideration the state of 
our western frontier, have directed me to inform you that if there 
should be any further occasion during tha fall of ordering out militia 
for the purpose of protecting tiie inhabitants in that quarter, you 
are licreby autiiorizcd to call for two hundred men properly officered 
from Washington Botetourt and Montgomery, in the following pro- 
portions, to wit, Washington 76. men, with a field officer to command 
the whole, Montgomery 64. and Botetourt 60; or any less number 
you may think necessary. I am extremely concerned at the disaster 
your militia has lately met with, but hope the large number of peo- 
ple on their way out will prove a considerable accession of strength. 
I have not received a letter from you these several months, but have 
heard by the way of Fort Pitt of the arrival of the Stores at the falls. 

I am, very respectfully. 

Your very obed' Ser"' 

William Davies. 
Addressed: Brig Gen Clark, 
Falls of Ohio 

Benjamin Harrison to Benjamin Logan, October 14, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 19-25, \'a. State Archives] 

Cols Benjamin Logan. 

In Council October 14''' 1782. 

I receiv'd your favor of the Ji'*" of August three days ago. I 
feel most sensibly for the loss you have sustaln'd in so many brave, 


and worthy Men but great as it is I see no reason for dispondency 
as you have still a great nuinbcr of good and brave Men left, who 
have hearts and hands ready to revenge their beloved Country Men's 
death's when a proper Oppertunity shall ofTer, and that I hope is 
not at a great distance. Experience has ever shewn us that our 
people wlien commanded prudently are equal to any Men on Earth, 
let not therefore a Misfortune which may perhaps in some Measure 
be attributed to ourselves, sink your Spirits but rather let it stimu- 
late you to return the blow, and convince the merciless Savages that 
they shall not injure us with Impunity. — Gen: Clark's conduct in 
not erecting strong forts at the mouth of Kentuckey river and at the 
mouth of licking and limestone creeks and garrisoning them with 
sixty eight men each as he was order'd to do in December last sur- 
prises me much. The Executive saw the importance of these posts 
for the protection of the Country and gave Orders accordingly, and 
I had not the least suspition that they were not obey'd till the receipt 
of your Letter. I have now repeated them in such terms that I 
expect they will be obey'd, and I have empower'd him to call on the 
Counties of Washington, Montgomery and Botetourt for Assistance 
if he thinks it necessary for your protection this Fall or Winter, 
tho' I would not have this last step taken but in case of the greatest 
necessity, as the expence attending it may put it out of our power 
to do something more decisive in the Spring. True it is that the 
back Country has cost the State immense Sums of Money and that 
we at present feel the weight of the burden but I beg you to be 
assured that no pecuniary Consideration shall ever have weight 
enough with me to refuse you any assistance in my power in Times 
of distress, let your people be united and remember that they are 
part of Virginia and they will in a few years be with us a great and 
happy people & overcome all their difficulties. — 

The distance betwixt this place and you is so great that it is not 
to be wonder'd at, that the Orders of Government are not always 
obey'd or their designs carried into Execution by those they entrust, 
but it appears strange that Gentlemen who are in power and on the 
Spot should neglect to inform Government, of those breaches of duty 
when their own Welfare and that of their Country is so immediately 
concern'd, abuses can not be corrected until they are know, and I 


have no means of coming at the Knowledge of them in your Countiy 
but from Gentlemen in high Stations, and it is from them I expect 
it, and when I have it not it is natural for me to conclude all goes 
well. — 

Gen: Irvins force at fort Pitt is very little more than Gen. 
Clarke's, so that you can expect but little Assistance from him, he 
intended an Expedition against the Indians this fall, and went to 
the place of rendezvous but was disappointed of half the Men he 
expected and forced to lay it aside till the Spring. — I shall improve 
the Oppertunity offer'd of settleing a peace with the Chickcsaw 
Indians and either employ Mr. Donelson or Col' Martin or perhaps 
both in the Business. — I will immediately write to Gen: Washing- 
ton and Gen : Greene on the Subject of the prisoners carried to 
detroit, I tiiink with you that tliey ought to be set at Liberty and 
sent back, and shall use my best endeavors to bring it about. — You 
have enclosed the Commission of the peace you desire which I wish 
safe to you and I beg tiie favor of you to let me know frequently 
the State of your Country. 

I am &c. 
B. H. 

Benjamin Harrison to Levi Todd, October 14, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 7-10, Va. State Arcliives.] ' 

Col' Llvi Todd, 

In Council October i4tli, 1782. — 


Your letter of the nth Ult' came safe to hand the unfor- 
tunate Victory of the Indians at the blue Licks gives me great Con- 
cern as well for the loss of the many truely valuable and brave offi- 
cers and men that fell tliere as for the dispondency into which it has 
thrown the people and for which I can see no great Occasion: Your 
Country is still populous and will be much more so shortly, great 
numbers of people being on their way to join )'ou, and you may rest 
assured of support if it should be found necessary, of this General 
Clarke will be the Judge, and is empower'd to call on the Counties 
of Botetourt, Washington & Montgomery for any number of Men 


not exceeding 200. In December last Forts were order'd to be built 
at the mounth of Kentucky River and at the mouth of licking and 
limestone Creeks and garrison'd with sixty eight Men each, why 
iliis has not been done Gen: Clarke will account, I am apt to think 
if he had obey'd his orders this disaster would not have happen'd 
as the approach of the enemy would have been known in Time for 
the people to have collected in sufficient Numbers to have driven 
them back, these orders are repeated and I trust will be executed, 
if they are not I shall look on it as the Duty of the higher officers 
in Kentuckey to inform me of it, without whose assistance I can 
not at this distance know the conduct of those entrusted with Com- 
mand. — 

Your surveyor ought most certainly to have been out long ago, 
indeed I was inform'd he would set off in June last or I should have 
wrote to him on the Subject, he is now on his Way and will be 
with you before this gets to hand, and I hope will make up for the 
loss of Time by his Diligence. — The Commissioner of War will 
forward the commissions you desire, except the majority for Benja- 
min Netherland, you certainly do not know the Man or your Court 
would never have recommended him, you will have a blank Com- 
mission which you'l please to fill up to any other person that the 
Court shall recommend, but you have my positive orders that it be 
not to Netherland. 

I am &c. 

B. H. 

Benjamin Harrison to Danihl Boone, October 14, 1782 

[Renjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 10-13, Va. State Archives.] 

Colonel Daniel Boone, Levi Todd &c. 

In Council October 14th 1782. 

I have rec* your joint Letter of the nth Ult" and very sin- 
cerely sympathize with you for the loss you have sustained in the 
defeat at the blue licks, many of those who fell I know were truely 
valuable Men, and all useful in an infant Country, in War such 
misfortunes are common and must be submitted to, but never should 
occasion dispondency, which is the bane of every Thing great and 


noble we should look forward to the Day of retaliation, and ar- 
dently wish for its Arrival tliat we miglit shew or Enemies we would 
not tamely submit to such Injuries, this Day I hope will conic in 
the Spring, if it does not it shall not be my fault. — Why forts were 
not built at the mouths of licking and limestone Creeks and garri- 
son'd according to Orders sent to Gen: Clarke in December last 
remains for him to say, he is call'd on to do it immediately and in 
the mean Time has these orders repeated, and has also the Liberty 
of calling for 200 Men if they should be wanted this fall and Winter 
to assist in the defence of the Country, but I trust this call will not 
be made if it can be avoided as the Expence will lessen the means 
of doing something more effectual in the Spring. — I beg you to 
be satisfied that I am from Duty as well as Inclination determined 
to use such means as the Assembly shall please to entrust me with, 
equally for the Benefit & protection of the whole State. Kentuckey 
is as much the object of my care as Richmond, and I shall shew it 

on all occasions. 1 expected your Surveyor would have been 

with you in June last, and am concern'd to find his not going out has 
been attended with such disagreeable Circumstances. Your express 
tells me we was arriv'd before he came away. He is a very worthy 
man and I hope in some Measure compensate for the delay by his 
future assiduity. — Some artilery were sent down to Col' Clarke 
last Summer and several pieces more wuld have been sent if we had 
not been disappointed in our expectation of getting them f.nm Mr. 
Zanes works, the Order shall be renewed and the Cannon & Stores 
forwarded in the Spring. — I have nothing more to add but to beg 
of you most earnestly to use every Method to inspirit your people 
and to drive the few Indians that remain in your Country out of it, 
if you continue inactive you will encourage them to return. 

I am &c. 

B. H. 


Benjamin Harrison to Governor Mathews, October 15, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 30-36, Va. State Archives.] 

His Excellency 

Governor Mathews. S. Carolina. 

Virginia In Council. Oct. 15'* 82. 

I have the Honor of yours of the loth of June proposing the 
cooporation of some Troops from this State in an Expedition you 
intended against the Cherokees to commence the first Week in August 
your Letter was so long delaid on the road that it did not come to 
hand till several Days after your Troops were to march, this you 
may readily suppose put it entirely out of my power to give you any 
Assistance, even if the State had been in a Situation to bear the ex- 
pcnce of such an undertaking, which at that Time it really was not, 
nor had we any just cause of quarrel with that part of the nation 
that was the object of your resentment, tliey having long before 
satisfied us that the dammage we sustain'd was altogctlicr done by 
the Chickamauger Indians over whom tliey had no command bur 
that they would use tiieir endeavors to bring about a peace with 
them, they have done so, and have succeeded and our agent is gone 
forward to settle the Terms, wliich are to be general, lie having 
positive Orders to inform the Indians, that all the American States 
are one people and that an Injury done to one would be resented 
by the whole of them — It is much to be wish'd that some general 
plan was fix'd by this State and all those South of us for regulating 
Indian Affairs and that Treaties with them should be jointly made, 
and some bounds fix'd beyond wliich our people should not be al- 
low'd to settle, if this is not done there is but too mucli reason to 
apprehend that continual Encroachments will be made on their 
Lands, and of course the Frontiers of each State laid waste in its 
Turn in revenge for the Injury. The Honor as well as tlie In- 
terest seem to call on us for such a regulation, these poor Wretches 
have their rights, and if we co""ilt our Justice and Humanity, they 
will be powerful Advocates for their being supported in them. When 
Bounds are fix'd and assurances given that we would not go beyond 
them, they should be inform'd that the least infringment on their 
side would be resented by all the States, such a Threat would prob- 


ably keep tlicm quiet, if it did not we should proceed to chastise 
them from every quarter at the same Time, which being repeated 
twice or thrice would I am confident keep them still ever after and 
give Safety to our frontier Inhabitants, and be a very great saving 
to us all, by enabling us to withdraw the Troops we are not obliged 
to station in the back County for their protection. At present we 
know nothing of each others Intentions, and at the same Time that 
one State is earring on War with them another is making peace and 
perhaps furnishing them with Amunition, which was actually the 
Case with me at the Time your Letter arrived, there being a con- 
siderable quantity of powder and Lead on the Way to the Chero- 
kees that would have reach'd the big Island in a few Days where 
they were to have receiv'd it if an Express had not overtaken it with 
a countermanding Order. If my Sentiments on this Subject should 
coincide with 5'ours I shall be extremely happy to concert Measures 
with you to carry them into immediate Execution the present Mo- 
ment appearing to me a favorable one, the Cherokees, Chickamauger, 
Chickasews and Creeks having lately made overtures of peace. 

Commissioners are appointed to meet the two last, tho' the Time 
and place are not yet fix'd when they are I shall do myself the Honor 
of informing you of it that you may send Commissioners if you should 
think it advisable to do so. 

I am &c. 
B. H. 

Benjamin Harrison to William Fleming, October 16, 1782 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 37-39, Va. State Archives.] 

CoL^ William Fleming and the other Com.missioners in 
Kentuckey. — 
In Council October 16'*" 1782. — 

If it had been in my power to have sent you more money I should 
most certainly have done it but it really was not, I was in hopes 
the sum sent witii the stores would h.ave been sufficient as there can 
be but little occasion for Money in the Wilderness. 

I have but too much reason to complain of Gen: Clarke on other 
accounts besides what Col' Bowman says of the French Horses, 
which story can hardly be true, if you should find that it is, I beg 


you will use your endeavors to moderate the resentment of the 
French. — I gave the General Orders in December last to build 
forts at the mouths of the Kentucky, licking, and limestone and 
to garrison each of them with sixty eight men, if he had obey'd the 
Orders it is probable the late Misfortune would not have happen'd, 
as the Country would certainly have been alarm'd if not protected, 
and have had it in their power to have met the Enemy with more 
equal force, the orders are again repeated, and I desire you will use 
your Endeavours with him to fix his Attention on those objects, I 
expect implicit Obedience on the Occasion and will not again over- 
look a breach of Duty, if you find it necessary you'l please to in- 
sinuate this to him. 

A report much to his prejudice prevails here of his being so ad- 
dicted to liquor as to be incapable of Attending to his Duty, by which 
tlie public Interest suffers much. I must beg the favor of you 
Gentlemen to inquire into this in a private Way and let mc know 
your Sentiments, his being a Military Man makes it improper to 
have a public inquiry by those who are not so. — The General 
will lay his Accounts before you in Order to their being adjusted and 
reported on, and he is directed to repair to this place in the Spring 
in order to a final Settlement, I need say nothing to you on this 
Subject it being altogether in the line of your Commission, I only 
mention it that the Business may be expedited, that I may the sooner 
have an oppertunity of coming to an Explanation with the General. 

I am Gentlemen, &c. B. H. 

Benjamin Harrison to Joseph Crockett,' October i6, 1782 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 40-41, Va. State Archives.] 

Col" Joseph Crockett. Albemarle. 

In Council Octo: iS'^" 1782. 


I have lately had some reason to complain of Gen: Clarke, and 

know not to what cause to attribute his seeming Neglect of Duty, 

'Colonel Joseph Crockett commanded a regiment of Virginia state 
troops which was designated as a part of the force to be used by Clark for 
an attack on Detroit (1781). He served as president of the council of war 
summoned by Clark to consider the advisability of a march against Detroit. 
While he was opposed to the expedition because of the inadequate force 
at their disposal, he was among those who recommended that an attempt 
should be made to capture Detroit, 1782. 



perhaps it may be in your power to explain this as you are lately 
from Kcntuckcy where his Command is. You will extremely oblige 
me if you will give mc any Information on this Subject tliat has 
come witiiin your own Knowledge ; it is disaf^reeable to me to make 
inquirery in this Way, and I dare say will be so to you to give In- 
formation, but when it is considered tiiat the public good is tlie 
actual Motive in both we shall meet with applause rather tlien 
Censure. The great distance there is between the General and 
myself, leaves me no other Way of coming at a Knowledge of his 
Conduct but from the Information of those that have been with 
him and I am happy on th present Occasion that I have a Gentle- 
man of your Candour to inquire off, and I doubt not but what you 
will favour me with an Answer as soon as Oppertunity offers. 

I am &c. 
B. H. 

Governor Harrison to Clark, October 17, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J50.— L.S.] ' 

In Council Octof 17. 1782. — 

No official account from you of the situation of the part of the 
Country committed to your care have readied me for several months, 
for which I am at a loss to assign a reason. Government can never 
be administer'd properly unless the Officers of it are regular in their 
correspondence, punctual in the execution of orders, and particular 
in their discriptions of the Wants and distresses of their departments. 
If the disappointments 5'ou have met with in your proposed plans 
have occasion'd this inattention and neglect the reason is by no means 
a good one, because circumstances may alter and changes happen 
that you could know nothing off, and which miglit at one time en- 
able Government to do what they could not at another. 

I have received Letters from Col' Levi Todd and otlier reputable 
characters in Kentucky giving an account of a powerful invasion of 
that country by the Indians, and of an unfortunate battle fought 

'This document was contributed by Dr. KelloEg. The letter is entered 
in Benjamin Harrison Letter Book 1782, Virginia State Archives, pp. 13-19, 
under date of October 14, 1782. 


with them by Col' John Todd on the 19* August in which that 
worthy Gentleman and many other of the most valuable Inhabitants 
have fallen ; these are circumstances so much within your line of 
Duty, that I can not help expressing my very great surprise at your 
Silence. In my Letter of the ao'"" December last you were directed 
to erect forts at the Mouth of Kentuckey river, the mouth of licking 
creek and at the mouth of limestone creek, and to garrison each of 
these posts with sixty eight men to cover and protect the Country, 
Whether you have comply'd with these orders or not you have not 
thought fit to advise me, but I have every reason to suppose from 
otiier information that they have altogether been neglected, to which 
much of the present misfortune is to be attributed, as such estab- 
lishments would have been a great curb on the Indians, the country 
might from tliese posts have been alaim'd at the approach of an 
Enemy, and with the assistance of the garrisons better enabled to 
repel their attacks, these reasons governed the Executive when tiiey 
gave the orders, and induced them to fix on you to execute them, 
and it gives me great pain to find that you have disappointed us in 
our expectations. 

The same reasons that dictated the former orders still govern 
us and I insist that they be carried into immediate execution if the 
Indians have not left the country or you have good reason to appre- 
hend their return this fall or Winter you'l apply to the command- 
ing officers of Washington, Mountgomery and Botetourt Counties 
for assistance who have Orders to send you any number of men you 
may call for not exceeding two Hundred. As the marching Militia 
such a Distance, will not only be attended with very great incon- 
venience to the Individuals but with great expence to the State I 
trust you will not call for them but in case of urgent necessity, oecon- 
omy now may put it in our power in the spring to take more decisive 
measures, however I would by no means have any consideration of 
this sort interfere with the safety of the people, and only mention 
it to you as a secondary consideration. The Commissioners that 
are sent into the part of the country where you are, are men of 
Prudence and Judgement and it may not be amiss to consult with 
them on the occasion: Before these Gentlemen all the Accounts 
of your military expenditures in every department are to be laid in 


order to their being adjusted and reported on, and when this is done 
I shall expect your attendance here for a final settlement of them. 
You will excuse my for agaon repeating my request to be informed 
by every oppertunity of the material circumstances that may happen 
on Kentuckey, and what progress you make in the discharge of the 
several Matters entrusted to you 

I am Sir 

Your mo^ Obe' lium. Scr' 
General George Rogers Clarke Benj Harrison 

Clark to Henjamin Harrison, October 18, 1782 

[Executive Papers, Va. Stale Archives.]' 

Cave Spring Lincoln County 18"' Octob'' 1782 

Yours by Maj"" Walls came safe to hand the 30"" July, nothing 
could be more timely than the cloathing for desertion was so common 
that I believe in a month more there would not have been a Soldier 
left, The works at the falls was forwarded by Every means in our 
power until they were suppos'd sufficiently strong to withstand any 
attack from their Enemy but not yet Compleat, Those preparations 
that were made and the measure taken to let the Enemy know that 
we were fully acquainted with their design (which in part we were) 
I believe has sav'd the western country, by their losing all hopes of 
Reducing the falls, divided their force sent some to weeling and 
the main body to make a division on Fayette county, And had it 
not have been for that Imprudent affair at the blue licks the country 
would have sustained very little damage, I learn Col' Logan has 
sent you a full ace' of the whole transaction The conduct of those 
unfortunate Gen' was Extreamly Reprihensible, Tiie Enemy Con- 
tinue to Sculk in small party,s in different parts of the country but 
do little damage at present, The movements of the Enemy last 
Spring and summer put it Entirely out of our power to Establish 
the posts at the mouth of Kantucky licking & they may be began 
this fall — 

' Printed in Cahndar of Virginia State Papers, 3 :345-347, with some 


By some Overtures from Kaskaskas the Chicasaw Nation is like 
to be on good terms with us, I Enclose your Excellency their message 
and my answer with other papers which I hope you will approve of, 
They Clame Fort JeflFerson for being the Cause of the war between 
us but its notorious they had done a great deal of mischief for two 
years before, and the building that post Actually Stopt a formidable 
Expedition Intended against the frontiers by them and their allies, 
My principal reason for sending Cap' George to the nation wiis to 
give the negotiation a greater apearance of solemnity, And probably 
Induce the Chicasaws to Oblige the Cherokees &' to cease hostili- 
ties, as the Chicasaws is the most potent nation in that Quarter 

You will observe S'' my Instruction to Cap' George Respecting 
the purchase of land in the bounds of Virginia below the Tenesee 
River, From some hints I had from M'' Burny one of the messengers 
from the nation I Conceiv'd this to be a most favorable Opertunity 
to procure that tract of Country if the Indians would part with it, 
which there was some probability of, as they dreaded us much, having 
continual Reports among them of a large army which Intended 
to Visit their town and would wish to be on good terms with us 
as soon as possible, Tho the State with propriety might claim the 
lands without their consent it, must cost an Expensive treaty here- 
after to get peacible possession of it when the officers should want it, 
Thise were my Enducements if your Excellency approve of the plan 
it would be necessary to send an Express Immediately to me with 
Instructions to Ratify the proceedings of Cap' George in Case he 
should make the purchase. Or make Void all he may do, I expect 
his Return about the last of november with some chiefs with him 
that may wish to get their business Immediately done in order to 
Return home I sometimes doubt that the Sum I have Instructed Cap' 
George to offer will be too low a price to Engage it. But if their 
Zeal for a piece should continue perhaps it will do, The northwest- 
ward Indians have wholly Engaged in the war against us Except 
the peancashacos and those near the settlements on the Mississippi 

We have lately thought of making a sudden attack on some 
of the Sliawonees Town this fall as Gen' Irwins Enterprise gives a 
favourable Opportimity but cannot assure you that it will take place, 
but a great probability — 



A Late stroke of your Excellency hath added greatly to the 
strength of this Country, That of odering the delinquents of the 
counties to do duty witii the Regular troops in this Quarter, it will 
have most salutary Eflects altho few Examples may be made, I 
was thinking since that if the whole of the specific tax due by this 
Departm' was order'd to be levied and delivered it would be of con- 
siderable service in support of the troops ^nd defraying the Expences 
of Government, It will never be got any other way, business have 
been so arrang'd that expences have been Very low for twelve months 
past, The works at the falls was at the Expence of a Considerable 
quantity of flour as we were Obliged to make a fund of it. The 
Gallee that I had built answered the design Exceedingly and hatli 
been of Infinite service — Our Circumstances would not admit of 
her being as Compleat as I could have wished but I hope to have 
her so this fall I have discoverd that open small boats will by no 
means answer tiie purpose of Cruising on the River as they are often 
liable to be ambuscaded when they come near the shore, or in narrow 
parts of the River, But those on the Construction of the Gallee 
whose Gunnils are four feet bullit proof with false Gunnils that 
play strong hinges that Raise her sides so high that she can Lay 
within a Pistol shot of the shore without the least danger 

I have the Honour to be D'' Sir 

Your Excellency's Devoted and Very 

Humble Serv' 

G Clarke 

John Floyd to Clark, October 18, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J52.— A.L.] 

Beargrass 18 th October 1782 
Dear General. 

On our way down at Col' Coxes we prevailed on Cap* Polk to 
engage 40 Gallons of Tar to be delivered at the Falls the 21" Ins' 
This is all I coul[d] depend on with certainty. Agreeable to our 
expectation we found not a Drop made that you ordered. I've dis- 
persed orders to the Different Officers & I think every thing seems 
to wear a pretty favourable aspect. Some Invalids & Men over 
fifty years of Age I have now at the Falls about Caulking & repair- 


inp; the Boats. I was down yesterday & they informed me they 
would have 20 ready to receive the Pitch by the time it came. We 
liope we sliall be able to pay the Boats the 22* & Load & clear the 
mouth of Beargrass the 23*, in Order to take an Early start the 24th. 
The Good Old Major' with his usual steadiness will have the artil- 
lery, ammunition, provision &' all ready to put on Board as soon 
as the Vessels are fit to receive them, but as he writes you also I need 
add no more on the Subject, only that Col' Cox & his warriors are 
also to Rendezvous at Fort Nelson the 21*' I wish you much happi- 
ness on your march, and am 

Dear Gen' your very Ob'" Serv' 
[Jn" Floyd] 
P. S My Compl'» to the Major & Gabe [Madison] 

Addressd: Brig' General Clark at Capt Madison's 
in Lincoln P' Express — 

Endorsed: Col» Floyd 21 Oc^ 21 1782 

Clark to William Davies, October 19, 1782 
[Cat. of Va. State Papers, 3:347-348] 

Genl: Geo: Rogers Clarke to Col: Wm. Davies. 
Lincoln County Cave-Spring October 19th 1782 

I had the pleasure of Receiving your Letters by Maj'r Walls and 
Mr. Karney the 30th of July past, at which time the gents arrived 
with the stores all safe, surmounting uncommon difficulties. They 
just arriv'd in time to save what few troops was remaining, for de- 
sertion was so common and Impossible to prevent that I believe in 
a few weeks more scarcely any would have been left. I have en- 
deavour'd as far as in my power to comply with the orders of Gov- 
ernment that you Enclos'd to me (see the Enclos'd) I could have 
wished to be present at the meeting of the officers you mcntion'd. 
I have received but a faint information of their Report. As for 

dissipation and prevailing in Col : Slaughter's Core, However 

agreeable such conduct might have been to their sentiments I believe 
they seldom had the means in their power, for they were generally 

'Identified by Lyman C. Draper as George Walls. Id a note on the 
original manuscript. 


in a starving situation. Colo. Slaughter suffering his garrison to be 
Ridicul'd by the Inhabitants of the town Occasion'd disorder among 
the whole. Nothing would Excuse him on this point but his dcpend- 
ance on such a set of people for Every thing he could get to subsist 
on. As for the propriety of their receiving half pay, 1 could wish 
not to be the Judge. Your Recommendations Sir, Respecting tlie 
great care of Stores of all kind are Exceeding good. I flatter myself 
there will be no want of Care. In a department where business 
hath been as Various and Extensive as this hath, there can be no 
Doubt of many Errors being committed, many hath been detected. 
But by Report I believe there is more noise made about it than is 
necessary, principally originating from the little men that is some- 
times sent to government from this quarter. Jealous of their im- 
portance, Embrace that declamatory principal so very agreeable to 
such bodies, suposing by striking at the principal characters of their 
Country, that Strangers will View them as men of consequence. 
The Credit that is given to such characters near the helm of allairs, 
I can assure you S'r hurts the Interest of the State greatly. The 
expences in this department hath been considerable, but had it not 
been for them and tlie consequential service, wc should have been 
obliged before this to have spent five times as much in defence of uur 
frontiers, and Except some Expences that have proved unnecessary, 
as a citizen, I am satisfied with the propriety of the whole. 

Accounts have been long prepared for settlement, but I doubt the 
arrival of auditors. I have examin'd nearly the whole, and Expect 
to finish the Remainder on my Return to Fort Nelson. I make 
no doubt but you have Receiv'd a full account of the unfortunate 
defeat of Colo's Todd and Trigg. The Country has suffer'd con- 
siderably, but there is a probability of Recovering their lost spirits. 
It was exceedingly fortunate that such preparation was made, as 
mention'd to you in my last. Otherways the Country would have 
unavoidably been lost. The plan of an Expedition against the 
Shawanees is now on foot, and I believe will take place. If it should 
fall through the Country will be in a very critical situation. Except 
Genl: Irwin should prove successful, as the Enemy are so Elated 
they will use violent Exertions. 

I have the Honour to be, with greatest Esteem, 
Sir, your devoted Humble Servt." 


JANUARY 13, 1783 

Preparation for tue Campaign — Criticism of Clark not Justified — 
Creditors Importune Clark for Relief — British Plans for the 
Campaign — Expedition from Fort Pitt Given Up — Clark's Plan of 
Campaign — Clark's Account of the Expedition — Friendly Rela- 
tionship Existing between Thomas Jefferson and Clark — Peace 
WITH THE Chickasaw and Creek — Lack of Supplies in the Western 
Department — Clark Ordered to Report in Richmond. 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, October 22, 1782 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Cave Spring Lincoln County Octobf 22'' 1782 

Since writing the letters that accompany this I find the Inhabit 
ants Extreamly anxious for an Expedition, it is pland and the Ren- 
dezvouse apointed at the mouth of Licking the first day of november, 
I Expect about one thousand men, If it is attended with success 
I make no doubt that it will save the Effusion of much blood the 
Ensuing year, If Gen' Irwin should carry his point at sandusky 
and the shawonees get defeated it will have a valuable Impression 
on the more westwardly Indians I shall Embrace the first opportunity 
on my Return of transmiting an Account of our Enterprise to you — 
The following is a Request I make to your Excellency which 
is to be Relievd from this department my Reasons for such Requesi- 
tion must be Obvious to you and so Reasonable tliat I hope it will 
meet with your aprobation, I shall be Carefull to arangc business 
so as to promise advantage in full Confidence of your permit 

I have the Honour to be 
with Esteem y'' Excellencys 

Devoted and Humb' Serv* 
G R Clark 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3:351. 







PLANS FOR 1782 141 

Preparation for the Campaign of 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J53.— A.D.] 

Know all men that I George Walls Majf Commandant at I'"ort 
Nelson Jeflerson County in Virginia, in the Name and in behalf 
of Hricadier General George Rogers Clark Commander in Chief of 
the Western Department, as by him impowercd by his letter of at- 
torney of the eleventh of tin's present Moiitli of October for and 
in consideration of Seventy thousand weight of flower to said Brig- 
adier Gen' Clark sold and delivered at and before the sealing and de- 
livering of these presents by Bartholomew Tardivou merchant, the 
Receipt whereof I do hereby Acknowledge, have bargained and sold ; 
and by these presents do bargain and sell unto the said Bartholomew 
Tardivou at track of land situated on the north fork of licking creek 
within eight miles of the Ohio containing two Thousand Acres An- 
other track containing one thousand Acres Situate at the Clay lick a 
few miles above Drinn[o]ns Lick on Kentuckey River another track 
of land containing five Hundred Acres, Situated on Richland Creek 
about ten miles from Bryan's Station; to have and to hold all and 
Singular the said track's and every of them by these Presents Bar- 
gained and Sold Unto the Said Bartholomew Tardiveau his Execu- 
tor Administrator And Assign for ever ; and I the Said George Walls 
in the name and in behalf of Said George Rogers Clark for himself, 
his executor administrator and assigns all and singular the said 
track's of land unto Said Bartholomew Tardiveau his Executor Ad- 
ministrator or Assigns against Said George Rogers Clark his executor 
and assign and against all and every other person and persons what- 
soever shall and will Warrent and for ever Defend by these pres- 
ents; engaging and promising in the name Afforsaid that the said 
George Rogers Clark shall as soon as possible have the said track's 
surveyed by the County surveyer or his Deputy, and a Deed out of 
the land office put and Dilivered into the hands of the Said Bar- 
tliolomew Tardivou his Executor Administrator and Assigns at the 
cost and Expences of Said George Rogers Clark as witness my hand 
and Seal at Fort Nelson Jefferson County in the State of Virginia 
this 23"* Day of October in the Year of our lord 1782 

Endorsed: A Copy of agrem' With Tardivou for flower pur- 


Joseph Crockett to Governor Harrison, October 24, 1782 
[Cal. of Va. Slate Papers. 3:358-360.] 

I received your Excellency's letter of the i6th Instant, the pur- 
port of which I am at a loss to answer so clearly as I could wisli. 
as for Gcnl : Clark's conduct, last campaign whilst I had tlie honor 
to serve under his com'd (as touching his military character) I can- 
not tlu'nk he is deserving censure, his greatest misfortune & loss of 
usefull operations of the campaign, was the want of men, altho' tlie 
Genl : strain'd every nerve in his power, to raise a sufficient number to 
penetrate into the heart of the Enemy's Country, and was assisted 
by a small number of good men, to complete his Laudable design, it 
appeared to me to be out of the power of any human Existance to 
cause a sufficient number to Enter the field, or subject those few that 
were already there to good order, the Genl: often told them of the 
evils that has already befell them, if that campaign miscarried. One 
place of General Rendezvous was Wheeling, where the gen: ex- 
pected to be joined with a thousand militia from the Counties over 
the mountains: out of which two hundred & fifty only joined, and 
the half of them deserted after drawing a quantity of arms, Blankets, 
Leggins, shirts &c. &c. — the greatest part of those that did not 
desert, threatened mutiny for Several days, nor was this all the 
Genl's disappointment, there was a certain Quota of men to be 
sent him from the Counties of Berkeley, Frederick & Hampshire, 
of which he never received one. 

I know the Genl : is much censured in the neighbourhood of Fort 
Pitt, Fort Pitt, for the Loss of Colo. Laugherry's party, for whom 
he waited five days at Wheeling: disappointments being so frequent, 
he lost all hopes of his coming, and moved down the River, the 
Colo, coming to Wheeling the next day, sent a boat after, with a 
Letter to the Genl: that he would be glad H he would wait for 
him, as he had One hundred & thirty men without provisions, the 
Genl : sent a small boat with ten Keggs of Flour, and wrote the 
Colo, he would leave Boats enough at a certain Island under a small 
guard, for the reception of his men, with a quantity of Flour, Ammu- 
nition &c. — to prevent desertion, he would move slowly down the 
river, the unhappy Colo, without proper caution. Landed his men 


at the mouth of the Maamma, at which place was a large number 
of Indians, who destroyed the whole of O)lo's party. Tlie (Jcnl: 
purchased of Mr. Gibson, at Fort Pitt, a considerable Quantity of 
goods, Liquorers, Sugar, Coffee, Tea &c., which the officers in gen- 
eral accuse him of making a very unequal distribution. 

It was thought there was one more instance in whicii General 
Clark derogated much from the Importance of his trust, there was 
a Mr. Ellett who traded to New Orleans with 5000 wt- Flour, he 
stored his flour at a Mr. Newel's, who lived at a place cal'd tiie new 
Store on the Monongalia. Said Newel took the Flour in his care, 
who was also employed by the purchasing Commissary to receive 
public Flour: Mr. Ellette took the opportunity of going down the 
river with the Genl : — when we came to the Falls of Ohio, thi: 
river being very low, Ellett was under the necessity of unloading his 
boat to descend the Falls, and carry his flour over the falls in small 
Crafts: he unloaded near the place where the public flower was 
landed (of which we had a large Quantity, near 4,000 Keggs). I 
saw Mr. Ellet taking flower from the Bulk of the public. I asked 
him how he came so to do. his answer was "don't you think that 
damn'd old Newell at the new store, has misplaced sixty Keggs of 
my superfine Flower, and I must take sixty of your Corse." I inune- 
diately informed the Commissary, his answer was "the, Gen'/ knows 
it." I ;isked Mr. Ellett what mark his keggs iiad. he told me all 
his was manufactured at William Henshaws mill, and the Barrels 
was Branded with the two first Letters of his name. Some few days 
after this Mr. Ellett sail'd down the River, there was a Mr. Ran- 
dolph who came down the River with us & who had formerly trans- 
acted business for Gcnl : Clark to the westward. I never heard 
him mention going with Ellett untill the morning he set sail and 
tlien went on Bord EUett's Boat — this affair gave every man reason 

to suspect . The Genl : some few days afterwards Issued 

an order for the whole of the flower to be sifted and Repacked (as 
it had received damage coming down the River). I told the Ser- 
geant & scvcr.1l of the soldiers who were appointed for tiiat duty, 
that I would give them a treat, if they would let me know where 

they found a kegg Branded W. H. contained finer flower 

than the rest, I wanted to draw for my own use. I en- 


quired frequently of them. But they told me they could find none 
Such. I was present when Mr. Ellett Loaded his Boat at the new 
Store. I heard of no flower being missing or misplaced nor never 
heard it mentioned going down the river. 

I have the Honor to be your 

Excellency's most obt. Servt. 

Clark to Oliver Pollock, October 25, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Kantucky as*** October 1782 

I Receiyed your letter of the 24"" July a few days past, I am 
heartily sorry that you should meet with such disappointments in 
the settlement of your accounts, I am sensible that you have no 
drafts on the State from me but what ought to be paid, As Vouch- 
ers for Every Article Even to the smalest amount those bills were 
drawn for is now in my possession and will shew the propriety of 
them ( ) time and at the time of their being given I knew of 

no such thing as depreceiation of Currency, what Reasons Govern- 
ment have for not paying those Just debts I cant account for Except 
it is Inabillity, but more than probable you are a better Judge than 
I am being at the Seat of government, I have already taken Every 
step in my power to get the Creditors of the State paid to no Effect 
(What method can you point out to me, If I was worth the money 
I would most chearfully pay it myself and trust the state, But can 
assure you with truth I am Enterely Reducd myself by advancing 
Everything I could Raise, And Except what the state owes me am 
not worth a Spanish dollar, I wish it was in my power to follow 
your proposition to step forth & save my country from the disgrace 
that is like to fall on her, If we could point out the means nothing 
would give me such pleasure. And fully Recompence all the uneasi- 
ness I have suffer'd on account of those persons, Many whom I 
know have advancd all they had on the faith of government. It was 
my duty to prosecute the war as cheap as possible, and theirs to pay 
the Expense, The factories and little bodies may say what they 
please but my greatest glory is in the prospects of my procuring, If 
the Commissioners that is appointed would settle the western Ac- 


counts there would then be no Excuse left Except one which I doubt 
is too true, That of the want of funds, If you can point out any- 
thing farther that is in my power shall most ChearfuUy Embrace it 

I am S"" Your 
Obed* Servt 

G R Clark 
Oliver Pollock Esqf 

British Plans for Campaign of 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J54. — Contemporary copy.] 

Quebec Oct' 29* 1782 


The first of August last I was surprised in my bed by a party 
of Wabash Indians in company with Israel Ruland and others from 
Detroit I have reason to blame the Inhabitants of S' Vincennes for 
my Captivity meeting Mons^ Marin near Ouya with a quantity of 
Merchandise from Detroit and bound to Ouia O Post he assured me 
the Indians had made several Attempts to take me before the time 
they had me and that the orders of the Comd'' of Detroit to the 
savages and others was to take me alive which I found after I heard 
the Speeches delivered the first day and night I was close confined 
in the Fort after I got my parole & in Comp? with some of the 
British Officers they made me a proposal adequate to the commission 
I wear in the American service with many other promises if I would 
join them. I assured them I was not a second Arnold and that my 
sentim'^ were the same as the brave Col. Crawford who suffered by 
them two days at a slow fire till expired this and many other crueltys 
I reminded tliem of being so displeased with me I was ordered next 
morning to embarque on board an armed Vessel bound for Fort 
Erie from thence marched a prisoner to this City I expect to be sent 
to Boston with many other prisoners in company with Col. Camp- 
be[ll]' I have heard nothing from my family since taken and shall 

'Colonel John Campbell was an Indian trader who in 1764 laid out a 
town on the site of Pittsburgh; ten years later he located at the Falls of 
the Ohio where he purchased a larRe tract of land. During the early years 
of the Revolution he served as commissary at Fort Pitt. He was a member 
of the expedition of Colonel D.nvid Rocers which was attacked by the Indi- 
ans as they were ascending the Ohio from St. Louis to Pittsburgh. Colonel 
Campbell was captured and taken to Detroit and because of his defiant 
attitude, he was held as a prisoner there and at Quebec until 1782. After 
his return to Louisville, he represented Kentucky in the legislature of Vir- 
ginia and was a member of the Kentucky Constitutional Committee (1792). 
In 1798 he was elected speaker of the Kentucky State Senate. 


Sir make all possible dispatch to join my Regiment when exchanged, 
the particulars of the Rout the Indians took with me was to Ouia 
where Jo' Baptise keeps the English Magazine for the Indian Mur- 
derers to the Miami Town a Number of Shawneys live here & 
Monsf Bawbee with goods &.C. for the Crown a compact Picket 
Fort on the Bank of the River where the crossing place is two days 
journey down the River I met Mons'' Truchey from O Post for- 
merly clerk for Col. Legra he lives at the Forks a large river runing 
from the Shawney Towns he keeps store for Mons^ Bawbee Agent 
for the Crown lower down at Rose de Bough M'' Cochran keeps a 
large Magazine here a Block House and the provision store guarded 
by a British Serjeant and twelve privates provisions are transported 
from Fort Erie across the Lake to this place thence taken by Land 
into the Shawana Country a Brigade of Horses kept at the Mouth 
of the River for this purpose where two Armed Vessels are stationed 
and one at the carrying place to Fort LaBeauf Capt" Caldwell with 
One Hundred Rangers is stationed at the Shawney Towns with 
Capt' Elliott and his Company of Shawana Warriors Deserters &.C. 
M'' M'Kee there in a strong block House Girty kept on the wing 
Bawby and One hundred Savages guards Mawmy [Miami] a grand 
Scheme is now preparing Sir John Johnston* is lately returned here 
after making a visit through through the Indian Nations inviting 
them to be in readyness again next Spring when a Campaign will 
be opened Butler with One Thousand Rangers and all the Indian 
force are to go on a private expedition their rout Sir I can not learn 
a large Quantity of Indian presents are arrived in this City under 
the immediate direction of Sir John or Col. Johnston, Agent Gen- 
eral for the Indians in North America I believe he is to be at the 
head of this intended Expedition I am told three years provisions 
are ordered to be stored in every Garrison in this Country the 
Strength of -Detroit I cannot be certain of the New Fort is strong 
& I believe a covert way is making under Ground to be under cover 
of the Shiping if an Attack was to be made when the river was 
open otherwise intended to deposite a quantity of Amunition therein 
in case of a storm that might be blown up and a retreat made into a 

' Sir John Johnson was the eldest son of Sir William Johnson and 
succeeded to the family estate (1774)- During the Revolution, he was the 
leader of a number of attacks upon the settlements in the Mohawk valley. 


Batterey that is immcdiatly to be built for that purpose, this in- 
formation I got from Persons living there some good Americans 
might be found amongst the Merchants there they are under great 
restraints M^ Gravrod & Forsyth appeared as such to me supplyed 
mc with Necessaries I was in much need of there are people wiio 
frequent Kentuckey, Fort Pitt &.C. in the charecter of spies by 
which means the Enemy know every movement we make I believe 
several of the prisoners taken on the Frontiers have taken the Oath 
of Alegience to the Crown of England and are now on their Way 
to be exchanged on their Arrival in the Colonies its expected tiieir 
Assistance will not be wanting in favour of the British if they make 
incursions into our Country where they are, to a Man Sir at S' 
Vincennes they are so attached Mons'' Rosebloche [Rocheblave] 
formerly Governor of Illinois' broke his parole in Williamsburg 
has been here a few days ago on his way to the Illinois [Niagara] 
does not appear so strong as Detroit at present [Col. Butler^] is sta- 
tioned [there] and about 150 Regulars Indians [and many Savages, 
who] draw dayly provisions clothing &.C &.C.&.C. 

I ask your Excellencys pardon with my long [MS. torn] hope 
to have the honour of serving under you the [MS. torn] 

my reasons Sir of commiting these particulars to paper were in 
case I could not be exchanged so soon [MS. torn] Col. Campbell. 

I am Sir 

with all due respect 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obed' 
Hum' Serv* 
(Signed) Valentine Tho? Dalton 
Brigadier General Clark 

Addressed: Brigadier General George Rogers Clerk Command- 
ing at the Falls of Ohio Favoured by Capt" [name missing — 
James Brasliears?] 

' Philippe de Rastel de Rocheblave. 

'Colonel John Butler served as Indian interpreter for Sir William 
Johnson by whom he was entrusted with the affairs of the Six Nations. 
During the year 1777 he enlisted a company of rangers which raided the 
New York frontier. 


Benjamin Harrison to the Virginia Delegates in Congress, 

November 2, 1782 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Boole, 1782, pp. 91-9+, Va. State Archives.] 

The Virginia Delegates in Congress. 
In Council 2" Novem: 1782. 


I received your favor of the 22'' Ulto. with its enclosures, if Mr. 
Nathan had not formerly put a stop to a similar proposition of his 
for a reference his balance would have been long since paid. Mr. 
Madison I suppose can remember his Conduct on that Occasion, 
however, to refresh his Memory the whole prececdings of our Dele- 
gates in this Business which I find are in the Council Office sliall 
be sent by the next Post. True it is that Nathan has Goverf Jeffer- 
sons acceptance of the Bills in his possession, and that from the 
Tenor of them it appears they were to be discharged in hard Money 
but we have every reason to think it never was intended by Gen : 
Clarke that they should be paid in it as he expressly tells us that 
all his Bills drawn [on] the Treasurer or Governor of the State 
were for paper Money, and to be accounted for and paid in it ac- 
cording to a Scale of depreciation which he sent us; Mr. Nathan's 
transactions may be very fair for what I know but so many frauds 
have been practis'd in that quarter that I am led to doubt every 
Thing, tis for this reason that Commissioners are gone into that 
country to investigate the Truth and make a report on every Trans- 
action, amongst them Nathan will be taken up. Gen: Clarke is also 
order 'd here in the Spring to settle and clear up his conduct at which 
Time this troublesome Business will be finally settled, and paid as 
soon after as the Assembly shall please to provide funds, for which 
purpose I shall lay these demands before them. By a flag Ship just 
arrived with Prisoners from Charles Town, I learn that two fleets of 
transports were arrived there to take of the Garrison, and that it 
was expected the Town would be evacuated by the 15th of this 

We have not yet a sufficient number of Members in the As- 
sembly to proceed to Business. 

I am &c. — 

B. H. 


William Irvine to Clark, November 7, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J5S.— L.S.] ' 

Fort Pitt Nov^ 7"^ 1782. 
Sir. On the 16'^ of October last, I expected to have been joined 
by some continental Troops & Rangers from the Lower Counties. 
I appointed that Day for the General Rendez-Vous of the militia 
at Fort M'^Intosh, and should have been able to take up my Line 
of march on the 20*^ following, the Day previous to this, a report 
of a cessation of Arms spread ; seemingly deserving credit, as I re- 
ceived intelligence that the march of the Continental Troops was 
countermanded. Tiiis news gained universal Belief with tlie Coun- 
try: and I fear, would have mutilated my plan, if the report had 
proved premature. But, about the time I expected to march, I re- 
ceived Letters from ihc Continental Secretary at War, countermand- 
ing the Expedition, as General Washington had been assured hy 
the Brittish General, that all the Savages were called in from the 
frontiers, and were not to commit any farther depredations upon 
the inhabitants. 

I was exceedingly uneasy, %vhen I considered, it was then im- 
possible to communicate to you the intelligence, before your march. 
A report of the defeat of a large number of inhabitants at Kentucky 
was circulating at the same time, and persuaded me allmost that 
it would oblige you to drop your design. Yet, in case this should 
not incapacitate you, from marching against the Shawanese I deter- 
mined to draw the attention of the Wyandots by sending them in- 
formation, that I was prepared to proceed against Sandusky with 
a numerous force. The only stratagem left me to make use off in 
your favour. 

I have the Honour to be 
Your most Obedient Humble Servant 
W" Irvine 
General Clarke 
Addressed: Public Service The Hon'*'*' Brigadier 

General Clark Falls of Ohio By M^ Sullivan. 

'This letter is printed in fV as king ton-Irvine Correspondence, 400-401. 


Clark's Plan of Campaign for 1782 [November 9] 
[Draper MSS., 63ji2i-i28.] 

Order of March 
d the advananced Guard of fifty men one hundred yards in front 
of c on the Trail of Guides C four advanced parties of twenty 
five Men Each two hundred yards in front of A:B to marcli par- 
rellel one hundred yards from Each other on Each Side of the 
road Those Troops to be furnished from the Battallions the [to] 
March in front of twenty five Pioneers A the Jefferson and fyatte 
Batallions B tlie Two Batallions of Lincoln Troops d four parties 
of twenty five men Each two Hundred yards in the rear of the Body 
of the Army to be furnished by A:C the rear Guard, F lines of 
Flankers one fron Each Company one hundred yards to the right and 
left of the Army G Artiliry Baggage in its rear Col Floyd Com- 
mands the right Col Logan the left wing of army, the Advanced 
Guards to be finished by the right Devision — the rere by the Left 
the pioneers by y* Different Batallions, the Greatest Order to be 
Observe'd on the march, no fireing on any Account Except on an 
Enimy If the Army Should be attacked in front, the four advanced 
parties imediately from [form] and Sustain the attack the advanced 
Guard falling in to the said line, if the Enimy Should prove to 
numerous for them but not otherwise, the Action Just Commenced 
the right and left Colums A:B wheel to the right and left and out 
flank the Enimy if possible the two Center lines to Stand fast and 
wait for orders, if the Ground permits the artiliry will play on the 
Enimy, the whole of the Baggage to be moved within one hundred 
and fifty yards of the lines the men attending on it to form and wait 
for Orders the Rear Division d to incorperate Joined by the Rere 
Guard and as Soon as the find the two Center lines disposed of to 
move up to the Baggage and wait for Orders The Flankers F fall- 
ing into their respective Copanies as Soon as the action Commences 
Sh(.iild the attack be in the rere of the army the whole face about 
and the Disposition then be? the Same as if the attack had Com- 
menced in front the roard being Cleared of the Baggage for the 
artiliry To pass following it attack on the right flank the Colum A 
Sustain the fire the advanc party C Joined by the Guard D form 
to the left and advance on the Enimy 

CLARK'S PLAN FOR 1782 151 

The party A Joined by the Gurad C from to the right and ad- 
vance also the Middle Colum A Devide from the Center and Close 
the intervals between C A and d a the artiliry act Occasionally the 
Baggage Stand fast, the Hole lines to form and Wait for Orders 
the Colum B face to the right and advance within fifty yards of 
the baggage Observeing their proper Distance and there wait for 
orders Attack on the left face to the left and the Disposition Simi- 

the Light Dragoons to br Disposed of in the following manner 
Viz one Subaltren one Serjeant and Six Dragoon, to attend the 
Commanding Officer of Each Devision of the Army one Serjeant 
and three Dragoons to attend the officer Commanding the rere Guard 
the Remainder of Dragoons to attend on the Gen! Majf Walls will 
act as Adgutant Gen' and Cap' Morisson will be pleased to assist 
the management of the Artiliry — 

Sign'd G R Clark 
Chelacothe November 9"' 1782 

Gen' Orders 

as an action witli the Enemy may be liourly Expected the Offi- 
cers are Requested to pay the Strictest attention To their duty as 
Suffering no man to Quit his Rank Without leave as Nothing is 
Dangerous than Disorder If fortuneately any prisoner Should fall 
in to our hands they are by no means to be put to Death without 
leave as it will be attended with the Immediate Masseerce of all 
our Citizens that are in the hands of the Enimy and Also deprive 
us of the advantage of Exchanging for our own people, no person to 
attempt to take any Plunder untill Orders Should Issue for that 
purpose under the penalty of Being punished for Disobediance of 
orders and to have no Share of Such plunder himself The Officers 
in perticular are requested to Observe that the Strictest Notice be 
paid to this Order, as much Depends on it all plunder taken to be 
Delivered to the Quarter Master, to be Devided among the Different 
Batallions in proportion to their Numbers any person Concealmg 
Plunder of any kind Shall be Considered as Subject to the penalty 
of the Above Order 

Signed G R Clark ' 



Camp Opposite the Mouth of Licking i8"' 
November 1782 
G: O 

the Troops will Cross the River imediately after the Delivery 
of all public arms Accoutrements Horses &ce &ce to Maj^ Walls 
Who will attend at the Blockhouse for the purpose of receiving them 

Signed G R Clark 
[Diagram accompanying the preceding] 




Clark to William Irvike, November 13, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 11J24. — Transcript.)' 

Miami is"* Nov. 1782. 
Sir: I fell in with your late Expresses on the a'"' Ins' at the mouth 
of Licking Creek — Was happy to find that our designs was likely 
to be well timed — We march'd on the third, the lo"" surprised 
the principal Shawnee Town Chillecauthy, but not so compleatly 
as wished for, as most of the Inhabitants had time to make their 
escape. —^ We got a few Scalps and Prisoners — I immediately de- 

'Th!s letter is printed in If^ashington-lrvine Correspondence, 401-402. 


tached strong parties to the neighbouring Towns and in a short 
time laid five of them in ashes, with all their Riches — The British 
trad'g post at the carrying place shared the same fate — I can't learn 
by the Prisoners that they had any Idea of your second design & 
hope you will compleatly surprise the Sanduskians — I beg leave to 
Refer you to IVP Tate & his Companion for particulars for reasons 
well known to you. 

I am Sir with respect 

Your Obdt Servt 

G. R. Clark 

John Gibson to Clark, November 17, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J56.— A.L.S.] 

PiTCHBURGG [i/c] November the 17"" 1782 

D" S* Now in my Great Distress I Send you these Lines Everey 
thing that I have is Going to be Sold for Some Debt that I Con- 
tracked for part of the Goods that you Got from me and aCording to 
your Letter to me I have Not Distressed Mr penteycost If you 
Do Not Relive me Now I am a Ruined man but I hope you 
have Gratetude and onnor to make me hole D' S' I hope you will 
Rite Imedentlcy to Get Relief as I am in Distress your Compie'n 
will for Ever oblcdgc your Umble Ser' 

Jn" Gibson 

Dr Sr Af William Stewart that Lives Near where you Do Reed 
a Quantcty of Goods from me Last Spring and Gave mc a Hill 
on his Brother in Law one mr hunter in philedelphia for the monncy 
and he protested his Bill this alonght with your monney has Ruined 
me I hope you will Rite to liim and inclose this part of this Letter 
and I hope he will Send me the monney before it Goes to aney 
farther trouble yur Complies will Ever obledge your most obeidient 
and Umble Ser' 

Jn» Gibson 
Addressed: To Genr' George Rogers Clark 


Benjamin Harrison to the Speaker of the House of 

Delegates, November 25, 1782 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 179-182, Va. State Archives.] 

The Honble. 

Speaker of the House of Delegates. — 
In Council 25'^" Novem: 1782. 

I have the Honor of enclosing you a Letter just receiv'd 
from the Honble. James Madison one of our worthy Delegates in 
Congress, the Information it contains is so extremely interesting tiiat 
I beg the favor of you to lay it before the Gen: Assembly as soon 
as an Oppertuiiity offers. — I am concern'd to say that I have some 
reason to think Gen: Irvine is not mistaken in the Information he 
gives Congress, having receiv'd frequent Inteligence that the Inhabit- 
ants of the Country given up to Pennsylvania by this State were 
determined not to submit to that Government, they were good Citi- 
zens to us and well affected to Liberty, and I have no doubt would 
have stood forth in its defence, if they had been quieted in their 
possessions and remain under the Government to which they say 
undoubtedly belong, this is a point not now to be determined on, 
the only question is how to quiet them & bring them into temper, 
they think they are much injured by the Government of Pennsyl- 
vania and that they are in the greatest danger of loosing their Lands, 
if some Method can not be fallen on to remove their fears, they may 
tho' resentment take steps foreign to their real Intentions, and be- 
come as much Enemies to us, & all America as they are to their 
own Government. The Inconveniences that will arise to this Com*- 
monwealth, from a British Colony being established in that quarter 
are too apparent to need any Observations of mine, I shall there- 
fore submit the Subject entirely to the Assembly who are alone 
competent to the cure. — 

You will receive a general return of the Militia of the State 
and an abstract of Men raised under former Laws for raising Sol- 
diers for the Continental Service as far as they can be made out by 
the Commissioner of War from the returns made to his Office. I 
have the honor to be. B. H. 


Thomas Jefferson to Clark, November 26, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J58.— A.L.S.] 

Nov. 26. 1782. 
Dear Sir I received in August your favour wherein you give me 
hopes of your being able to procure for me some of the big bones. 
I should be unfaithful to my own feelings were I not to express to 
you how much I am obliged by your attention to the request I made 
you on that subject, a specimen of each of the several species of 
bones now to be found is to me the most desirable object in Natural 
history, and there is no expence of package or of safe transportation 
which I will not gladly reimburse to procure them safely. Elk- 
horns of very extraordinary size, petrifications, or any thing else un- 
common would be very acceptable. New London in Bedford, Staun- 
ton in Augusta, or Fredericksburg are places from whence I can 
surely get them, mr Steptoe in the first place, Colo Matthews in 
the second, mr Dick in the third will take care of them for me. you 
will perhaps hear of my being gone to Europe, but my trip there will 
be short. I mention this lest you should hesitate in forwarding 
any curiosities for me. any observations of your own on the subject 
of the big bones, or their history, or on any thing else in the Western 
country, will come acceptably to me, because I know you see the 
works of nature in the great, & not merely in detail, descriptions 
of animals, vegetables, minerals, or other curious things, notes as 
to the Indians, information of the country between the Mississipi 
& waters of the South sea &c &c will strike your mind as worthy 
being communicated. I wish you had more time to pay attention 
to them. 

I perceive by your letter you are not unapprised that your services 
to your country have not made due impression on every mind, that 
you have enemies you must not doubt, when you reflect that you 
have made yourself eminent, if you meant to escape malice you 
should have confined yourself within the sleepy line of regular duty, 
when you trangresscd this and entcrprizcd deeds which will hand 
down your name with honour to future times, you made yourself 
a mark for malice & envy to shoot at. of these there is enough both 
in and out of office. I was not a little surprized however to find 
one person hostile to you as far as he has personal courage to shew 


hostility to any man. who he is you will probably have heard, or 
may know him by this description as being all tongue without either 
head or heart, in the variety of his crooked schemes however, his 
interests may probably veer about so as to put it in your power to be 
useful to him; in which case he certainly will be your friend again 
if you want him. that you may long continue a fit object for his 
enmity & for that of every person of his complexion in the state, 
which I know can only be by your continuing to do good to your 
cmmtry & honour to yourself is the earnest prayer of one who sub- 
scribes himself with great truth & sincerity D'' Sir 

Your friend & serv' 

Th : Jefferson 

John Floyd to Clark, November 26, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J59.— A.L.S.] 

26'*' November, 82. 
Dear Gen^ 

I should not have a word of news if Dan' Sullivan had not 
come down yesterday from Pitt. He came in a Canoe alone & in- 
forms us that Gen' Irvine has not been in the Enemys Country, his 
orders were countermanded after having raised Sixteen hundred 
Men. Gen' Potter had marched three days and was also recalled in 
consequence of Gen' Carletons engagem** to cause all Prisoners taken 
by the Savages to be given up, & a confirmation of M"" Tates account 
of all Partizans being ordered not to molest the Frontier Inhabitants. 
I have not seen M' Sullivan so that my information is rather im- 
perfect. If I hear any thing more I will write you. The People are 
actually about Settling Muskingum & other Watercourses higher : 

up on the West side the Ohio. I wish we may carry on the Scheme ,4- 

of Garrisoning the Miamia. What do you think of it? Write i- 

me if you see an Opporf k 

I am D Gen' your very Ob'"' Serv' : 

Jn» Floyd i; 

Addressed: Brigadier Gen' Geo R Clark in Fayette P'' Cap' \ 


Endorsed: Nov^ 30'" 1782 Col. Floyd 


Clark to Benjamin Harrison, November 27, 1782 
[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives. — Copy.]' 

Lincoln Nov'' 27"" 1782 

I imbrace the opertunity by Cap'" Madison to inform you of our 
safe return from the Indian Cuntrey I left the Ohio the fourth with 
one Tliousand and fifty men and supprised the principal Siiawonec 
Town on the Eavening of the Tenth Inst amediately Detackiiif; od 
Strong parties to difierent Quarters in a few Hours two thirds of 
their Towns was laid in ashes and everything they ware posscss'd of 
destroy'd except such articles most usefull to the Troops the Enemy 
not having time to Secret any part of their Riches that was in ye 
Villages tiie British Trading post at the Portage on tlic Head of 
the Miami shared the same fate by Col" Benj. Logan and a party 
one Hundred and fifty Horse whare property to a great amount was 
burnt the Quantity of provisions destroyed far surpassed any Idea 
we had of their Stores of that kind the loss of the Enemy was 'i'en 
scalps Seven prisoners and two whites Retaken ours one kiled one 
wounded After laying part of four Days in their Towns finding 
all attempts to bring them to a gen' Action Fruitless we retired 'hp 
season being far adanced and the weather threatening I could not 
by the prisoners that they had the least Idea of Gen' Erwins [Irvine] 
Intention of penetrating into the Cuntrey should he have given them 
another stroke at Sandusky it will more than double the advantage 
Already gained 

We might probably have got many more scalps and prisoners 
could we have timely known whether or not we ware discovered 
which we took for granted untill geting within three miles Some 
circumstances happened caused us to think otherways though un- 
certain Col" Floyd was ordered to advance with tiirce Hundred men 
and bring on an action or attack the Town Maj' Walls with a party 
of Horse being previously sent on a different Rout as a party of 
observation although Col Floyds motion was so quick that he got to 
the Town but a few minutes later than those whome discovered his 
approach the Inhabitants had Suffitient notice to effect their escape 
by the allarm cry that was given on the first discovery and to be 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of I'irg'tnia State Papers, 3:381. 


heard at a great distance and repeated by all that hear it so that 
he only fell in with the Rear of them I must beg leave to Recom- 
ment to your Excellency the Militia of Kentuck who did tliemselves 
Honour on this occasion espetially their desire of saving prisoners 

I am y' Obt Servt 

G R Clark 
Governor Harrison) 

John Crittenden to William Davies, November 29, 1782 
ICal. of Va. Slate Papers, 3:383-384.] 
Maj'r John Crittenden to Col'r Wm. Davies. 
Fayette County Ky. Novem. 29th 1782 
D'r Colo: 

I thank you for your favour of the sixth of April last, which 
this moment came to hand, accompanied by a letter from B. Genl: 
Irvin to Genl: Clarke, Dated Fort Pitt, seventh Inst: announcing 
that the Intended Expedition against Sandusky under his Command 
in Oct: last, was Countermanded by the Secretary of the Continental 
board of war, in consequence of the Savages being silenced on our 
frontiers. The most pleasing and Interesting intelligence Ever yet 
Experienced by the Citizens of this Department. As the most accu- 
rate accounts will be given you of our late Expedition against the 
Shawana Indians, I shall be silent on that head (with this observation 
only) that we Recrost the Ohio River on the i8th Inst: having 
kill'd ten Savages, taken 10 prisoners, Depopulated seven Towns, and 
burnt ten thousand bushels of corn. 

I have no Reason to doubt but the conduct of those, by whom 
the State have suffered abuses, will be held out to the most conspicu- 
ous View, and treated as attrocious criminals. 

I iiave this day made out tiie locations for your warrants com- 
mitted to my charge by Capt: Holt, and shall enter them with Colo. 
Marsiiall, whose office is now open in two or tiiree days. After 
which siiall proceed witii utmost dispatch to have them survey'd ; 
therefore would wish you, if convenient, to write liim on the subject 
of the Expences arising, as I am without the means, or otherways 
would willingly defray them, pray excuse haste and believe me, 
with most sincere regard, 

Your most obe't and very h'ble Servt." 


Benjamin Harrison to Clark, November 29, 1782 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1782, pp. 189-190.] 

Gen. G. R. Clarke. 

In Council 29'* Novem: 1782 — 

I have lately received an order from a Major Lintott [Linctot] 
on this State for the payment of a Sum of Money which he says 
is due to him as Indian Agent in the Illinois, with a charge of rations 
as a Major and a long Account of Expenditures in his Office, I find 
he was employ'd some years ago by Governor Jeflerson in this Busi- 
ness but he has never done me the favor of writing to me since I 
had the Honor of being in the Government nor did I know there 
was such an officer till the presentment of the Order. — I request 
you to give me full Information respecting this Gentleman, what 
services he has render'd, when you think his Appointment ended, 
what occasion he had to expend the public Money, whether you gave 
him any power to do it in future. There is one remarkable Cir- 
cumstance attending his account which is that Col' Mongomery 
and Col' Todd both drew for large sums of Money about the Time 
Lintott dates his, and they both say part of the Supplies they obtain'd 
were for the Indians, these difficulties can not be got over till I re- 
ceive your answer, nor perhaps even then without a great deduction 
as the charges for the Necessaries furnished the Indians exceed even 
the Conception of any Man on Earth. 

I am &c. 

B. H. 

John Crittenden to Clark, November 29, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J61.— A.L.S.] 

Lexington 29"" Novemb'' 1782 
D" General 

I sincerely thank you for your favour of the 25"" Inst, by AF 
Buckner which was handed me yesterday at this place. In the Con- 
tents of which I discover no difficulty but what I can with Ease sur- 
mount (that only Excepted) of procuring the Fifty thousand Acres 


of warrints for the Gentlemen you mention, as being totally without 
the means necessary to accomplish the purchase 

Your brothers warrints I have already made out Locations for, 
on the land Recommended by you begining within the Square of 
Col' Logans second Encampment below the forks of licking, which 
I discover to be the Object of several, should they take place of me 
by Sen'' warrints (Or) you not be well pleasd with the situation, 
you will Exceedingly oblige me to signify your pleasure Respecting 
it as Quick as possible, as I am at a loss to Locate it on the other 
places you mention with that speciallity the law Requires, I shall 
use Every Exertion within my power to purchase the warrints al- 
luded to, but do Candedly acknowledge that I despair in succeed- 
ing, for which give me leave to Express my sorrow, as your Injunc- 
tions will Ever be deemd an honour done me, I Congratulate you 
on the Receipt of the letters accompanying this being fully perswaded 
that the Indians being silencd will produce the most salutary Conse- 
quences on the whole of our frontiers. The first Respite we have 
Experienced for several years past I Receivd a letter from Col' W'^ 
Davis C. of the war office this day, dated the 6**' of april last, where- 
in he Expresses his satisfaction, as Commissioners were apointed for 
Liquidating the accounts of this department. That no misconduct 
of any kind would pass unnoticed by you 

I am owing M^ Tardivou £13 which M^ Chapline was to settle 
with him, I am Informd this day he has not done so, as a Line from 
you will be satisfactory to him as there is apparent dealings between 
you, shall Esteem it as a singular favour as there is no possibillity 
of my going down, to answer his demand, I am sorry to trouble you 
on this Occasion but hope you will Excuse it as being warrinted by 

I am D'' General 
With perfect Esteem 
Your Devoted and Very 
Humb* Serv' 

Jn' Crittenden 

P. S my Coming over shortly is uncertain as business goes on 
slow and my Constant attendance must be given Pray write rae 


Often Majf Pellam a gen' of my acquaintance gives his Compliments 
to you J C 

Addressed: Brigadier General George R Clark Honourd by 
Cap* Chapline 

Endorsed: 30"' Novr 1782 John Critingdon Letter 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison November 30, 1782 

[Eieciitive Cominiinicntiuns, 1782, Va. State Arcliives.l ' 

Lincoln Nov' 30"' 1782 

I had this Day the pleasure of receiving your Lef dated 17"" of 
Octob"" which for a few moments I was at a loss to Comprehend 
but on Recollecting some Circumstances find that on the supposition 
of your taking many Reports and party Memorials, I learn have 
been handed to your Excellency for granted that your then duty 
Required such a Letter to me I unfortunately have not the Copys 
of my former Let" to Government with me and to send in pursuit 
of the person I expect to be the bearer of this 'vvha has already set 
out so that it is not in my power to be as minute as I could wish I 
have always made a point to inform Government of every Circum- 
stance I thought nessessary for them to know except the importance of 
it was too trifling a Consequence to be at the expence of an Express 
and no oppertunity offering in short almost impossible at this dis- 
tance to acquant you of the Various Circumstances attending so 
Critical and extensive a dep* as this is for many months past it was 
impossible to have got a Lef to you without a Strong Guard except 
by Chance 

I have in a former Lef I think given you Satisfactory Reasons 
why the posts alluded to was not Built preparations ware made 
early in the Spring for the execution of your orders but a full ac' of 
the designs of the Enimy caused us to alter our plans prudence 
directed that we should not enter on too large a scale the Fortifica- 
tions at the Falls was first to be Repaired proceed to Kentucky from 
thence to Licking & compleating our Works in Rotation but in the 
execution of this business I had not only to counteract the design of 

'This letter is abstracted and printed in part in Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers, 3 :384-38s. 


the Enemy but a powerfull party endeavoring to subvert the govern- 
ment of which I have reason to believe that great part of those whom 
give your Exceyll so much Inteligence belong those and many other 
Resent circumstances caused us to meet with difficulties in drawing out 
the Militia hardly to be surmounted with the assistance of many 
worthy Gentlemen in office, I found that it was impossible to Build 
those posts without the greatest probability of sacrificing a party as not 
less than Six or Seven Hundred Men could have keep possession of 
the Mouth of Licking after Six Days being within Eighty Six Miles 
of the Body of the Enimy and the Clamour of Eaven those people 
whome I Suspect to have made their Complaint to you was that 
such post could not be supported and of no Consequence though I 
believe it not to be the Real Sentiments of the whole but rather to 
desopoint the design to save themselves from the Duty; Receiving 
repeated Inteligence from the Enimy we endeavored to Fix on the 
most likely plan to save the Cuntrey Col" Todds Militia was ex- 
cused from all other duty but that of keeping out proper Scouts and 
spies on the Ohio and Else whare to discover the aproach of the 
Enemy to give time & to Imbody a Sufficient force to Repell them 
as it could not be previously done not certainly knowing in what 
quarter they would make their stroke instead of those necessary 
duties being done on which their salvation apparently depended the 
Enimy was Suffered to penetrate deliberately into the bowels of 
their County and make the attack before they were discovered This 
I believe is what is wished to be blended and the neglect to be one 
of the principal Springs to that Mad pursuit and Carriage of the 
Blue Licks as the Reverse of fortune would have obliviated the for- 
mer neglect I must confess that I have been defitient in my duty 
in not given you an Ac' of Every Circumstance attending this un- 
happy aflair but hope to be excused as it was only owing to my 
Delicacy in affecting the Memmory of the Gentlemen who Fell not 
conceiving it to be of Singular advantage to government and know- 
ing it would fix a Eternal Stigmy on their Characters but as the 
scale has turned to the amazement on many I shall amediately Col- 
lect every Circumstance Relative to the whole affair for your perutial 
You will pardon me S' for informing your Excellency that you 
will hereafter find that you are greatly imposed on by party I am 


persuaded that if you were acquainted with the true Characters of 
many of these Gentlemen that you speak of that you would have 
no farther allution to them you have complained that Gentlemen do 
not give information of Shamefull neglect committed I suppose by 
me, their is no Gentleman of his own knowledge know of any Excciil 
those Little Gent^ I have before hinted if nothing but the Zeal I 
have for the publick interest and the Idea I have of your goodness 
would induce me to venture to tell your Excellency that as long as 
you Countenace those those kind of people you encourage Enimies 
to the state and keep part of your government in Confution but I 
know your cituation and how difficult it must be for you to di'^crimi- 
nate, Instance what was the design of the memorial I learned you 
Received from Fyatt County, to cover their own conduct and a 
prelude to a Maj''" Commission for a Triffler amd a Col' for a 
person something more deserving to the prejudice of a Valuable man 
M' Swcuringen thcr former Majf who had been absent for some time 
and was Dayly expected which would have prevented their Design 
to my Certain knowledge they now dread the Execution of what 
a few of them ware deluded to pray for again Col" Donaldson last 
Spring Chairman of the Committee that endeavoured to subvert 
the government and cost us soo much trouble to overset since bearing 
an important Commission, as for Expences disappointment the want 
of publick Credit neglect Mai Conduct in persons imployed & & I 
have perhaps experienced greater anxiety for the welfare of the State 
than most men in it as the changes in government have been so fre- 
quent that it would of course put it out of their power so fully to 
feel all those misfortunes attending its interest as one continually 
ingaged in its service to enumerate all the Various Circumstances 
attending mine what man in the State that would not have cast of 
their allegiance to it overset its Government in this Quarter 

Endorsed, G. R. Clark letter, Nov. so""- 1782. 

Addressed to His Excellency, Benjamin Harrison, Richmond. 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, November 30, 1782 

J- [Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Lincoln Nov' so"" 1782 

G Clark 
30 Novf 1782 

Since the return of the Expedition nothing of moment hath tran- 
spired except that of an ofHtial account of Gen' Erwin's disappoint- 
ment the Cuntrey seem to enjoy perfect tranquility at present how 
long it will remain so time only will show but I have reason to ex- 
pect that the Enemy will be silant for some time I had a great pros- 
pect of geting the post at the mouth of Licking built and garrisoned 
by the army on our Return but found it would be exceedingly dis- 
agreable to them to be detained if in my power your orders shall be 
executed but how those posts are to be supplyed I can not as yet 
conceive nothing can be got on the credit of the State the expendi- 
tures of Gov'' for a considerable time being on private funds I have 
by disposing of some Lands that I was possessed of Laid in a tolerable 
store at the Falls but if divided between three or four posts will be 
but trifling I some time past wrote to you on the subject of the 
Specific Tax and have Received Col. Davis's Lef ordering that of 
Fyat to be delivered which will add much to Our store I can Ac' 
for the reason why the other two countries should be excluded I 
have heard of commissioners being appointed for the collecting the 
Tax in districts and have thought Col Todd to have been appointed 
to this, as the Letters from the War office mentioned his delivering 
of the whole of the Tax, but uncertain the Cuntrey is so circum- 
stanced at present that no draught from the Interiour frontier will 
be necessary for some time, (as the late Enterprise will put the 
Enemy in great confution) Except you should think of an excurtion 
against the Ouabash Nations in the spring which would finally pre- 
vent their making any powerfull attempt for sometime and perhaps 
Silance near the whole in that Quarter as proper Speaches well 
timed divide their councils and keep them in confution if you should 
think of puting any such thing in execution I shall yet Receive pleas- 
ure in makeing every preparatory stroke in my power before I leave 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3:386-387. 

McDowell to clark. December 4. ini 165 

the Cuntrey which period I hope will be by the last of March as the 
Commissioners have at last arrive and expect to do business with 
them as soon as I fix on some probable plan for Building garisoning 
and Victualing the posts on the Ohio 

I am D' S' 
Your Hbl Servt 

G R Clark 
His Excellency Benj" Harrison. 

John Crittenden to Clark, December 4, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J62.— A.L.S.] 

Lexington 4 Decemb'' 1782 
D» Gen^ 

Since my last to you have some small prospect of Obtaining a 
few warrents towards a Compliance with your Requisition, But by 
no means a sufficient Quantity, therefore if any can be procurd on 
the South Side of Kantucky and forwarded to me shall Joyfully 
Receive them and proceed with the utmost dispatch to the Execution 
of the business 

Wee are Informd some Indians have done damage in Jefferson 
County, There has also been fresh sign discovered on the south waters 
of Licking pray write me and believe me 

with Sincere Regard 
Your Obed' and 
Humble Serv* 

John Crittenden 
Addressed: Brigadier Gen' George R Clark Honourd by W: 
Daniel Esq' 

Endorsed: Maj Critenden 

John McDowell to Clark, December 4, 1782' 
[Draper MSS., S2j6j.— A.L.S.] 

Col. Bowman's Decern'' 4''' 1782. 


The Commissioners have finished their Letters for the Court of 
Kaskaskias and S* Vincents inclosing Advertisements of their Meet- 

' For the report of the Western Commissioners, see post, 293 ff. 


ing at the Falls the 15'" January 1783, and not having an Oppor- 
tunity of sending them by any particular Messenger, recommend 
them to your immediate Care requesting to have them forwarded 
w^ith Dispatch ; this they Expect will not be inconvenient as j'ou 
may have Occasion to write to the Gentlemen employed in the dif- 
ferent Departments under you, to appear with their Accounts &c 
agreeable to their Letter of Novemf the 14''' Ult' addressed to your 
honour from Lexington. By Order of the Board, 

I am. Sir, 
your most ob' Servant 

John M'Dowell Sec^ 
The Hon"'-"' Brig"" Gen*- Clark. 

Addressed: On Public Service The Honourable Brigadier 
Gen' George R. Clark Cove Spring 

Endorsed: Decemb'' s'"" 1782 Board of Commissioners 

Benjamin Harrison to the Speaker of the Virginia House of 
Delegates, December 7, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 10S91-93.] 

Speaker of the House of Delegates. 

In Council, 7"" Dec'', 1782. 

I beg the favor of you to lay before the General Assembly a 
letter from Gen. Clark, together with two letters from him to the 
Chickasaw Nation, and his instructions to Capt. George, who he 
has sent into that country to signify his acceptance of peace, & to 
propose a cession of some of their lands for a consideration to be 
paid by this country. The General has been led to this last step 
from the favorable disposition of the Indians at this time, and 
an opinion taken upon pretty sure grounds that the Indians will not 
easily submit to those lands being settled without their leave. I 
cannot help thinking the measure a good one, tho' the General had 
never the least authority for taking the step. It now rests with 
the Assembly whether the hint shall be improved, and the purchase 
made or not. Prudence seems to advise the measure, as the lands 
will thereby be secured to the State and its officers even beyond the 
reach of those who wish to deprive us of our other Western Terri- 



tory under a pretext of their being bought from the Indians by in- 
dividuals and the State of New York. I hope for the determination 
of tlie Assembly as soon as convenient, that the express which is 
now waiting in town on expenses may be dispatched. 

[Then requests the return of the papers as soon as the Assembly 
sh'^ be done with them.] 

John Crittenden to Clark, December 14, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J64. — A. L. S.] 

14"" Decemb'' 1782 Le.xington 
D? Gen*- 

In my last to you I signified my wishes to Comply with your 
Requisition Relative to securing the land you spoke of for those 
Gent : below, in which I then discoverd no other Obstacle but the 
want of warrants, I sollicited your aid, I have not yet made a 
single Location Business going on so slow, and all my warrants being 
of young date. The Consequence is the land spoken of in your Letter 
to me is taken by Col' Levi Todd & others. However may yet 
be able to oblige you or if not with the whole in part. I have not 
Rec^ a single line from you on the subject 

I have the Honour to be 
Your Devoted & Hurab Serv' 

John Crittenden 
Addressed: Brigadier Gen' George R. Clark Favoured by M' 

Endorsed: Majf Crittenden 

Clark to the Western Commissioners, December 15, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Lincoln Deer is"" 1782. 
D" Gent--" 

I have received your several Lef' of y' 14'" Novf & 4'" Ins' the 
settlement of the Ac'' of this Dcp' is what I have long most ardcurly 
wished for and nothing in my power shall be wanting to faciliate the 
business but have to inform you that several persons Imployed as 
alluded to in yours of the 14 Nov"" do not come under my notice in 

' This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia Stale Papers, 3 :396-397- 


the settlement of their Ac" the Comertial ageants and part of the 
purchasers for the Campain Eighty one to wit M"" John Dodge of 
Ilinois Col" William Harrison of y» Monongehaly & Cap'' R Madi- 
son of Bottetourt and Deputies as they ware appointed by govern- 
ment and ordered to settle their Ac'' with the auditors notwithstand- 
ing I shall take pleasure in promoting the settlement of those or 
any other ac'' that may concern the Publick flattering myself that 
when the whole should be adjusted that you will find that great 
attention have be paid to acc^ at least as great as circumstances would 
admit of in all ac** I could possibly pay attention to 

His Excellency the Governour hath Recommended it to me to 
Select you as councellor in any Military Case that may be of a 
Dubious nature and if your times would permit I should thank you 
for your advice in the follow Case of Importance to this Cuntrey 
In Jan^ last I received orders from the Executive to have the fol- 
lowing post erected (and garrisoned by Draughts from the Militia) 
the mouth of Kentucky the Mouth of Licking & Limestone Various 
Circumstances put it out of our power to have this business Executed 
without the greatest probability of loosing the party that should be 
sent for the purpose untill the present Fall when it would have be 
attended with the loss of the late Expedition Since my return I have 
Received farther instructions to have those orders Amediately Exe- 
cuted I donot think they would have been so positive if his Excel- 
lency had not been imposed on by some designing fellows that did 
not care for the Interest of the Cuntrey or knew very very little about 
it of which your presence will better inable you to Judge it is now 
not by business to inquire into the propriety of Establishing those 
posts, under our present circumstances but to Execute the orders 
if in my power at same time could wish to know your opinions of 
tliem and particularly in what manner they are to be supported with 
provitions &c there may be about Sixty thousand lbs of Flower in 
Store at Fort Nelson and not a Ration to be bought on the Credit 
of the State Small quantities of Meat is to be got by huntiiig at the 
Risque of the lives of the Hunters and Expense of almost its worth 
of Amunition the grain &c of Fyatt is ordered to be delivered for 
the support of the Troops and expect to be impowered to receive 
that of the other counties y' whole that will be collected I doubt 


will be but a small Amount this is all the dependance we have for 
the Support of those posts without government would furnish Cish 
or send Flower by the way of Pittsburg I belive there will be a 
sufficient number of delinquents to garison one of them the Militia 
will murmur but I believe may be got to duty if their should be any 
other Circumstance that you wish to know of me before you favour 
me with the Result of your Consultation I shall transmit them with 
dispatch to you 

I am D' Gent" 
Your obed' Serv* 

G R Clark 

Simon Nathan to Benjamin Harrison, December 19, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

His Excellency Benjamin Harrison Esq' 
Richmond 19* December 1782 

Absolute and extreme necessity has oblidged me to leave my dis- 
tressed Family in Philadelphia, and come to this place in Order to 
pray your Excellency that my Claims on this State as set forth in 
the Inclosed Memorial may be taken under your serious consider- 
ation, nothing can be more painfull to me than my sundry appli- 
cations, and the reflection of there being any dispute on the subject 
of those Bills: but avoid all future Altercation and bring the matter 
to a Decisive point, I am still willing to submit the issue of this 
Claim to the determination of such disinterested Gentlemen as your 
Excellency and Honb' Board witii myself may agree upon, and for 
this purpose I will attend your Excellency at the Council Chamber 
when I am notified of the proposition meeting your Approbation, 
tiiere are a variety of strong and most urgent reasons for my wishing 
this reference, but none more powerful than my sincere wish and 
desire that impartial justice should take place, for I declare to your 
Excellency most solemnly, I never did directly or indirectly wish 
to gain One Iota of advantage of this Commonwealth, and I hope 
my future Conduct will evince the sincerety of this declaration all 
I can venture to say more at present is that I am only allowed by 
my Clamorous Creditors a short time to endeavour to procure them 


payment should I fail in this State of obtaining the means, my situa- 
tion must unavoidably be a hard and cruel confinement in a loathsome 

I am much oblidged by the payment you have made M"' Thomas 
Smith, for M'' Armistead promisary Note and the partial payment on 
]VP Ross's Certificates, should your Excellency be pleased to incline 
to make me a further payment on the said Certificates as p Acount 
under cover, I will take Tobacco, Hemp, & Flour at any place 
within this Commonwealth and at the highest prices as yet given 
by any person in this State, my Necessities are such that should make 
any discount whatsoever for immediate payment 

I have the Honor to be with very great Respect 
Your Excell)'^ Obed' Servant 
Simon Nathan. 

Benjamin Harrison to Clark, December 19, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 10S93-97. — Transcript.] ' 

In Council, ig"" Decem: 1782 
Sir — 

Your letter of the iS"" October by express came safe to hand 
with its enclosures. As the Assembly was sitting, I immediately laid 
them before them, and enclose you their resolution on the subject, 
together with the advice of Council given me on the resulution, to 
which you are strictly to conform. I agree perfectly with you that 
obtaining the lands from the Indians by purchase, if it can be done 
at a moderate price, will be prudent ; yet it behooves us to be ex- 
tremely cautious how the Deed is worded, as we say that this State 
has an exclusive right to all the lands within its chartered boundary, 
. and if that circumstance is not particularly attended to, it may give 
some right to the extraordinary pretentions set up by some of the 
United States, under color of Indian purchases. You'll, therefore, 
be very attentive to the subject, and sufTer no words to be introduced 
into the Deed that may in any manner countenance such a claim. 
You'll please also to be careful not to include any of the lands with- 
in the bounds of North Carolina, which D'' Walker informs me 
are pretty well ascertained in that quarter. 

' This letter was contributed by Dr. Kellogg. 


You know that Commissioners are appointed to meet the Chicka- 
saw and Creek Indians in the spring, to settle a peace with them; at 
which time I think it will be most convenient to fix the terms of 
the purchase — yet if you have good reasons for thinking it can be 
done more advantageously elsewhere, I would have you consult your 
own judgment, and act accordingly; but if not, I could wish you to 
attend at the treaty as well for making the purchase, as to assist 
the Commissioners in the business of peace. You'll please to advise 
immediately after the return of Capt. George of his success, and 
what more will be necessary to bring the business to a conclusion, 
whether the Indians will expect cash or goods; & if the latter, of 
what kind they are to be. If you can so order it, cash will be most 
agreeable to us, as goods cannot be procured nearer than Philadelphia. 

I have explained myself so fully to you on the subject of your 
command, in my letters that had not got to hand when the express 
left you, that nothing remains to be said on that subject, except to 
remind you of the necessity there is for establishing the posts at 
Wheeling [ ?] and Licking as soon as possible, and I request that you 
let no considerations withdraw your attention from those objects. 

I agree with you that the command you have is not a proper one 
for a gentleman of your rank, and therefore accept your proposal of 
returning; before you leave it, I wish you to regulate the regular 
corps, and reduce the number of officers to the number of privates; 
if the officers cannot agree amongst themselves who shall retire, 
you must call on the youngest to do it. 

If a talk to the Indians can be prepared in time for the expr>;ss, 
you will have it enclosed; if not it shall be sent to Col' Martin 
in a short time who will forward it to you. 

The desire the people have of revenging themselves on the savages 
for the loss of so many valuable friends, I suppose was the cause 
of your undertaking an expedition, otherwise it was certainly wrong 
to do it without consulting me. I have some reason to apprehend 
it will rather prolong than shorten the Indian war, as my advices 
from tiie Northward tell me that the English have called in all their 
parties, and mean no more to act on the offensive. How long they 
may continue in this disposition is uncertain, but if they are quiet 


for the next year I am in hopes the settlement will be too strong 
to be under any great apprehensions from their attacks. 
— A stop has been put, I hope, long since, to the destructive 
practice of drawing bills on New Orleans; if it has not, I must 
insist that nothing of the sort in future take place, for no such will 
ever be paid. Of this, you'll give notice to the several officers under 
your command. 

I am. Sir, &c. 

B. H. 

Evidences of Corruption, December 24, 1782 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Lincoln County Decem'' 24th 1782. 
This Day came before the Board of Commissioners, Cap. George 
Davidson, who commanded a Company of the Green Brier Militia 
belonging to Maj' Thomas Quirks Detachment which were ordered 
to join Gen' Clark in the Spring 1 78 1, And made Oath that while 
said Troops were at Fort Chiswell, som of them behaved in a very 
disorderly Manner, frequently taking and riding the public Horses 
when they thought proper without Leave, much to the prejudice of 
the said Horses; — And that it was reported, and he the Deponent 
believes, they repeatedly broke into the Quartermaster's Store and 
took a Quantity of Led and Whiskey, that Cap. Joseph Gray and 
himself in one Instance, saw the said Store breaking open by some 
of the said Militia, who effected their Escape before they could 
be taken, and that he afterwards heard a certain Arnold Custard 
confess, that he in company with another of said Militia, broke open 
the aforesaid Store and took out a Piggon full of Whiskey, — And 
that they continued to behave in that disorderly Manner wliile on 
their March to the Kentucky Country, that less or more of the pub- 
lic Horses were lost almost every Night which he believes was chiefly 
owing to the Want of necessary Guards, — And that after the Arival 
of said Troops in Kentucky, At Col. Logan's they and Some Negroes 
took several of the Pads out of the Pack Saddles, and that the Linnen 
of which the Pads were made was afterwards found upon them — 
And that near forty of the said Men deserted the third Day after 
their Arival at Col Logan's, and it was said that Number of Bells 


were lost off the public Horses about that Time; — And that Majf 
Quirk at Col. Logans took the Amunition from the Quartermas- 
ter into his Own Care (all except a Bar of Lead of about seventy 
weight) which the Deponent understood were stored at Harrods 
Station — And that the greater part of the said Bar of Lead he 
believes was soon after stolen by the said Militia, and that he after- 
wards heard John Arbuckle Samuel Moore and Ananias Irvin three 
of these Men confess they took a part of this Led and the Deponent 
further says at all Times while at Fort Chiswell and on the said 
March, Mr. Rowland Madison appeared to him to use every pre- 
caution in his Power, to preserve the aforesaid Stores and Horses, 
and that tlie Losses both of the Horses and Stores was not owing 
to any Neglect of said Madison, it being impossible for him to pre- 
serve them for the want of a sufficient Number of Men to Guard 
the Horses when in Pastures, and to hunt them in the Mornings 
when they were coming through the Wilderness, and also to guard 
the Stores in the Daytime. And that he heard the said Madison 
complain that he had applied for more sufficient Guards, but he 
could not obtain them. And further the Deponent sayeth not. 

Sworn to before me 

Caleb Wallace 

John Gibson to Clark, December 24, 1782 
[Draper MSS., 52J66.— A.L.S.] 

December the 24''' 1782 
Dr Sr this is to Inform you that I have Rote to you three limes 
within this three months Informing you of my Setuation D'' S'' ray 
propertey in this town is to be Sold against the first Day of march 
Next for a Debt that I Contracted upon the Strenth of your order 
on the Gouvner of Virnegina which was Regeted D'' S'' Now I am 
Ruined if you Do Not Relive me before that time I Expect to be 
obledged to Leve tiiis place in two months after this Date if you Do 
not Relive me and to you I must flye to for Suker this is from your 
Distresed friend Jn° Gibson 

To Generall George Rodgers Clark. 

Addressed : To Genr' Clark favred by Cap' Barber 


J. M. P. Legras to Clark, December 31, 1782 

[Draper MSS., 52J67.— A.L.S.] 

Au Generale George Roge Clark Brigadier Generale 


L'incertitude de votre Retoure me prive Du plaisir D aller 
pour le present a la Chute: Je me flatte Sous peu apprendre de 
votre Main L'execution heureuse de la noble Entreprise que vous 
aves formes pour L'honneur Et Surete des Etats et peuples attaches 
a la Cause Commune, Je Souhaite que Dieu favorise La Noblesse 
de vos Sentiments; Me proposant aussitot la Nouvel Certaine de 
votre heureux Retoure aller En personne vous feliciter. Et partager 
vos plaisirs; Ne pouvent plus Vivre tranquille En Cette Endroit; 
Manquant de tout Et meme du necessaire — L'inconstance des temps 
nous Causant une grande disette de grain Sans Ressource d'argent 
pour me precautionner de vivres; meme Expose a Vendre mes 
Esclaves et au moment d'etre Execute pour Les dettes que J'ay 
Contracte pour faire des avances aux Etats Et les obliger; Je 
mettois flatte qu'en Recconnoissance Et Vu Ma situation que vous 
Connoisses fort Bien; vous m'auries Envoye par M^ William quel- 
ques EfFets soye farinne, sel et autre En votre pouvoir; Mais par 
une Lettre qu'il m at Ecris des Ilinois, il me marque que vous ne 
L'aves Charge de Rien pour moy ce qui ma Beaucoup aiflige Et 
decide a aller sous peu meme vous prier de mettre fin a mes peines; 
Empressant les Etats Et Decider le Gouvernement de Virginie a 
me payer, Je ne peut plus Soutenir La durete avec Laquel Je Suis 
traite ne meritant point pareille traitement; Votre generosite Ne 
souffrira point que Je Soufire plus Longtemps; Je ne doute point 
Voyant ma triste Situation que vous ne Daignies m'envoyer par 
L'occasion Des frangois porteur de la presente quelque Ressource 
pour faire Vivre ma famille; par des farinnes, sel poudre plomb &' 
qui seront En votre pouvoir ; vous pouvcs tout Et me repose sur vous 
pour Jouir d'un temps plus Serein 

Jay appris que quelque Sauvage au nombre de huit ont insulte 
Mf William sur la Belle Rivierre Et luy ont otte partie de ses Effets; 
et les meme quelques Jours apres ont pillie deux frangois Chassant 
Sur La ditte Rivierre; Je me Restere a leur Retoure D'hyvernement 
pour m' informer Comment Et pour quel Sujet ils Commettent 

4. LEGRAS TO CLARK. DECEMBER 31. 1782 175 

I pareille Desordre; Et vous En donneres aVis — il y a apparence que 

les Chefs En Sont Bien peine, et que Ses Coquins S'etoit Delaches 
de la Bande pour agir Librement — Suivant vos ordres J'ay fait Ven- 
dre les Cazarnes; que les Ameriquins, frangois Et Sauvages avoient 
Mis En Ruine; J'ai L'lionncur de vous Reccommander M' Carbonau 
amy des Etats Anisy que M"^' Barois La VioUette Et Gardin Et Lour 
procurer tout secour Et assistance qu'il pouroit avoir Besoin: En 
Consideration des services qu'ils ont Rendue aux Etats Unis de 1' a 
Merique : Daignies ne me point oublies pour ce que Je vous demande 
Et de me croire avec un profond Respect Et Sincere attachement 
:: Votre tres humble 

Et Tres obeissant 
J. M. P. Legras Lieu' Col« 

A Command 
S'^ ViNCENNE Le 3i« X^ 1782. 

Addressed : A Monsieur Monsieur Clark Ecuyer brigadier Gen- 
erale a La Chutte Et En son absence a M"^ L'Officier Command' 


To General George Rogers Clark, Brigadier General. 

The uncertainty as to your return deprives me for the present 
of the pleasure of going to the Falls. I flatter myself that I shall 
shortly learn from you of the happy execution of the noble enterprise 
which you have undertaken, for the honor and security of the States 
and the people attached to the common cause. May Ged favor 
your noble aspirations; I intend as soon as I hear definitely of your 
happy return to go in person to congratulate you and to share your 
pleasures. I cannot live peaceably in this place, as I am in want of 
everything, even of necessaries. The variable weather makes grain 
scarce with us and I have no money to lay in provisions. I may 
have to sell my slaves and am at the point of being put in execution 
for the debts which I have contracted to make advances to the States. 
I had flattered myself that in gratitude, and in view of my situation 
which you know very well, that you would have sent me some sup- 


plies by Mr. William, flour, salt, and anything else that you could. 
But by a letter which he has written to me from the Illinois, he 
informs me that you have sent me nothing by him which has dis- 
tressed me very much, and decided me to go to see you shortly, to 
beg you to put an end to my troubles. In pressing the States and 
the Government of Virginia to decide to pay me, I cannot bear any 
longer the harshness with which I am treated, and which I do not 
deserve. Your generosity will never permit me to suffer any longer. 
I do not doubt, that in view of my sad condition, you will send me 
by the Frenchman who carries this letter, something for the support 
of my family ; flour, salt, powder, lead etc. whatever you can ; you 
can do anything and I hope through you to enjoy serenity. 

I have learned that a band of eight Indians have insulted Mr. 
William while on the Belle River, and have taken from him a part 
of his effects; and that the same Indians, some days after, have plun- 
dered two Frenchmen who were hunting on the same river. At 
their return from winter quarters I will find out how and for what 
reason they are guilty of such disorders; and I will advise you. It 
appears that the chiefs are chagrined at it and that these rascals have 
broken away from the tribe in order to act freely. 

Following your orders, I have sold the barracks, which the 
Americans, French and Indians have reduced to ruins. 

I have the honor to recommend to you Mr. Carbonneau, a friend 
of the States, as well as Messrs. Barois, La VioUette, and Gardin, 
and to ask you to procure for them all the aid and assistance which 
they may need in consideration of services which they have rendered 
to the United States of America. 

Please do not forget what I ask of you and believe me to be 
with profound respect and sincere attachment. 

Your very humble and very obedient servant, 
J.M.P.Legras, Lieut. Col. in command. 

St. Vincennes, December 31, 1782. 

Mr. Clark, Esq., Brigadier General at the Falls, 

and in his absence to the Officer Commanding. 





Clark to William Davies, January i , 1 783 
[Executive Documents, Va. State Archives.] 

Lincoln January i»' 1783 

You receive from Maj-- Walls, Returns of the stores, of this 
Department, I hope you will consider the officers, they are in a de- 
plorable situation, in short, cannot remain in service without assist- 
ance, if the soldiers, could receive but part of their pay, it wou'd 
encouraRc them greatly, you will find by the returns that there is 
not a sufficiency of Cannon, for a Block hous, instead of Mounting 
four or five Forts, I expected cannon & stores to have been sent last 
spring, for the different Posts to be built on the Ohio, but received 
but two pieces, the number of Troops continue to decreas, I was 
thinking that if Government, were to order the Militia of Kaintucky, 
to be Classed, and each fifteen furnish a man for the war, as other 
parts of the state, it would reais the Regulars to about two hundred 
with a small reinforcement of the Millitia, And perhaps would an- 
swer the purpose of Garrisoning the Posts, Government, would wish 
to suport in this Quarter, I only hint this, as some such plan might 
perhaps be Resolved on, to the advantage of the Frontier, After 
informing of you that not a Ration, is to be got on the Credit of the 
state, it will be unneessary to point out the necessity of Govern- 
ments, falling on some plan for the suport of the Troops, in this 
Quarter, the stores of Provision Purchased in eighty one, are ex- 
hausted, We are preparing to go about the works at the mouth of 
Kaintucky &c, but it is with reluctance, as we expect nothing els 
but to have the pleasure of Destroying it again, not as yet knowing 
in what maner they are to be suported with provisions &c, wishing to 
receive further Instructions from Government on the subject, but in 
the mean time shall take the most prudent Measures that our Reason 
may Dictate, I expected to be able to leave the Frontier, some time 
in March, or the first of April, and could wish to find that it was 
likely to be in a Tolerable Situation of Defence, you will as fully 
know its wants as I do, & perhaps much better as I am a stranger 
to the Proposals of a General peace, supposing us to Remain in a 
state of a War, to save blood & Treasure, this Department ought 


to be well supported, excuse me for mentioning anything like Dic- 
tating to you, and permit me, to subscribe myself. 

Your very Obt Serv* 

G R Clark 
Col: W. Davis 

James Monroe to Clark, January 5, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J69-70.— A.L.S.] 

Richmond Jany 5 1783 
Sir I did propose writing you sooner in answer to y' fav"" I have 
sometime since rec* from you, but not having till y' present an oppor- 
tunity w* I CO* with propriety avail myself of defer'd it hitherto. 
Mr Gratiot who appears from y' circumstances before us to be yf 
intimate friend will present this to you. When I first came into 
office I inform'd you that as well from y' desire I had of rendering 
service to y' community at large as of paying attention to y' par- 
ticular interests of that part w^ you are appointed to defend, it was 
my desire to correspond confidentially with a gent' of character there, 
that in consequence of y' very favorable impressions y"" conduct as 
generally rec'' & as particularly stated to me by my friend M'' Jeffer- 
son had made on me, induced a desire of corresponding with you. 
The same motives w'' induced this proposition to you & y' same 
spirit of candour w^ inclin'd me to wave y' difficulty of y'' being a 
stranger will I doubt not apologize for y« contents of y' present letter. 
Since I have been at y* Board a variety of business respecting ye 
western country hath been before it. a variety of communications 
respecting y'' particular conduct have been made to us. Y' draughts 
to an immense am'- on Oliver Pollock at N. Orleans & others in y' 
western country who have taken up bills on y' treasury, have been 
presented for paym'- M"" Pollocks claim if I recollect aright amounts 
to 275 000 dollars or more specie, other claims under y''" & y'' offi- 
cers draughts w'' have already been presented make y' sum am' to 
above 100,000 £ specie. I speak within bounds when I confine it 
to this sum. a Capt. George drew at one time for 230,000 specie 
dollars on Oliv^ Pollock his letter of advice specifically mentions 
specie & Mr Pollock says he advanc'd 32,000 dolK" having either 
delay 'd payment or protested ye bill for y' remd' 


■)■. Capt. George in a subsequent letter to y' Gov'' contradicts this 

i; fact & says he drew for paper dol''' I will not be positive whether 

I' y* letter is address'd to y' Gov'' or some other person but his letter 

we have contradicting it. These draughts are immense calculated 
to exhaust & impoverish y' state & ultimately we fear to turn to 
no publick benefit, we are with respect to them much surpris'd you 
wo^ upon any occasion permit y'' inferior officers to draw bills, & 
cannot conceive wiiy y^ arrangments have not been such tiiat in yf 
gen' superintendence of y« military afl''" westw** you have not kept 
them simply to y' duty of getting provision & eating it, cloaths & 
wearing them & receiving them from those who, under you, procure 
them for them. The country in w^ you carry on y' operations we 
know is extensive & in y' distance of y' posts from each other y' 
several officers commanding them must have a kind of discretionary 
power in y'' absence, but the discretion we conceive they sho^ exercise 
ougiit to be simply confin'd to their operations ag""* y* enemy, for 
instance while you are at one post, if assail'd at another y' officer 
commanding must use such means for his defense as he thinks will 
prove most cfficatious. but tiiis discretion sho^ never be extended 
to their making contracts for cloaths without yi" knowledge or [iro- 
curing provision but in y' manner you have prescribed & provided 
for. If each officer hath this power you open a door to his corrup- 
tion, you open a door to excessive fraud and peculation on publick 
property & by making him a merchant you iiliberalize his heart & 
detach him from y' publick interest. I make this observation gen*'^ & 
wish not to apply it to any particular sett of men or even country. 
If howe'er y'' officers have acted without yr. orders, or even consent, 
in y' many instances wherein exceptions have arose to their conduct, 
we cannot conceive why you have not arrested, broke & dismiss'd 
them from y' service, for certainly you must be aware that by not 
subjecting them to censure you give them yr. countenance. Tlicse 
several circumstances together with y« little appearance of order 
or oeconomy w^ we can discover have I must inform you, made 
more probable with y' Board y' several reports we have heard to yr. 
prejudice, viz. that you are personally engag'd in private specula- 
tions w^ at least do not promote y' publick interest & further that 
vou drink to an excess. 


we know that Congress wish to wrest that country from us & 
we further know that if they can do it they will & that without 
making us a reycompensation for y' immense expense we have been 
at. we mean howeer not to let them have it, but if in y* chance & 
fortune of things they sho^ get it from us & turn it to gen' interest 
of y' United States in prejudice of this, we mean not in y' meantime 
to desert it in y* infancy but to give it what support we can, as well 
in y' pleasure we have in ministring aid to y' offspring of y' state 
as in marring and dashing y' views of y' enemy. The interest of y' 
State requires a full settlem' of all these western afif''' as the State 
thereby will be appris'd with certainty what she does & what she 
does not owe, that she may preserve her honor & interest & do justice 
to her creditors, as well as introduce order & oeconomy in y« several 
& particularly in that department, and after y' communications I 
have very candidly made you I think you will readily concur with 
me that this investigation is very necessary to y'' character & interest. 
You have been appris'd that after settling with y' com^' y'' presence 
is requir'd here to attend y' orders of y' Executive, this it was sup- 
pos'd you might effect by April. Mr Gratiot will inform you what 
has been done with respect to Mr Pollocks acc'° &c as well as his 
own. to him I beg leave to refer you upon every other subject on 
w^ you wish information & shall only add that I shall be glad to 
hear from you & am with my best wishes for yf health & welfare y'' 
mo: ob' servant 

Jas. Monroe 

Renjamin Harrison to Benjamin Logan, January 13, 1783 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, Va. State Archives.] 

Col: Benjamin Logan. — 

Council Chamber Janu: 13*^ 1783. 

Gen : Clark has given me Information of his success in a late 
expedition against the Shawnees Indians and of the spirited and 
active part you and the Militia of Kentuckey took in it and the 
Obligations he and your Country in general are under both to you 
and them in thus manfully stepping forth and correcting a Tribe of 




Indians who have manifested such an inveterate hatred to us, and 
who have hitherto been too successful in their expeditions against our 
frountier Inhabitants. Be assured Sir that the Executive entertain 
the highest sense of your conduct and services and I beg you to 
accept of our warmest Acknowledgements for them, and that you 
will communicate both to the Officers and Men under your command 
our thanks, and assure them we shall ever entertain a proper sense 
of the important services they have rendered their Country in thus 
manfully stepping forth to revenge the Blood of their Countrymen, 
and correcting the Insolence of a bloodthirsty and vindictive Enemy, 
who have so long triumphed over us, and desolated our frontiers. 
The Blow was so well timed and so happily executed that I hope 
it will put such an effectual stop to their hostile Intentions against 
your Infant Settlement, as will give you time so to strengthen your- 
selves, as to render fruitless any of their future attempts to disturb 
you. — 

I am Sir 


B. H, 

Benjamin Harrison to Clark, January 13, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J73.— A.L.S.] 

Council Chamber Januy: 13'' 1783. 
Sir I received your favor of tlic 27"" November and very sincerely 
congratulate you on the Success of your expedition against the In- 
dians, the Officers and men under your command deserve the highest 
praise from their Country, for their spirited conduct in the affair. 
Thro' you Sir the Executive desire their thanks may be given them, 
and that you assure them, they will ever remember with gratitude 
the Services they have rendered ; the blow was well timed, and if it 
had been seconded by Gen: Irvine would perhaps have quieted tlie 
Indians for some Time; I have not heard from that Quarter lately, 
tho' I am inclined to think the General has been kept still on re- 
ceiving Information, that the British had call'd in all their scalping 
parties, and intended no more to carry on that kind of War against 
our back Settlements, whether they really mean as they say. Time 
will discover, but be it as it may, your Expedition will be attended 


with good Consequences; it will teach the Indians to dread us, and 
convince them that we will not tamely submit to their depredations. 
— It has ever been my Opinion the attacking them in their own 
Country, was the only way to keep them quiet, and save expence, 
but I have unfortunately differ'd in Sentiments from those to whom 
I am amenable and have been under a Necessity of obeying their 
Injunctions, had this not been the Case, it is more than probable, 
we should not have depended on the Continente altogether on our 
Northwestern frontier. 

The Commissioners appointed to settle the Terms of peace with 
the Chickasaws will be with you soon after this gets to hand, if you 
have not finished the intended purchase of Lands, they have orders 
to assist you in it if you think it necessary, and I shall be obliged to 
you to do the same friendly Office by them. It has been suggested 
to me that it is probable the Shawnees and Hurons are so humble 
by your Success, that they may wish for peace, the Commissioners 
are therefore empower'd to make one if you shall advise it, which I 
expect will not be the Case, unless you can first draw the proposal 
from them, for tho' such an event is desirable yet great circumspec- 
tion must be used, or the Indians will construe our solicitations as 
proceeding from fear, and become less tractable than heretofore; but 
as you are much better acquainted with the Temper and dispositions 
of these people than I am, I shall leave you to Judge for yourself, 
without paying very strict attention to what I have said on the Sub- 
ject. I have now Sir to return you my particular thanks and those 
of my Council for your spirited and judicious Conduct thro the 
whole course of your Expedition, and to assure you that we shall 
ever entertain the highest Sense of the Important Service you have 
rendered your Country, in subduing an Enemy who have so long 
enfested our frountiers with Inpunity, and destroyed such Numbers 
of our valuable Inhabitants. 

I am with respect Sir 
Your mo: Obed' & most Hum: Servant. 
Benj Harrison 
Gen: G: R. Clarke. 

Falls of Ohio 


JANUARY i6, 1783 — APRIL 29, 1783 

Protection of Immigrants — Abuses in the Public Service — Conditions 
IN Kentucky — Fort Nelson, the Key to the West — Terms of Peace. 

James Wood to Benjamin Harrison, January 16, 1783 
[Executive Papers, Va. State Archives.] 


TIlis will be Delivered your Excellency by M'' Machan, One of 
the Captives lately returned from Canada; there is about thirty five 
of those unhappy People at this Place, who have been Plundered 
of their all by a merciless enemy, and Suffered along and Painful 
Captivity. Col' Holmes very readily furnished them with Provi- 
sions, as far as he Conceived himself Authorized by the Executive; 
which he informed me was not to Exceed Twenty Shillings each. 
As their Numbers are much less than was expected, they hope the 
Executive will Direct them a support 'till the Season will admit of 
their return to Kentucki. I have the Honor to be with the 
est respect and Esteem. 

Yr Excellency's 

Very Ob' Serv' 

James Wood. 
Winchester Jan>' 16 1783. 
Gov? Harrison 

Thomas Marshall to Clark, January 27, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52)74.— A.L.S.] 

Jan. 27"" 1783 

Forts are of Little use in covering and defending a country situ- 
ated as this is against an Enemy who carry on a War in the manner 
the Indians do, therefore I shall say nothing of them considered in 



that point of view.' I shall confine myself to population, the only 
object worth the expence of building and Garrisoning them ; & which 
1 think attainable. To inable me to give a decisive opinion on the 
place most proper to ans^ this purpose I shall consider as far as I 
am able to judge, the advantages & disadvantages attending each 
of the places which I have heard propos'd as proper for erecting 
garrisons at. The mouths of Kentuckey, Licking & Limestone, are 
the places as I understand propos'd, & the other Commissioners have 
recommended the Mouth of Kentuckey. The reasons given by 
them as well as I recollect, in support of their opinion are, that it 
will favor tiie settling the Lands in its vicinity and on Rrashiers's 
Creek Floyds fork &c. cover the salt works intended to be erected 
at Drinnings Lick, and afiord an easey & convenient passage up the 
Kentuckey by Water to such as are removing down the Ohio and 
wish to Settle in Fayette. Some part of this reasoning for ought 
I know may be just, but of that I have my doubts. I think the Fort 
at the falls sufficient to answer the purpose of affording a safe land- 
ing, & favoring the population of Jefferson; & as to Lincoln, the 
only avenue leading into this country by land is in that County and 
has already fill'd it with inhabitants. It cannot be doubted but 
Jefferson & Lincoln owe their present population to these two causes 
— The inlets, & the only ones, into this country at present being 
the falls, and that through Cumberland Gap. The people of Fayette 
arc little proffitted by either of these two passages into the Country 
as both are inconvenient to the people wishing to settle in that 
County. But it is time to give some reasons why a Garrison at 
the Mouth of Kentuckey will not answer the purpose suppos'd to be 
intended so far as concerns Fayette. These are two, first, a navi- 
gation up the Kentuckey witli those kinds of Boats generally made 
use of for removing families down the Ohio is impracticable at any 
time but more especially so in time of War when the Enemy will 
I)ri)l):il)ly way lay tiiat river & may fire on them from citiicr side & 
inevitably destroy them without a possibility of their escaping, and j 

secondly a road from the mouth of Kentuckey into that part of Fay- 
ette where people most wish to settle must pass through a moun- 

•For the question of establishing forts in Kentucky, see ante, 5-6, 161- j 

163. The report of the commissioners to settle the western accounts, one ^ 

of whom was Col. Thomas Marshall, is printed post, 293 ff. ^ 




tainous country which tho' not absolutely unfit for cultivation is 
not likely to be settled in any small time & throught which it is 
not possible to get a road fit for a waggon to pass without much 
more labor than the people in their present situation and numbers 
iiave it in tiieir power to bestow. The same objections equally may 
be urged against the M' of Licking Limestone or somewhere in 
its Neighborhod I think most proper for the following reasons. Be- 
cause that body of fine Lands so much tiie object of desire and on 
which people removing to Fayette wish to settle on, juts up to the 
river at that place, & is sever'd from the Mouths of Licking & Ken- 
tuckey by the range of high iiills afforesaid. Because it would be 
most convenient for all such as were moving into tiiis country from 
the northern parts of Virginia and from the States of Maryland 
Pensylvania & the other Eastern States to come down the Ohio, & 
in that case Limestone would be tlie place undoubtedly where such 
of them as would wish to to settle in Fayette would find it most 
convenient to Land. Because it must appear very absurd to persons 
moving into Fayette, to pass the very Lands they wish to settle on, 
go down the river 230 Miles to the M' of Kentuckcy before they 
Land, & then to have upwards of lOO or 150 miles to return by 
Land through an uninhabited & mountainous Wilderness where they 
are every moment expos'd to the attacks of the Enemy. 15ccause 
a Garrison at limestone would in al probability induce a settlement 
in its neighborhod or vicinage, and in a short time fill the intermedi- 
ate space between that & the present settlements in Fayette with 
smaller stations inhabited by people ready as soon as a peace takes 
place to remove out, settle & cultivate their own Lands, & in the 
mean time by adding to our numbers enable us occasionally to carry 
the war into the Enemys country & thereby render it more terrable 
to them. Because there is a road already made from witliin 5 or 
6 miles of that place upwards of 50 Miles into the Country througli 
the heart of the good lands, which with a very little labor might 
be made passable for waggons or other carriages. And because it 
seems to be a piece of justice due to the people of Fayette, who seem 
at present the piquet Guard of Lincoln, to allow them the same 
means of strengthening themselves which Jefferson and Lincoln have 
so successfully availd themselves of. You also desire my opinion 


on the manner by which this Garrison at the mouth of Limestone 
is to be supported with provisions. I answer. The state must for 
the first year send them flour from the neighborhod of Fort Pitt 
& send it down the ohio — Beef may at the same time be supplied 
them by hunting, and if I am not missinform'd this is the way the 
Garrisond at the Falls is supplied. Upon the whole — It is my 
opinion that a stockade fort such a one as that at Wheeling should 
be immediately built at or near the mouth of Limestone and gar- 
risond with one company of state troops, occasionally reinforc'd by 
small draughts from the militia, that it should be supplied with 
provisions & military stores sufficient for one month siege at least. 
And that Forts at the mouths of Licking & Kentuckey considering 
our present resourses will be burthensome and unnecessary. I have 
only to add my thanks for the politeness with which you did me 
the honor to ask my opinion on the above subject and to assure you 
that I give it with pleasure & sincerity and am 

Dear Gen' Your most obed' Serv' 
T. Marshall 
Endorsed: Col. T. Marshal Jan" 27"" 83 oppinion on the de- 
fence of the country 

Jonathan Clark to Clark, January 29, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J7S.— A.L.S.] 
D" Brother, 

You must not impute my long silence to neglect or the lack of 
inclination, the recluse manner in which I have spent the last year 
has kept all opportunities from hence, an entire secret as to me, & 
the business that you probably have on hand may serve as an apology 
for you. I have not had a line from you since last February. 

The favourable conveyances by M'' Grassett [Gratiot] I with 
pleasure embrace of saying something — news I have none, politicks 
I must not touch on, — the acts of our late assembly I have not 
seen, except one relative to the army, which allows their certificates 
for pay to go in payment of their own Taxes, and the interest of 
those certificates is to be paid — if anything is done respecting the 
back country, I do not know it. I would have made myself ac- 
quainted with whatever was done, and have let you known it, had I 


known of this opportunity in time. I am this moment infoini'd 
that Mr Grassctt is on his way out, and it is now nine OClock at 

Bro. Jolin went off with M'' Hart last fall for some of the W. 
India Islands, and has not return'd, he was in a very decliniiif^ state, 
and took this voyage for the benefit of his Health, the rest of the 
family are very well Edmund is exchanged and intends Joining 
his Regiment in a week or two. 1 shall be very glad to hear from 
Richard. I have not heard certainly whether [he] got to you or 
not, if he has remember me to him, he should have heard from me 
by letter if I knew he was with you. Miss Nancy Tompkins is mard 
to Mf J Dickinson Cap' Stevens to Miss Carter — and so on — I 
have flattcr'd myself with the pleasure of seeing you here this win- 
ter but fear I shall be disappointed — my wife joins me in con- 
pratulatinf; you on your recent success against the Indians — witli 
our sincere wishes for your future prosperity 1 am 

Yr Aff Brother 

JoNA^ Clark 
Spotsylvania Jan. 29, 1783 
Addressed: Brigadier General George Rogers Clark 

Falls Ohio Favd by Mr. Grassett 

William Christian to Benjamin Harrison, January 29, 1783 

[C<j/. of I'a. State Papers, 3-424-425.] 

Jan'y 29th 

About a month ago, I wrote to Col : Mathews, one of your hon- 
ourable Board, recommending and advising the removal of Col : 
Martin, your Indian Agent, from the Great Island on Holston river, 
to Cumberland Gap. I gave some reasons in that letter vvliy I 
recommended liic Alteration, which I hope Col: Mathews stated to 
the Board." * * * 

"However Sir, the chief Design of my troubling you at this 
Time, is to remin'd you, that it has been long talked of, and 1 dare 
say often recommended, that a Post ought to be erected on the Ohio 


at the Mouth of Licking or Lime stone River, for the benefit of 
the middle and upper Parts of the Kentucky Country. 

The Falls is beyond a doubt a proper station for a garrison, but 
it is of no more use to the upper and middle Country than a Post 
on James River would be to the People on Potomack. 

I rather judge Limestone to be the most suitable Place, and that 
a hundred men would be a sufficient number for a Garrison there. 
It would be a proper Place for the Rendezvous of Troops going 
into the Shawney Country, and for the Debarkation of Families 
moving down the Ohio. The other advantages arising from a Post 
there, 1 need not explain, as they will in a moment occur to your 
Excellency. There is one however I have just thought of that I 
will mention. At Limestone or Licking would be a proper station 
for an armed vessel to cruize from, up and down the River. But 
it ought to be light and manageable for twenty or thirty men, which 
number in a proper constructed vessel would be strong enough to 
attack any number of Indians in Canoes. There is one thing I 
will mention, and although it may appear Selfish, yet you ought to 
be acquainted with it. Fayette County is the most exposed to the 
Enemy, of any County in the State, or perhaps in America, and if 
neglected, the Inhabitants will I dare say from Report, move away 
in great numbers to Cumberland in North Carolina: and if the 
present Inhabitants makes a Break I don't know where any others 
would be found to take their Places. I am informed by Letters 
from Kentucky that the People seem pretty easy just now, being 
amused with an account of a Cessation of Arms betwixt us and our 
Enemies: and some other accounts of General Carlton's having 
proposed to stop hostilities, from the Indians. The latter we hear 
often by travellers from Pennsylvania. Be those matters as they 
may, I have very slender Hopes that the Shawnees will regard either 
Carlton or Haldimand's Talks, in any short Time; besides the Doubt 
I have of Carlton's sincerity. And therefore I guess the People 
exposed ought to make Preparations for an early and vigorous at- 
tack. Small Parties have already been on our Frontiers: and near 
the Falls of Ohio. Their success will send out others, in spite of 
any vague and doubtful orders from their generals at ten or twelve 
hundred miles distance. 

I am j'our Excellencies obedient servant. 


Joseph Martin to Benjamin Harrison, February 2, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Long Island Feb!' the 2^ 1783 

I Returned from the Cherokee Nation on Monday last, The 
news from that Quarter is, that there is Warriors sent from four 
diffcrant Tribes of Indians from the Neighborhood of Detroit to 
hold Talks with the Cherokees, Cheekacaws, Creeks, & Chocktaws, 
from thence to proceed to Sant Auguststine; The Old Tassall in- 
forms me they are to collect as many Warriors from the Southern 
Tribs, as in tiieir power lyes, to assist them the Insuing Campain. 
That all y° otiier Nations are this Spring to Imbody in the Neighbor- 
hood of Detroit, & march from there with a party of Brittish forces 
Against Fort Pitt, from thence to the Falls of Ohio, & Kantuckey, 
& from thence to the Illenois, in order to Take the above places. 
And destroy the Kaskaskian Indians, as they are sure of Success; 
This Appears to be their design and plan for this year 

They inform the Cherokees, that if they will but Join them, they 
will be well Supplied with everything they want for nothing; the 
above Indians were scon at the Creek Nation on their way to o' 
Augustine Acompanied with 575 Chocktaws, & near 500 Cherokees 
— I expect they will be back some time in March, at their Arrival 
ill tlie Cherokee country, I am to iiave Immediate notice, Therefore 
if your Excellancy should think proper, to order about 100 Horse- 
men to hold themselves in readiness, they might be easily cut off be- 
fore they could cross the Ohio ; I am told they have dispatches from 
the Commander at Detroit, to the Commander at Sant Augustine, 
in all probability if they could be defeated on their way home, which 
I think is Easily Effected, we then should be made Acquainted with 
all their Secret plans of War. 

Your Exccllencys instructions respecting the Treaty with the 
Southern Tribes, has not come to hand. Col. Donaldson have been 
Weating since the 2^ of last month on that business. And Weats 
your Excellencys Instructions. Majf Reid who I have Imploi'd 
to carry those Dispatches, has also engag'd to go to the Chekacaws 
Nation, to fix the Time of meeting at the Cumberland River, he is 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia Stale Papers, 3426-427. 


Apcrson vvlioes Deligance & Fidilety may be depended on. And I 
presume tliat it would be highly necessary, he Should be Enabled 
to make a good Apperance, to Stricke the attention of the Indians 
where he is to go. as it may Answer A good purpose witli Tliose 
people, I have the Honour to be 

Your Excellencys 

Most Ob' & Hble Ser« 

Jos. Martin Ind* Ag' 
Ills Excellency 
Benjamin Harrison. 

Abuses in the Public Service 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Monday Feb'' 3'' 1783 Holland Station 

M^ John May being summoned before the Board of Commis- 
sioners, appeared, and being sworn Deposeth as follows — 

Question Do you know anything from your own knowledge con- 
cernin the misapplication of Public property? — Answer I once saw 
some few Goods going from the Public Store for Colo. Todd, and 
I think M Lindsay inform'd me he had charged himself with them, 
as he conceived he had a right to take such articles out of the Store, 
And I think he asked my opinion whether Colo Todd had a right 
as an Officer to draw such things, and I gave it he had not. In the 
Summer 1780, I was at Colo Slaughters at the Falls and saw a 
good deal of Whiskey made use of in his house but whether Public 
or private I am not certain but believes great part of it was public 
and supposes Colo Slaughter stands charged in his Account with 
what he expended, I know a part of it was his private property. I 
recollect, when M' Angus Cameron spoke to me about the Fur that 
Gen' Clark purchased in the Illinois, he said, he knew of his own 
knowledge that the horses that carried the Fur of?, were public prop- 
erty, or made use of words that conveyed that Idea to me. I am 
certain he told me the Fur was paid for in Bills drawn on Orleans 
or the State Agent there, I recollect Mr Cameron informed me 
that Gen' Clark after he had been sometime in the Illinois Country 
desired him to draw up a list of the expenditures in the Department 
which he did & it amounted to 2 or 3000 dollars, & shewed it to 


the General, who seemed surprised at the sums being so small a>k'- i 
him if he was certain he was right and being inform^ he was, 'Hie 
Gen' put up the Account observing he had no further occation for 
him at that time and after that never called on him to state another 
Account. That sometime after the General shewed him a rough 
Draft of a Bill on the Agent and desired him to correct it, that the 
sum drawn far greatly exceeded the expenditures though he did not 
certainly know what they were from the calculation to the time of 
the Draft which was no great while, I think he told me the Draft 
was for more than 20,000 Dollars, that from the time of settling 
the Accounts he (Cameron) had designedly kept himself out of 
the way of information and had determined to be privy to nothing 
more than he was obliged to attend to, and could not tell how the 
additional cxpcnces were incurred, That he believed there were 
unfair practices going on which was the reason he had kept out of the 
way and which determined him to withdraw himself from tiic serv- 
ice whenever be could conveniently disengage himself, to prevent bis 
being called on at a future day to declare Facts which might in- 
volve him in trouble He informed me, the Gen' told him, he had a 
power of Agency in behalf of the State as well as a military Com- 
mand that upon his making it known to the General that he intended 
to quit the Service, the General express*" his unwillingness to part 
with him and held out many inducements to him to continue with 
him but upon his refusing nothing farther at that time passed, that 
before his coming away the Gen' & he got into conversation respect- 
ing Trade whereupon the Gen' mentioned a very profitable one tliat 
might be carried on, and in such a manner as induced Cameron 
to believe that he wished him (Cameron) to make some proposition 
to engage in it but being determined to quit the Service & the Coun- 
try and no such proposal being made he took no notice of it. And no 
proposition relative thereto made on either side. I think Cameron 
further informed me that it was usual for the Officers in that de- 
partment whose Credit was good at first, to write Notes in tin's 
manner This is good for so much, and when many of these were 
in circulation they were call'd in and paid for in public Bills Cam- 
eron further informed me that after he had left the service the Gen' 
Meeting with him and entering on a conversation, the Gen' asked 


how he could report things prejuditial to his Character, That lie 
evaded giving direct answers by enquiring why he should suspect 
him, that others were as likely as himself to make such reports — 
Cameron said further he did not come to a direct answer and be- 
lieved the Gen' asked him the question not because he had heard 
that he had spread any report but from a consciosness that he had 
the power and wished by Its means to discover whether he had 
or not, that after some farther conversation the Gen' put his hand 
on his sword and observed his reputation was sacred & he would put 
any man to Death who would attempt to injure it in that way, That 
Cameron answered he supposed that any man thus attacked would 
put the person to Death who should attempt to take his life. He 
told me farther that he considered his life unsafe whilst tlie Gen' 
Commanded in this quarter that he imagined the Gen' thought his 
reputation was so much in his power that he would expose him to 
danger on all occations till he got lu"m killed, that he observed he 
made perticular enquiry after him when men were called out on 
Militia duty, that for these reasons he was determined never to serve 
under him, Upon his telling me these circumstances with a number 
of others injurious to the Generals Reputation he asked me if I 
meant lodging an Information, I answered that I did not. Then 
says he you are not at liberty to make mention of what I have told 
you. Though I think your duty requires you to inform — 
John May's 
Feb 3-1783- 

Walker Daniel' to the Western Commissioners, 

February 3, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

New Holland Feb^ 3^ 1783. 

Agreeable to the request of Mons'' Carbonneaux (the Protho- 
notary and Notary Public for the Ilinois Settlement) I have had 

'Walker Daniel, a lawyer who came to Lincoln County, Kentucky, 
during 1781, was one of the original proprietors of the town of Danville. 
He was appointed member of the Board of Commissioners of the Illinois 
Regiment (see pojl, 413 ff.) and was made its agent by the board February 
I, 1783. He was killed by the Indians in August, 1784. 

' This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3 :430-432. 


a Conference with him, thro' the assistance of Capt. Tardiveux; he 
appears to Iiave been instructed, as to the Ground of his Message 
by the better dispos'd part of the Inhabitants of the Country whose 
complaint he represents. 

The principal Topics of Conversation that pass'de between us 
I will endeavor to pive you as far as my recollection will enable me. 

He complains that they are wholly without Law or Government 
that their Magistrates, from indolence or sinister views, having for 
some Time been relax in the execution of their Office,' are now 
altogether without authority; that crimes of the greatest enormity 
may be committed with Impunity, and a man may be murder'd in 
his own house, and no person regard it ; that they have no Sheriff or 
Prison; and to crown the general Confusion that many people have 
made large purchases of three or four hundred Leagues, and are 
endeavouring to have themselves establish'd Lords of the Soil, as 
some have done in Canada, and have Settlements made on these 
purchases compos'd of a set of men wholly subservient to their Views. 

As a Remedy for these Grievances he would recommend that 
a President of Judicature be sent them with executive powers to a 
certain extent, and that subordinate civil officers be appointed to 
reside in each Village or Station, who should have power to hear 
and decide all Causes upon Obogations not exceeding three hun- 
dred Dollars, but that those which were given for more, the ad- 
justing & settling all Accompts whatever, and determining finally 
upon all intricate and important Questions should be reserv'd for 
the Court, which miglit be held at Kaskaskias, and consist of the 
president and a Majority of the Magistrates. He wisiics the Grant 
in which the Kaskaskias Settlements lie could be consider'd as mak- 
ing one District; it contains five Villages, of which Kaskaskias and 
Kahokia arc tiie principal : the Grant reaches from Piasa to Amarie, 
about ninety Miles along the Missisippi, and back from the River, 
as far as the Ilinois extends, that is, to the Lakes. (I doubt the 
extent of the Grant to the N. E.) The Tract comprehended witli- 
in these Limits, he informs mc, was by solemn Treaties granted to 
the Settlers by the Indians, and has never been disputed by them. 

' For the conditions prevalent in the Illinois country at the time, see 
Ca/iokia Records, cxxv ff. 


He further observes, that there is no man in that Country, whose 
abih'ties and influence by any means capacitate him for the Office 
of President ; and he believes it would be absolutely necessary for a 
Year or two to have a Company of Regulars station'd in the Coun- 
try, who should be under the direction of the President, otherwise 
he conceives their Decrees would not be carried into Execution, as 
the licentiousness of the people has risen to such a height. He seems 
anxious to encourage population among them, and as an encourage- 
ment to Advanturers to migrate thither he wishes the President vv'ere 
vested with the power of granting Lands in moderate Quantities, 
(for he appears afraid of Monopolies,) to such as should chuse to 
become Inhabitants of their Country. He says the Spaniards have 
the liberty of trading up any of their Rivers on the East side of 
the Missisippi, while they are prohibited by the Governor of Pan- 
core* to enter any one River on the Spanish side, and that they 
ardently wish proper representations were made of the matter that 
they might enjoy reciprocal advantages with their Neighbours, and 
especially that they could be allow 'd the Liberty of trading up the 

He complains. That the Board of Commissioners have not settled 
the Obligations which were given payable in peltry agreeable to the 
known Rule and constant practice of the Ilinois Country, which 
is, when a Note is given for 50 lb in peltry, for instance, and the 
Obliger fails to pay in Peltry, that then he is considered as bound 
to pay 100 Livres in Money. 

I believe I have enumerated the several causes of grievance which 
he complains of in that Country and the Mode he proposes to have 
them repress'd. 

My own Observations to him, I presume, are unnecessary to 
communicate to you, though if you desire it, I shall upon being noti- 
fied thereof, at any time be ready to do it. — As by Your Commis- 
sion You might be empower'd to enquire into the situation of the 
Country of Ilinois and state their Grievances to Government, I 
thought the above narrative might not be without use. I have the 
honor to be, Gent, with great personal esteem. Your mo. 
obdt & most humble Servt. 

Walker Daniel. 

' Pancore or Paincourt was the name by which St. Louis was commonly 
known. See Clark Papers, cxxix, note 4. 


P. S. I have omitted, I observe, in the Body of my Letter, to make 
mention of Maj"" Carbonneaux's having press'd with much earnest- 
ness, That the Inhabitants of Ilinois might be permitted the Enjoy- 
ment of tlieir own Laws & Customs. 

W. D. C 

Clark to William Fleming, February 6, 1783 

\_Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3433.] 

Geo: Rogers Clarke to Colo. William Fleming. 

Feb'y 6th, 1783 

At St. Vincent on the 5th of Aug: 1779, the western Troops 
were disposed of agreable to the inclosed order. Lt: Colo. Mont- 
gomery received his Instructions accordingly, he was authorized 
by me to draw Bills of Exchange on myself, on the Treasurer of the 
state of Virginia for the Defraying the necessary Expences of the 
Troops &c. in the department, but not on any other person, at a 
Court of Inquiry held on Colo. Montgomery at Fort Nelson, in the 
year 1 781, one of the charges against him was that of his drawing 
Bills on Mr. Pollock contrary to the orders of his superior officer, 
lie then proved to the court the necessity lie was under of drawing 
Bills on New Orleans, which was satisfactory to said court, the 
proceedings of which have been since Transmitted to the Governor. 

I am Sir, your Hubl. Servant." 

Depositions Relating to Bills of Exchange, February 17, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

New Holland Febf 17th. 1783 
The Deposition of Colo. Jolm Montgomery taken by tlie Board 
of Commissioners relative to Bills of Exchange drawn by Colo W"' 
Lynn Dec* in presence of Colo W™ Pope administrator. 

W^ Lynn went a volunteer with the Deponent to Kaskaskias in 
July 1778, That he saw W" Lynn receive quantities of Goods from 
Gab' Cere' k Ciiarlcs Charteville' Mcrch'' at Kaskaskias when he 

' For a biographical sketch of Gabriel Cerre see Cahokia Records, xx, 
note 2. 

'Charles Charleville was captain of a Kaskaskia company which went 
with Clark oil tlie cxpc<liti<iii to Viiiceniies. In 1779 he was made a justice 
of the peace by John Todd, county lieutenant of Illinois. See also index, 
Clark Papers. 


was there and saw him drawing Bills in favour of Charloville but 
can not remember the Sums, that the Deponent was in Company 
with W" Lynn at Masier' where the said W" Lynn purcliased a 
Rood smart quantity of Good from a Spanish Merch' but does not 
know eitiier the particulars or amount; That W"' Lynn had a I3oat 
of his own and imployed hands at his own expence, tliat tlie Deponent 
came in company with W™ Lynn to the Falls of the Ohio where W™ 
Lynn disposed of near half of his Goods as his own property, whilst 
the Deponent was there; The Deponent further says that he asked 
Lynn at the Kaskaskias when he was purchasing the Goods how 
he designed to pay for them, the Deponent knowing he had no money 
Lynn answered he would draw Bills on Ol^' Pollock as the Country 
was indebted to him, and that he would go to the Government and 
settle these Bills when he settled his Accounts, and that he remem- 
bers Lynn had some difference with Gen' Clark on the Generals 
refusing to Countersign his Bills and further says not — 

Also the Deposition of John Sanders relative to Bills drawn by 
W" Lynn &c 

He inform'd the Board that he was Pilot for the Troops from 
the Falls of Ohio to Kaskaskias in 1778, tliat when he was there W" 
Lynn desired him to speak to Charloville and know whether he W"' 
Lynn could purchase any Goods from him on Credit to be paid in 
Pork or Flour at the Falls, and if that would not do, he would 
draw Bills on M": Pollock at New Orleans, That Mr Charloville 
choosing the Bills, Colo Lynn purchased the Goods, he thinks to 
the amount of five or six and twenty hundred Dollars as well as 
he remembers. And the Deponent helped Lynn to pack up the 
goods he got from M^ Charloville, he likewise says that \P Lynn 
had Goods from M^ Cere how many he does not know — And like- 
wise that the Deponent was present Mesier,' when M^ Lynn pur- 
chased some Goods from Mr Luberdor a Merchant there, and like- 
wise the Deponent heard that he purchased goods from M'' Dalshicet 
Merchant in the same place but as to the last he does not know it 
from his own knowledge — That the Deponent came to the Falls 
with M'' Lynn, and that the fine Goods were contained in two 

'Maiscr, Mesier, for Miaire, the cant name for Ste. Genevieve. 



Trunks, that there was two Barrels of Tassia and some Blankets, 
that when they came up to the Falls W" Lynn Sold a quantity 
of Goods there and understood he took up the remainder of the 
Goods to Wheeling and further says not — 

General Clark informs the Board that in August 1778 William 
Lynn brought some Bills of Exchange to him to countersign, tliat 
the General severely reprimanded him and asked him how he could 
draw Bills, that he replied the Country was indebted to him; that 
the General did not look at the Bills, and knows not on whom orin 
whose favour they were drawn 

Colo. W"^ Pope Administrator to W"" Lynn was present wlien 
the above depositions were taken — 

I certify this to be a true Copy 

Jn° APDowell Secy 

Depositions concerning 
Lynn's Bills, 
— Feb. 17, 1783 — 

Western Commissioners to Benjamin Harrison, 
February 17, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— Copy.] 

New Holland, Jefferson County, Feby 17th 1783. 

The Board of Commissioners wrote the 23d of December in 
return to your E.xcellency's favours of Ocf 1 6th and Novem'' 4th. 
In compliance with your Orders we have diligently searched all 
the Papers in our possession that could throw light on the Nature 
of the Bills in Mr. Nathan's Hands, yet remain much in the Dark, 
as Col. Todd's Books & Accounts are supposed by the Executor to 
be some where in the interior parts of Virginia, and he can only 
lay before us some detached papers, amongst which we find a Letter 
from the Executive dated Wms.burg in Council August 20th 1779 
in which the Hon""' Lieut. Governor acknowledges the Reciept of 


several Letters from Col. Todd by Col. Slaughter' of the ist & ad. 
July 1779 which were laid before the Council who were pleased 
with the Contents and approved of Col. Todd's Conduct and plan 
for supporting the Credit of the paper Money but that it must be 
submitted to the Assembly who alone can give it efficacy, that the 
eight Draughts Col. Todd mentions have not been presented but 
shall be duly attended to, as the Gentlemen to whom they are pay- 
able are higlily deserving of the grateful attention of Government. 
The Board also found a Peltry Account amongst Col. Todd's 
papers, by which it appears he purchased a quantity of Peltry from 
Mr. Beauregard some Time in the Fall of the Year 1779 amount- 
ing to 21,000 £ for which it is probable he drew Bills to the Amount. 
The Peltry by this Account seems to be paid to sundry persons. 
Col. Montgomery's Certificate, and Information to the Board like- 
wise accompanies this. On the whole, as no Bills of Col. Todd's 
drawing have appeared before us, nor are any mentioned in the 
Lists transmitted to us. We imagine the Bills in Mr. Nathan's 
possession may probably be for the above purchase, but as we are 
not furnished either with the Amount or Dates of these Bills, and 
no direct light can be got here, we can not be positive. On the 
Supposition that the Bills were given at that time and on that 
Account, the Commissioners have to observe that 210 Packs of 
Peltry cost the State 20 s. pr Lb, and that at the Time the purchase 
was made Peltry and Silver were nearly on a par ; As it appears 
Col. Todd is said to have given a high price for the Peltry allowing 
three Livres p. Lb which is 50 PrC higher than it generally is; 
shews the purchase was made with depreciated paper Money at a 

' George Slaughter, son of Robert Slaughter, was born in Culpeper 
County, Virginia, 1739. He served in Lord Dunmore's War, taking part in 
the battle of Point Pleasant. He entered the continental service as a cap- 
tain, and was commissioned major in the Twelfth Virginia Regiment Oc- 
tober 4, 1777, resigning after two months because of ill health. In 1779, re- 
turning to Virginia after a visit to Kentucky, he raised troops for Clark's 
army which took part in the Shawnee expedition of 1780. When soon after 
this Clark returned to Virginia, Major Slaughter was left in command of 
the Kentucky regulars and built Fort Nelson. Shortly after he was made 
lieutenant colonel of all the Virginia forces in Kentucky. Four nephews, 
Lawrence, Joseph, James and John Slaughter, were all in Clark's Illinois 
battalion. In 1784 he returned to Virginia as member of the legislature of 
the state. He died June 17, 1818 in Charlestown, Indiana. Kellogg, Fron- 
tier Retreat, 179-180, note 2. 


little more than five and a half for one. If the Bills in Question 
were drawn for the above Account, the Commissioners think they 
ought to be taken up at the above Discount, but the Board wish 
to refer your Excellency to Col. Todds Letters of the ist & 2d 
July 1779 which we suppose are lodged in the Council Chamber 
to elucidate the affair, as we can not meet with Copies of them. 
The Board have finished Capt. George's Draughts on Mr. Pollock 
in favour of Capt. Barbour, but not thinking it prudent to trust 
the papers relative thereto by the Conveyance, they hope your Ex- 
cellency will dispence with the principles they went on till tiiey 
have an Opportunity of laying the papers before the Executive, As 
no Invoices were produced either by Capt. George or Capt. Bar- 
bour the Board affixed the prices to the Cargo delivered at Fort 
Jefferson from the best lights they could get at Seven tiiousand 
five hundred and eighty ciglit Dollars one Livre and a third as the 
prime Cost at New Orleans, on which the Board allowed two hundred 
and twenty five per Cent advance for the Cargo delivered at Fort 
Jefferson, amounting in the whole to twenty four thousand six 
hundred and sixty one Dollars four Livres six Sous eight Deniers 
including all Expences. We have not yet closed Gen' Clarks Ac- 
counts as we find them so connected with the other Accounts both 
the Quarter Masters and Commissaries as well as the Officers that 
we could not finish them before we had a General View of the 
whole, we will be able to settle his in ten Days; to examine all tlie 
Accounts minutely will take up a great deal of Time, perhaps more 
than the Executive can imagine, as double Receipts have always 
been taken for sums paid, the Vouchers should be listed Alpha- 
betically to prevent double entries. None of Mr. Pollock's Bills 
he presented for payment have appeared before this Board, but one 
of the 1st of January 1781 for 5000 Dollars which appears to be 
for part of the same Cargo Capt. George purchased from Capt. 
Barbour, and was a second Bill and considered as part of the 24661 
Dollars 5 1/3 Livres allowed as above for that Cargo. By Deposi- 
tions it appears that tliose Bills drawn by Wm. Lynn in 1778 were 
for Goods purchased by Lynn on his own Ace' at Kaskaskias and 
Mesiere' and ought not to be charged to the State. It likewise ap- 

' Mesiere — still another form of Misire, or Ste. Genevieve. 


pears that Capt. Elliots Draughts and the Invoices of Goods shipped 
on Account and at the risque of the United States, but charged to 
tiie State of Virginia by Mr. Pollock was in consequence of the 
Cargo's being lost in the Missisippi and some of the Articles that 
were saved from the Wreck being made use of by the Troops in the 
lilcnois, Inventories of the whole Cargo and what was saved and 
applied to the Use of the Troops are copying, but as we have not 
fully examined the Affair we defer iving our Opinion on it. The 
Board inform^ your Excellency in theirs of December 23d. that an 
Express was sent off to Kaskaskias to which they had a Return last 
Evening informing us that we might expect some of their principal 
Inhabitants would wait on us with their unsettled Accounts &c in 
a short time. Mr. Carbonneaux who will present this is an In- 
habitant of Kaskaskias and comes to get some private Affairs settled. 
But we suppose principally as a Deputy to represent the Confusion 
the Country is in, which if not settled by this State, we apprehend 
he will proceed to Congress None of the Posts which your Ex- 
cellency mentioned in your favour of the i6th of October last are 
yet erected. We expect Genl. Clark will pay before you the Reasons 
for defering this Business. We have lately received an Adress from 
the Civil and Military Officers of Fayette which accompanies this 
and praying us to report our Opinion to Government. We think, 
could a Fort be erected at or near the Mouth of Limestone it would 
tend greatly to encourage Settlements in that Country and that it 
should be garrisoned by a Company of Regulars aided by the Militia 
and furnished with Flour from the Neighbourhood of Fort Pitt 

When we get a little more through the Business we will inform 
your Excellency by an Express of our proceedings with such Remarks 
on those Bills which have been presented for payment and are not 
laid before us as may be necessary for the Executive to have before 
we can return our whole proceedings. We are, with great Respect 

Your Excellency's 
Most obedient humble Servants 
Will'm Fleming 
Sam'l McDowell 
Caleb Wallace 
(A Copy) 


Conditions in Kentucky, February 18, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.]' 

At a meeting of the Officers of the Illinoise Regiment at Fort 
Nelson on Tuesday the iS"" of February 1783 at the request of 
Majf George Walls in order to confer on the present deplorable 

situation of the Garrison 

Majr George Walls 
Cap* George Lieu' Rich^ Clark 

Cap' Bailey Lieu' Williams 

Cap' Chaplain Lieu' W. Clark 

The Officers after consultation & mature deliberation find that 
the Garrison in its present situation, is by no means equal to the im- 
portance of the place. That there is not above one third of the men 
necessary for its defence and in a short time the unavoidable casual- 
ties will reduce the number to not more than twenty or thirty 
Men — That there is not more than three months Flower in Store, 
— not one pound of meat, and no possibility of procuring a suffi- 
ciency by the usual method of hunting — That there is not a Suffi- 
ciency of lead to defend the Garrison twenty four hours in case of 
an Assault, — Some parts of the Fortification going to Wreck and 
not men to make the necessary repairs. Also that the Men appear 
to be on the Verge of Mutiny in consequence of having served so 
long without receiving pay & other necessaries, and no prospect of 
an alteration for the better — These Considerations and the daily 
expectation of the Enemy now in the opening of the Spring induce 
the Officers to conceive, that without some speedy remedy is taken 
they may be reduced to the shocking alternative of evacuating the 
Post — And should either its fall or the Evacuation happen for want 
of the necessary supplies, they can not think themselves answerable 
for the consequence being conscious of having done their duty as 
Officers. — But as it is the determination of Officers & men to de- 
fend the Post to the last extremety (being sensible of its importance) 
with only for the Means — And hoping that something may be speed- 
ily done for the better support of the Department Ma'f Walls is 

' The account of this meeting is printed in Calendar of Virginia State 
Papers, 3437. 


hereby desired to lay this with the State of the Garrison before the 
General, requesting him to make the necessary alterations or Amend- 
ments, and lay the same before the Commiss''' or take such other 
measures as he may think most proper — 

By order & in behalf of the Whole 


G R Clark 

George Walls to Clark, February 21, 1783 
iCal. of Va. State Papers, 3:4+0.] 

Major George Walls to Brig. Genl: Geo: Rogers Clarke. 

Fort Nelson, Feb'y 21st, 1783. 

My duty requires me to lay before you, a State of this Garrison. 
The better to enable me to do so, I have taken .the opinions of all 
the officers present at this post and the stores it contains is of too 
Great Importance to the State to be neglected, and without some 
speedy measures is taken for its Relief I dread the fatal consequences 
that may follow, but for your further Information I lay before you 
exact Returns of all the Publick Stores at this Post, likewise the 
oppinion of a Board of Officers, beging you to lay the same Before 
the Commissioners, for their consideration, or taken such other meas- 
ures as you may think Proper. 

The Contract I made with Majr. Williams in October last, for 
a quantity of lead, I have no hopes of him being able to comply with, 
as I have been informed that Gentleman was plundered by the 
Indians on his way down the River — meat we have none, and the 
Season of the year and weakness of the Garrison Renders it out of 
my Power to procure a sufficiency by the usual method of Hunting. 

Should you think proper to lay the State of the Garrison before 
the Commissioners, I should be glad to have the Honour of being 
myself at the Conference. 

I have the Honour to be 
Sir, your obedient Humble Servant." 


Clark to Benjamin Harrison, February 23, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

New Holland 23 Feby 1783 

A State of tlie Garrison of Fort Nelson accompany this by which 
you will be made fully acquainted with the Situation of the Depart- 
ment, the returns include the whole of the Stores that we have 
to depend on for the defence of the Country. & will point out to 
you the necessity of some immediate step being taken to enable us 
to put it in a better state of Defence — The importence of this Fron- 
tier to the State at large I should suppose was of such consequence 
as to be a sufficient inducement to measures being taken more de- 
cisive than what has heretofore been attempted — 

I am Sir with respect 

Your Obed« Serv' 

G R Clark 

Clark to the Western Commissioners, February 25, 17S3 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

New Holland 25"' Feb^ 1783 

In consequence of the Conversation that passed between us on 
your receiving a State of the Garrison of Fort Nelson, I have been 
led into the train of thoughts I now transmit to you, on a Subject 
that concerns not only the Iniiabitants of this infant Country, but 
the tranquility of all our more interior Frontiers, Prejudice & Party 
disputes. And the want of Aids from Government, hath in a great 
measure been the occasion of reducing this Department to a defence- 
less State, at a time we might suppose they were rising superior to 
the Enemy they have to contend with; How it hath been supported 
under these difficulties would require a Pamphlet to convey to you 
the Idea of the Measures that have been taken rather than a letter. 
Its present defence is what we ought to be solicitous for, for reasons 
obvious to every thinking man that is zealous for the wellfare of 
this Country, and will devest himself of prejudice must know that 
great part of the State owe their protection to this Settlement being 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3:448-450. 


far advanced towards the Enemys Country, engaging the attention 
of those Savages that would (had they no such object) make fre- 
quent depredations on the Frontiers, and would have long since 
caused the richest part of our Country to have been abandoned, and 
instead of that assistance to the General defence, that have been 
given by the Frontier Counties of the State, they would have re- 
quired support from the most interior parts. What might not have 
been the consequence in such a situation, And what is that of this 
Country at present, detached from immediate resource, surrounded 
by numerous Savage Tribes, inflamed from Education, and the pros- 
pect of British reward. Our interest among them nearly lost, for 
the want of support. The Troops formerly a Barrier reduced to 
a handfull. The Credit of the State sunk, not a Shilling of money, 
not a ration to be procured any other way than by voluntary ad- 
vances from a few individuals. The Ilinoise Settlements like to be 
lost to the State through inattention that will nearly double the 
Enemy. And the whole of the Savage Tribes let loose on a Country 
void of the necessary Military Stores to enable them to defend them- 
selves, had they other supplies, Emisaries among them, dividing 
their councils, and destroying their interest at the Seat of Govern- 
ment, ready to take the advantage of the first opportunity to sepa- 
rate them from the State they live in, for the advantage of a few 
Individuals who at present rejoice at every misfortune they meet 
with. Too few in number to harrass the Enimy in the manner it 
ought to be done, and too great a number of Women & Children 
to make their escapes from the Country ■ — We may expect nothing 
more certain than an invasion the ensuing fall, if no measure should 
be taken to prevent it, Indian Tribes joining the bloody league will 
counterballance what they sufifered last year and finding us too 
weak to keep up these Garrisons we have occupied &c! those Cir- 
cumstances with a little British flattery will induce them to make 
a violent attempt, and perhaps agreeable to the General Conduct 
of the Councel of the Nations last fall will embody as they express 
it from the rising to the Setting of the Sun, and finally drive the 
Kentuckians across the Mountains and then the other Inhabitants 
into the Sea — In short I think the Settlement in extreme dainger 
and that the interest of the Continent require that it should be im- 


mediately put in a State of defence, which is by no means in our 
power without Assistance from the Executive. I have repeatedly 
wrote to them on the disagreeable Subject without as yet receiving 
an Answer, And therefor think it highly necessary that an Express 
should be sent immediately to Government, laying a State of the 
Department before them in which I hope for your Assistance, 1 
making no doubt of it from the Idea I have of your dispositions, as 
it will convince them of the propriety of their taking some immedi- 
ate Steps for its support by advancing Money, Troops & Stores, 
at least such part as can not be procured in this Country. Fort 
Nelson ought by all means to be supported, as in the Eyes of tlie 
Enemy it is a key to the Country, & immediately between the body 
of the Enimy & the Settlement. A Garrison or two higher up the 
river might be necessary as a Barrier to the Eastern parts of the 
Settlement, One hundred regulars in each reinforced occasionally 
by Militia, which would be much cheaper than Garrisons of Militia 
relieved every two months and exceedingly burthensome to the In- 
habitants, this is the smalest Scale that I could possibly suppose would 
answer the purpose, & not then, except an Army should penetrate 
to the head of the Ouaback sometime the ensuing summer, as the 
greatest body of the Enemy live there, (those on the Miami retiring 
since the last Expedition) by defeating them it is more than probable 
tiiey would come to any terms with you before they would suffer 
their Crops to be destroyed which always involves the Nation in the 
greatest distress and prevents their going to war, neither can they 
recover their loss in a short time — The greatest part of the Hostile 
Tribes at present are of those people, that have been in alliance with 
us till lately. An Expedition into their Country would be Apropo 
to what they ought to expect from us, from the nature of the dif- 
ferent treaties held between us. Such an Armiment to set out in 
July would prevent any Capital design they may have on this Settle- 
ment, as that is about the time they generally take the Field, when 
they move in large bodies, their whole attention would be taken 
up by the Idea of defeating said Army, as the preservation of their 
families would depend on it. If they were disapointcd you might 
be sure of any reasonable terms — I could not suppose that such 
an undertaking would be difficult or Expensive 170.000 lb of Flower 


to be immediately purchased at Pittsburg & sent to Fort Nelson 
and some other necessary Stores, Kentucky might furnish 1,000 
Troops 500 to be drawn from other quarters which would compose 
sufficient Army, and probably in two months do the Business pro- 
posed, at least they would Convince the Indians that they were in- 
ferior to us, that the British assertions of our weakness was false, 
and that we could at all times penetrate into their Country at Pleas- 
ure, and destroy that Idea they have of their ability of rouling the 
Kentucky Country, or prevent its population, and might induce them, 
to supose that their own existance depended on their amity with 
us — take a slight View of the undeniable Advantages the Settle- 
ment is of to the States at large we then might with propriety sup- 
pose that there ought to be at least 350 regular Troops kept up in 
this Department, One third at S*Vincent well supplied with neces- 
sary Supplies and a sufficiency to furnish any little Army that might 
be drawn into the Field which under those circumstances might be 
raised at any time & penetrate into any Quarter of the Enemys 
Country at pleasure — 

I am 

Gentlemen with respect 
Your Mo. Obedt Serv* 


G R Clark 
The Honble ) 

The Board of Commissioners J 

Benjamin Harrison to Clark, February 27, 1783 

[Renjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1783-1786, pp. 56-57, Va. State Archives.] 

Gen: George R. Clarke. 

In Council February 27'* 1783. 

By a Letter from the Commissioners appointed to settle the Ac- 
count on the Western waters of Decem: 23^ I have received In- 
formation of your having consulted witii tliem the most proper place 
for erecting a fort for the protection of the Kentuckey, and that 
the Mouth of the Kentuckey river is the Situation fixt on as the 
most likely to answer this desirable End ; for the reasons assigned 



I entirely accord with you and desire you will proceed with all pos- 
sible Deligence in erecting a fort at that place and that you send 
half the regular Troops now at the falls to Garrison it, and as they 
will be short of the Number requisite to support the post that you 
call in the County Lieutenant most convenient for so many Men 
as will make them up sixty Eight Men rank and file which you are 
to take Care to have relieved from time to time as the Law requires 
unless Volunteers can be obtained without a bounty to engage for 
Eight Months, in which Case I should prefer them. — You will 
look on the former order for taking posts at Limestone and Licking 
as superceedcd, unless you discover that the Indians are still detcr- 
nuncd on War, in which Case you will as soon as possible take Post 
at Limestone to cover the County of Fayette and promote its Settle- 
ment, which Post you must garrison altogether with Militia. I 
have every reason to hope that both these forts will soon be useless 
as a general peace seems to be near at hand — " — " — " — but if I 
should be mistaken I would have no Considerations of expence deter 
you from the execution of your orders as that must never stand in 
Competition with the Safety of the People. — I am disappointed in 
not hearing from you oftcner than I do and wish you to attend a 
little more to this in future. — 

I am Sir 


B. H. 

Uhnjamin Harrison to the Commissioners for settling 
Western Accounis, February 27, 1783 

[Draper MSS., 46J76.— L.S.] 

In Council February 27"' 1783. 

Your favor of the 23^' of December came to hand but a few days 
ago, the steps you have taken to procure a settlement of the public 
accounts shew you have not been idle, and I have no doubt but )ou 
will continue your industry till the Business is finally closed. The 
Bills in the possession of Nathan have been presented but no account 
was taken of tliem as we supposed the Officers and others who under- 


took to draw Bills would be able to furnish a list of them and to 
explain to you their Motives for drawing and what they were to be 
paid in whether paper or Gold and silver, if they cannot give you 
satisfaction in these particulars the Bills must either be forged or 
tlie drawers very bad or very ignorant Men. 

The Books of the Council and some of the Offices being lost, it 
will I fear be impossible to furnish an account of the Advances made 
the several stafi Officers, if they can be obtained they will accom- 
pany this, if not you must use your endeavours to obtain from them 
a statement of their accounts which will probably so open the sub- 
ject, when they come here that the truth may be come at. A list 
of all Pollock's Bills have been forwarded to you, as but few of them 
are drawn by General Clarke, and advice given to the Executive of 
none of them that I know of, except Cap- Georges, you will please 
to call on the several drawers for their Authority for drawing, and 
to produce to you an account of the Expenditure, and proof as to 
the currency they were to be paid in. Col : Montgomerys account 
will be your particular Care, his Bills are numerous & their amount 
so inormous that it appears to me impossible that he could expend 
such sums in the public Service if they are to be paid off in hard 
Money. — I approve of your Plan concerted with Gen: Clark for 
erecting a fort at the Mouth of Kentuckey River, and hope there 
will be no Occasion for any other, as our prospects for a general 
peace are very bright, and I have good reason to suppose that one 
has either taken place or will do it soon, yet If I should be mistaken 
and the Indians should still be determined on war, I would have 
another erected at limestone which I am informed is well situated 
to cover the rich County of Fayette: true it is that our finances 
are deranged and our Treasury low, but the safety of the people 
supercecds all considerations of this sort and must be attended to, 
on this Subject I shall write fully to Gen: Clark whose immediate 
province it is to attend to Matters of this Nature. 
I am with respect 
Your mo: Obe: Hum: Set* 

Benj Harrison 
The Commissioners for settling the Accounts on the West- 
iiRN Waters 


Benjamin Harrison to Clark, March 3, 1783 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1783-1786, p. 60, Va. State Archives.] 

General George R. Clarke. 

In Council March 3^ 1783. 

Your several favors of the 30"' November this Moment came to 
hand as the Dispatches were ready to close I can only acknowledge 
the receipt of them, and forward an order on the Counties for any 
Specifics that may be in them. I am fully satisfied you have been 
traduced, but as you had it in your Power to prevent any bad effects 
from such representations by keeping me fully informed of the Steps 
you had taken and your inability to carry your Orders into Execu- 
tion, you must attribute anything that may be disagreeable to you 
to your own Inadvertence but of this I shall write more fully in 
my next. — 

I am Sir 


B. H. 

Father Pierre Gibault to the Virginia Commissioners, 

March 4, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

A Messieurs Les Commissaries De la Virginie presente- 
ment a la Chutte. 

Messieurs, quoyque Je nayc pas I'honncur D'etre connu Dc 
Vous, n'y Du Congres General, il se peut cependant que Vous avea 
entendu Dire quelque chose De Mon Zcle pour La Liberie ct poui 
le Succes De Ceu.x qui en ont pris Les interest et La Deflfence. J'ai 
tout expose et sacrifie a Cette occasion, non seulement mon Bien, 
mais meme plusieurs fois ma propre Vie. Je me suis moi-mcme 
Expatrie pour prendre Le parti Des ameriquains Contre Les Royal- 
istes: qu' on fasse seulement attention a la Reduction Du poste Vin- 
cennes sur oiiabache et on Connoitra mon amour pour La Liberie. 
Je Vous Prie encore messieurs, De Consulter Le General Clark et 
tous ceux tant oiSciers que soldats qui ont etc sous luy on apres luy, 
pour sur Garand De mon Zele. Cependant, Messieurs, j'en ai ete 


si peu Recompense, que non seulement on ne m'a pas Donne un sol 
De Gratification pour mes peines, mes Voyages et mes fatigues et 
Les Depenses pour ces memes Voyages De long Cour, mais meme on 
ne m'a pas paye Les Chases necessaires a leurs Vies, Comme Boeufs, 
Vaches, Et 1' ard, Dont Je me suis moy-meme prive, pour montrer 
Bon exemple a mon peuple, qui ne L'ont que trop imite pour leur 
malheur etant presque tous prives De la Vie et De L'entretien pour 
L'avoir Donne aux troupes ameriquaines. On m'a meme tue 
plusieurs animaux que J'aurois Donne D'un Bon Coeur si on me les 
avoit Demande, au Lieu De les prendre par Violence; puis qu'ayant 
toujours ete prest a me sacrifier moy meme, il n'est pas vray sem- 
blable que J'aurois Epargne mon Bien. on m'a tue Deux Vaches, 
Dont on ne m'a pas seulement Donne une oballe, Excepte De Belles 
promesses qui sont encore a etre Execute, si J'aurois profile De la 
necessites on le trouvoient Les troupes ameriquaines et Vendu plus 
Cher que Le Cour ordinaire, J'aurois tort De Demander un entier 
payement: mais J'ay Donne mes Dimes De farine et De mays au 
menie prix que Je les aurois Vendu en piastres sonnantes Espagnolcs 
sur L'autre Rive Du Mississipi, etant plus Charme De soulager ma 
patrie qu'un allie; Croyant D'ailleurs avec Confiance, Comme Les 
Espagnols memes, qui ces Cartes De papiers, Valoient autant que 
les piastres R'ccllement D'ar^cnt on en or; En Jamais Je ne Voiis 
aurois faites ces Representations, si la necessite et la pauvrete on les 
ameriquaines nous ont plonge moy et mon peuple, ne me mettoient 
Dans L' impossibilitc De me taire. Je passe sous silence un nombre 
presqu' infini De Griefs. De molestations, D'unjustice et De Vio- 
lence en tout Genre qui ont presqu'entierement Ruine Le pays. Ce 
n'est point a moy a Examiner La Conduite qu'on tenu nos Commen- 
dans et nos Commissaires qui nous ont Gouverne et admistro tant en 
militaire qu'en civile notre soumission Volentaire etoit notre Regie; 
mais c'est a Vous messieurs, D'examiner pourquoy et par qui nous 
avons etc si inliumainement traite. 

Je Vous envoye ey Joint ce que Je peux avoir De Cartes, De 
Comptes et De Certificats De Fournitures pour les Etats unis, en 
particulier pour la Virginie J'espere De Votre Equite, que J'en serai 
Exactement paye. au surplus mon Zele sera toujours Le mene et 
Jc scroy toujours Contant Demes Juges et feray en tous Icins Dcs 




Voeux pour leurs prosperites et me Dirai toujours avec Respect 


Votre tres humble Et tres 

obeissant Serviteur 
aux Kaskakias Pre Gibault Pretre Vicaire 

le 4 De Mars general aux pays Des Illinois 


To THE Commissioners of Virginia present at the Falls. 

Sirs, although I have not the honor of being known to you nor 
to the General Congress, it may be that you have been told some- 
thing of my zeal for liberty and for the success of those who have 
taken an interest in it and its defense. I have endangered and sacri- 
ficed everything for that cause, not only my property, but several 
times even my life. I have exiled myself to take the part of the 
Americans against the Royalists: Should attention be paid only to 
the capture of Fort Vincennes on the Wabash my love for the cause 
of liberty will be recognized. I ask you, further, sirs, to consult 
witli General Clark and all those, either officers or soldiers, who 
have served under him or after him for a trustworthy guarantee of 
my zeal. In spite of this I have been so ill-recompensed, for my 
zeal that I have not been given a sou of indemnity for my sufferings, 
journeys and fatigue, and the expenditures for these same journeys, 
and I have not even been paid for the things necessary to sustain 
life such as beeves, cows and bacon of which I deprived myself to 
set a good example for my people, wiio have imitated me only too 
well to their great distress, being almost deprived of subsistence and 
of livelihood through giving all to the American troops. Persons 
have even killed several animals belonging to me which I wotiid 
gladly have given to them if they had asked for them instead of 
taking them by violence. Since I have always been ready to sacri- 
fice myself it is improbable tiiat 1 should liave spared my propcity. 
They killed two of my cows, for which they have paid me not a 
penny except fine promises which are yet to be fulfilled. If I had 
profited by the necessitous conditions in which the American troops 
found themselves and sold dearer than the ordinary price, I should 

' Translation by the editor. 


be wrong in demanding full payment : but I gave my tithes of flour 
and corn for the same price that I would have sold them for ringing 
Spanish dollars on the other bank of the Mississippi, being more 
desirous of helping my country than an ally, and thinking moreover 
with confidence as did the Spaniards that these papers were worth 
really as much as piasters of silver or gold. Never should I have 
made these representations if the necessity and poverty into which 
the Americans have plunged us, myself and my people, had not made 
it impossible for me to keep silent. I pass in silence an almost in- 
finite number of grievances, molestations, wrongs and .acts of violence 
of every kind which have almost completely ruined the country. It 
is not for me to inquire into the manner in which our commanders 
have beh.ived and of our commissioners who have governed us and 
have administered in military as well as civil affairs. Voluntary 
submission was always our rule of action. But it is for you. Sirs, to 
inquire why and by whom we have been so inhumanly treated. 

I send you herewith whatever I may have in records, accounts 
and certificates of supplies furnished to the United States and espec- 
ially to Virginia. I trust to your equity that I shall be justly paid. 
In addition my zeal will be the same and I shall always be satisfied 
with my judges, and oflEer my vows at all times for their prosperity 
and will ever style myself with respect, 

Your very humble and very 

obedient servant 
Pre Gibault, priest and 
vicar general in the 
Kaskaskia Illinois Country. 

March 4th 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, March 8, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] ' 

Lincoln 8'" March 1783 


Yours of the 19"" Dec"' came safe to hand the 2' Ins* I am 

happy to find that my proceedings with the Chicasaws met with 

■This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3-452-454. 


your approbation, although Cap' George was not as successful as 
I could have wished — he mentioned very little on the Subject of 
Land to them, as I had Verbally instructed him not to do so, except 
the Nation was j;cn'> at home. His arrival at their Towns bcinn in 
the hight of hunting time, they could not collect the Council neces- 
sary in such cases: but I believe the Lands may be obtained with a 
good deal of case if proper measures are taken: This is the first 
oppertunity since his return of a safe conveyance to you, the talk of 
the Indians, wh i ch you have enclosed — I believe the Peace is fivcd 
between us. I did not know, nor yet learn where they were to meet 
Major Martin — If the Chicasaws arrive before I leave the Coun- 
try, I shall attempt to compleat your wish with them. The several 
letters I hope you have received this winter will give you an Idea of 
the Situation of Affairs in this Quarter at that time, but much more 
alarming at present as the Ouabache Indians have at last generally 
Declared War, and I doubt the Combination of Savages which the 
last Expedition was intended to have confused, still subsists; and 
if the destruction of the Shawnee property and the appearance of such 
a force in their Country at a time when they supposed we were too 
much weakened to attempt anything, do not discourage them, I am 
afraid the Western part of this Settlement will be tore to pieces the 
insuing fall, without the greatest attention, & without something 
should be done by Government to prevent it The Illinois will be 
Garrisoned by the English in a short time, as they have now little to 
fear, since getting the whole of the Oubache Indians engaged against 
us we should have cut our way through them before we could get 
at such Garrison: I have but little confidence in British promises 
of putting a stop to the Savage's continuing the War ; its dangerous 
to their Interest; and their Conduct among the Western Indi.^ns 
fully point out their Views- Supposing them sincere, the late Expe- 
dition would be attended with the most salutary Consequences in 
shewing the Indians what they might continue to expect, and they 
would of course, with greater Ease comply with the British request ; 
for they do not view themselves as dependant on the English, for 
them and ourselves have formerly taught them to think so much of 
themselves, that they would Strike both if they were equally 


In my last letter I flattered you with the prospects of our 
attemptinf; one of the Forts on the Ohio immediately: I was too 
sanguyne in my hopes without Funds from you for thep urpos G pur- 
cliase of Provisions Enough could not be procured to march a. suffi- 
cient Dody of Men to the Spot : Corn is the only Article of Provision 
that could be got in tolerable plenty, a Bushel of which could not 
be got on the Credit of the State: I cant certainly conceive what 
reason your Excellency could have for supposing that I should be 
backward in having your orders respecting those Forts executed: if 
in my Power one of them in particular would add greatly to my 
interest, and supposing me to be fond of Command, I then of course 
prefer the greatest Number possible.- 

I thank you Sir for your permit for retireing the smallness 
of the Command could not have been my reasons 4ef-4t- as it is 
certainly extensive, but a quite different cause: Every Exertion in 
my power have been made for many years for the Defence of this 
Department, k/nowing the safety of all our Frontiers depended on 
it of course took pleasure in encountering the greatest fatigues, leav- 
ing nothing in my Power undone either by dividing the Counsils 
of the Indians, taking necessary steps to keep great numbers in our 
Interest, making necessary Excursions into their Country to Distress 
our Enemy and cause the Friendly to keep so, and attempting to 
destroy the Interest of that Numerous Clan of Partizans or pre- 
tended Proprietors residing in Philadelphia That was endeavour- 
ing to divide the Counsels of the People here, and at the same time 
destroying their interest at the seat of Government more effectually 
to compleat their disaffection to the State: As soon as I found they 
were likely to carry their point, I at once saw the destruction of the 
Country if the W«r should continue; and of course wished not to 
be a Witness to -it -as. 4uag6- the great success in their attempts against 
me as the greatest stroke they could possibly make, put it out of my 
power to save the Country I wished to be clear: These were my 

You mention that you wish a stop to be put any 4af- further 
Drafts on New Orleans, it has long been the case, I dont know of 
a Bill of any kind being drawn for two years. I have con- 
tinued to reduce the officers as the number of soldiers decreased 
since I was first acquainted with the Act for that purpose. 


By this conveyance I expect you will receive a full account 
of the situation of the Country from the Board of Commissioners 
as they have received every information in my power to pivc them: 
It is truly alarming — You will find by the last returns the great 
scarcity of Lead, If you will send an order to the Mines for 1000 
or 1500"' previous to my arrival at that place, I will contrive to 
get it forwarded by any plan your Your Excellency should propose 

or direct " — " 

I am Sir. \vith the utmost respect 
Your M" Obed' H' Serv« 
G R Clark 

Western Commissioners to Benjamin Harrison, 

March 9, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Lincoln County March 9'^ 1783 

The Commissioners wrote by Mons"" Carbenaux the 17"' of Feb' 
last, a duplicate of which, and of the Papers sent, they now transmit, 
Your Excellency, least that should miscarry- likewise several copies 
of letters, to & from Col' Todd, on a careful! perusal of which, 
these marked A N° i, 2, 3. & 4. they are of Opinion that M^ Pol- 
lock was sufficiently warned not to honor the Draughts of any person 
not authorized to draw Bills, especially where directed to be charged 
to their private accounts, and that he accepted these Bills at his own 
risk, more particularly after he received Col' Todd's letter N° i. 
the receipt of which seems implied by M"" Pollocks subsequent letters, 
On this principle the Board think the Bills drawn by AP Elliot are 
voidable, as he was not in the service of Virginia, but imployed by 
Congress in behalf of the United States, likewise the Bills drawn 
by Will" Lynn in 1778 appears by A N" 10 to be for private pur- 
poses and voidable. The Bills for goods shiped on Account and at 
the risk of the United States, on viewing the papers marked B seem 
only chargeable in part to Virginia, as by the information of Gen' 
Clark wiiat is contained in the Invoice N° 2 is all he received, being 
part of a Cargoe tiiat was damaged in the Voyage up tiie river the 
whole of which is contained in the Invoice N° i. Gen' Clark is re- 


turning and will be able to throw more light on this affair:- The 
papers marked C. relate to Cap' Georges Bills in favour of Cap' 
Barbour, the Board not having time to copy all, and expecting to 
return, by the time this reaches Your Excellency, have only selected 
such as may be immediately necessary for your perusal, and on 
inspecting them carefully have doubts considering, the date of the 
receipt on the back of the largest draught, the tenor of the letters 
N" 3 & 4. And the time of Cap' Harbours leaving New Orleans, 
which he informed the Board was a few days after the date of the 
receipt. Whether the receipt was given after notice was obtained 
of the lion acceptance of the draught Col" Moritgomcrys, Ace" 
have been before the Board sometime, they are not yet finislied being 
in great confusion, he has produced Vouchers for some his Bills that 
appear satisfactory - a Copy of his deposition accompanies tliis, in 
which he seems to hint that the second bills which he took up from 
M'' Pollock and afterwards left with him, giving W Pollock a 
Bill on the Treasurer for the amount of the whole, and there drawn 
in favour of Malvert, being in the same circumstances, may have 
made their appearance,— two said to be drawn by him in favour of 
Hanah Dalton and Valentine Thomas, he suposes Valentine Thomas 
Dalton, he denies, several others, he has no account of either tenor 
date or whose favour drawn. Several of General Clarks bills are 
not yet answered for- Papers marked D are concerning the present 
State of Fort Nelson and the Illinoise Battalion - The Commiss" beg 
leave to represent, that the Illenoise Country, that is Kaskaskias. 
Kohos. S'Vincent and their dependencies are in great confusion for 
want of Persons with proper authority to enforce order The French 
inhabitants are not well affected to the State of Virginia & the 
neighboring Indian Tribes formerly either Neuterals or our friends 
are faling from our Government into the British interst, if that 
Country is yet a part of Virginia, and not ceded to Congress, it is 
our opinion that it will be entirely lost to this State without some 
speedy coersive steps are taken. We dare not say whether it is an 
advantage to have that Country anexed to this State, or whether 
Virginia is able to support the expence of maintaining it, but should 
it fall into the hands of Britain the Indian Tribes dependants on 
the district will be active enemies — The situation of Fort Nelson 



makes it a place of importance, built on the banks of the Ohio, a 
little above the Falls, it is a convenient landing place for boats com- 
ing down the Ohio, and altho no Post on the river can be looked on 
as securing a pass to hinder the Enemy from penetratinc into the 
Country, yet the strongest settlements of Jefferson County depend 
on it. and if this Post is not properly supported, we look on that 
County to be in a deplorable state — Your Excellency will observe 
by the return laid before the Board by Gen' Clark, the whole strength 
of the State Troops in this Quarter is reduced to fifty three effective 
with Eighteen Officers, &c. Men might be recruited here if Bounty 
money could be advanced- The Garrison is chiefly supplied in meat 
by hunting too precarious a support to depend on and yet costs the 
State near as much, as if properly furnished- Flower is brouglit 
down the river and is subject to spoil by which much is lost — Your 
Excellen'' will observe there is no lead returned an immediate sup- 
ply is absolutely necessary, but we refer to the several papers relative 
thereto and have only to add that the horses mentioned in the return 
were taken with great numbers of others by the Enemy, and several 
people killed whilst we were in the Neighborhood of that Place, 
from every apearance the Enemy may be expected in force this Sum- 
mer, Fort Nelson if attacked will probably fall- We shall have 
all the papers &c. that can be obtained in regard to the business we 
came out on, in our possession by the last of this month, and the 
Accounts that are not finished, may be closed after our return 
If M"' Dodge and the others from S' Vincent do not come before 
that time we need not expect them as from their letters they were 
to be here before this. We are solicitous to return the latter end of 
this month as we will have the opportunity of a Considerable CompV 
returning which will save the expence of an Escort and which in 
reality can not be taken from this Country — The Commiss' expect 
to be in Botetourt the 20'" of Aprile and wish to have Your Excel- 
lencys derections by that time whether they are to send the papers 
immediatly to Richmond or to close the Accounts before they are 

sent down We have the Honor to be Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient Humble Serv 
William Fleming 
Sam'l M<=Dowell 
Caleb Wallace 


Clark to Major George Walls, March 25, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— Copy.] ' 

Cave Spring March 25"" 1783 

You are fully acquainted with my Design of leaving this 
Country agreeable to the permit of his E.xcellency of Course would 
wish to Give you some Gen' Instructions by which you are to conduct 
j'ourself untill the reception of further Orders from your Superiours 
your known Abilities in the Management and oeconomy Necessary 
in a Garrison Circomstanced as the one you Command is Sufficient 
inducement for me to Supose that but little on that head need be Said 
to you, I know you Cannot Support the few Troops you have So 
plentifully as I Could wish, but probably Such as will be Absolutely 
necessary for their Support from my knowledge of them they are 
not Deficult to please without that Subordination Necessary among 
all Troops Should be neglected which I have no Reason to Suppose 
will be the Case and as the Safety of this Settlement Greatly depends 
on the circle of intiligance that ought to be kept up beyond the Ohio 
I would recommend it to you not to Neglect Such a Case of impor- 
tance although the Neighbouring Tribes of Indians on the Wabash 
hath Declared war I dont Supose it would prevent you from a Corri- 
spondance at St Vincents Such a manner that the Indians should not 
know of it all intiligance of importance you must Imediately Trans- 
mit To Government as it is necessary to Inable the governer to take 
the most necessary Steps for the Gen' Defence, the Strength of your 
Garrison ought to be proportioned to the Quantity of provisions you 
have in Store and probable Supplies that you are like to Get paying 
attention to the Apprahentions of Danger Should you find from cir- 
cumstances that it would be advisable to have a Raignforcement Call 
on tiie County Lieut' in proportion to their IMilitia or Delenquents 
takeing the Concil of Colo. Floyd I have Had Some thoughts of y'' 
Setiding one of the Indian women that you have to the Shawnawa 
Towns pretending to negotiate an Exchange of prisoners in order to 
bring on some Conversation tiiat might tend to the advantage of the 
State if your council Should advise Such a Step do it but by no means 
drop an Expression to them would give an Idea that we would wish 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3:461-462. 


for a peace with them as it would be Distructive to our Interest 
and inflame the war between us Confirming the Idea that all our 
former policy taught them too between that of of our being affiaid 
of them is too true but we ought to Destroy it if posiable Should 
a treaty be brought about do nothing desisive untill orders for ll.c 
purpose as you Cannot previously know the designs of Government 
you will pay attention to the Resolution for Reduceing Offertcrs 
of your Core in proi)ortion to the decrease of the privates this must 
not be neglected as the order positive and necessary if anything Else 
Should occur to me I shall transmit it to you wishing you Success 

I am Sir your Hum Serv' 

Signed G R: Clark 
Major George 
Walls Fort Nelson 

John Campbell to Clark, April 5, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J81.— A.L.S.] 

Pittsburgh Ap' 5"" 178,5 
Sir 1 have waited some time past with Impatiance for an Oppor- 
tunity of writing to you but happened Yesterday to be out of the 
way when some boats passed this place for the Falls of Ohio I want 
to take an Opportunity wliich I can depend on therefore must post- 
pone what I wish to communicate till an Opportunity which I expect 
will offer soon. 

In the meantime I must mention to you that the Offers of 
Brittain to America are exceeding Flattering no less than Absolute 
Independence & a Cession of all the Country from Nova Scotia to 
East & West Florida bounded by the Mississippi & the Lake of the 
Woods Long lake Lakes Superior Huron Erie & Ontario the other 
Articles seem also to be in the same Spirit but these I only consider 
as offers in case they can make no better of it. I am well inclined 
to believe that no means will be left untried by them to endeavour 
to cajole us if possible it behoofs us therefore to be circumspect 
to provide against the worst and to expect nothing from them but 
what is extorted by main force I have more than probable author- 
ity to apprehend that several of their emissarys are now in your 
Country they have passed amongst the prisoners who have been 


enlarged from Canada & other wise a Vigilant eye towards them 
may discover them to your penetration This Country has been 
lulled into a security & expectation that the Indians would Commit 
no more depredations they have been awaked from that delusive 
dream for no less than 25 Persons have been killed wounded & 
captivated in different parts of this Country in a few days past I 
understand that people have made use of my Name to strengthen 
those reports and perhaps some such may reach you I believe the 
English I mean the King & his adherents to be as bad men as ever 
disgraced any Country I believe them capable of any Villiany that 
disappointed Tyranny ever dictated I dont look upon any con- 
cessions in favour of America as the result of Conviction of the 
Wrong they intended us or their inclination to redress it I look 
uppon it a forced recantation whicli I believe they mean to be bind- 
ing on them No longer than convenient and at the present they have 
every emissary & engine of darkness employed to forward their 
Diabolical purposes you will therefore be pleased to observe what 
j'ou hear & if any thing is mentioned as coming from me which 
does not tally exactly with these sentiments pay no regard to it and 
if you will be good enough in my name to disavow it you will pos- 
sibly serve the Cause in which you are engaged and Oblige me. 
6''' This far I wrote and Capt" James Brenton a Man who I have 
found an Active good Officer being arrived I inclose you Capt" Dal- 
tons Letter it may be necessary to distinguish what is probable in 
his information and what changes the System adopted by the British 
Ministry may make, in the different plans proposed to be carryed 
into execution on the side of Canada and I choose to Acquaint you 
that C Daltons staying in Canada when I am convinced he might 
have come away with us gives me no good opinion of his Conduct 
the Manner he was taken gave suspicion I understand with you of 
this you are the best Judge my Affairs do not permit me to go to 
the Falls immediately I hope to be there in the summer sometime 
and have the pleasure of communicating Vive Voce what I find 
very difficult to commit to writing 

and Am Sir 

Your Most Obedt Servt 
John Campbell 
Brigadier Clark 


John Campbell to Clark, April 6, 1783 
[Draper MSS., szjgz.— A.L.S.] 

Pittsburgh Ap' 6'" 1783 
Sir Since I wrote in the Morning I understand that the Prelim- 
inaries between Brittain and France were Signed the 20''' Jan' last 
and that a Cessation of Hostilitys has taken place in consequence 
thereof I congratulate with you on this important intelligence & 
understand that the English have made no provision for their Indian 
Allies I hope therefore the Continent will take such Measures as 
to effectually subdue them & put it for ever out of the power of them 
to Annoy us in future 

a Mf Merrey\veather who goes down now has a hand liill 
wliicii contains these particulars or I would be more full on the 

I am Sir 
Your Most H. Serv* 

John Campbell 
General Clark 

Benjamin Harrison to Clark, April 9, 1783 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1783-1786, pp. 95-99] 

General Clarke. 

In Council April 9'" 1783.- 


Your favors of the 8''' and ig'"" of last Month came to hand 
two Days ago, I have my Hopes that the Apprehensions of the 
Settlements in your Quarter will vanish when they are informed 
that a general Peace has taken Place, that all the English Posts on 
the Lakes are to be given up to us and that Congress intend to 
garrison tliem with continental Troops the former part of this In- 
telligence you will find in the Paper enclosed published by Authority, 
the Letter comes to me by good Hands but not officially, I believe 
it true as Prudence dictates the Measure and it will be the greatest 
Security against the Incursions of the Indians that we can possibly 
have however tho' all these things may take Place yet I would not 
depend too much on them, nor leave that to others which Prudence 


calls on us to do for ourselves the Post directed in my last at the 
Moutli of Kentuckey must at all events be taken and garrisoned, 
and Provisions for the Purpose must be obtained some way or other, 
it surprises me to find the People unwilling to part witli Provisions 
that are to be used for their Protection, and more so to hear that 
they expect to be kept out of their Money as they formerly were, 
if they will take a view of our situation at present and compare 
it with what it was formerly, they might easily see that their Pros- 
pects of Payment are widely different, we had then a depreciated 
Paper currency amongst us which was every Day growing worse, 
and threaten'd the distruction not only of Individuals but of the 
State also, this forced us into an instantaneous Abolition of it, which 
at once stagnated our Trade, and left us for twelve Months almost 
without resourse, and to add to our Misfortunes left an enormous 
debt on our Shoulders which it is impossible for us to pay off at once 
Time must therefore be given to free us from that Incumbrance, 
but our Situation is widely different at present, we are emerging 
fast from the distress brought on us by the Paper Money, our Taxes 
are paid in gold or Silver or in Commodities that will bring them, 
which enables us to comply with some degree of punctuality with 
all our present engagements. This State of our Circumstances 
will when laid before the people I make no doubt enable you to con- 
tract for what Indian Corn of other Provisions you may want and 
you may pledge the word of the Executive that your engagements 
shall be fulfilled, the great abuses that have been committed hereto- 
fore by officers entrusted with the Care of the Soldiers and providing 
for them lays me under an Obligation to use Caution in the Powers 
I give and I hope you will not impute it to a diffidence in you 
that I tell you your Contracts must be temporary and only for a 
Continental ration of Bread, Salt, and Meat and that I expect but 
very little of the latter will be wanted as you may chiefly supply 
yourself with that Article by hunting and I beg you to turn your 
Attention as much to it as the good of the Service will admit off, 
the lower your Expences are the greater certainty there will be of 
their being Paid.— I do not well know what to say to you on the 
Subject of offensive operations against the Indians, in case they 
should continue the War, I am satisfied that that alone will keep 


them in Order and yet the difficulty of supplying your wants, and 
the Expences attending such expeditions are obstacles which I know 
not well how to get over, however I shall not at present forbid them 
but rather wish to encourage them, and therefore desire you will 
form some plan for an extensive Attack, with an estimate of the 
expence that will attend it, and forward them to me by the first 
Opportunity for the Consideration of the Executive.— If you should 
be attacked in force this Summer my former letter empowers you 
to call on the most convenient Counties for Assistance, to which 
I refer you for my Sentiments on that Subject. 

It may be necessary to explain what I mean by a temporary 
Contract for Provisions that there may be no clashing between you 
and a Person to be appointed to act as your Commissary, you'l there- 
fore let it extend no farther than for six Weeks Provisions from the 
Time this gets to hand at the expiration of which I expect some per- 
son will be appointed to take it off your Hands, which will ease you 
of much trouble and enable you to attend more to your proper line 
of Duty. You may with Safety assure the persons with whom you 
shall contract that an order will soon be forwarded for the disposal 
of the commutable Articles that have been or shall be received in 
Taxes, and that they shall be paid out of the Sales. You may also 
let the Soldiers know tlieir Cloaths and necessaries with some pay 
shall be sent down the Ohio to tliem this Summer.- 

I like your Proposal of sending the Indian Woman to the 
Shawnees to sound them on the Subject of Peace, your prudence 
will suggest to you not to appear too forward in this Business lest 
it should encourage them to continue the War.- The meeting of the 
Commissioners appointed to settle the terms of Peace with the 
Chicasaw and Creek Indians has been long delayed by the unaccount- 
able Conduct of a Mr. Netherland who was sent express from your 
Part of the Country and was charged with dispatches on his return 
to Col: Martin, which he never thought fit to deliver. They have 
now received their Instructions and dispatched a Major Reid to 
invite them to a treaty and to fix on the Place of holding it, which 
I expect will be at the french licks on Cumberland river or in it's 
neighborhood, but I have no certainty of it. The delay I am appre- 
hensive will be injurious to the State as it will deprive the Commis- 


sioners of your advice which I much wish'd them to obtain unless 
you will be so kind as to communicate it by Letter.— I am sorry 
to find you have taken my Permission to retire in the light you have 
done the smallness of the command was my only reason, I am fully 
impress'd with the Services you have render'd you Country on 
many Occasions, and have often lamented that the Situation of the 
State should be such as to put it out of my Power to enable you to 
gain fresh Laurels ; that you have some Enemies is certain, and 
that they have misrepresented you is as certain, but their representa- 
tions have never had sufficient weight to injure you materially with 
the Executive, they knew you had Orders to build forts for the 
Protection of the Country, as it was not done they had some Cause 
to complain, and your not informing me immediately why the In- 
structions were not carried into Execution gave a force to clamors 
tliat would not have been attended to, if you had been as explicit 
in Time as you have been since. I shall be glad to see you as soon 
as your Affairs will permit you to come to Richmond. 

I have forwarded an Order to the Mines for fifteen Hundred 
weight of Lead but can not devise a Way to get it forward, if you 
can fall on any you will oblige me by directing it to be done imme- 
diately, the expence of Carriage shall be paid on demand.- 

I am Sir 
yrs: &c. 

B. H. 

The Northwestern Commissioners and Western Debts^ 

April 14, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Monday- 14th April 1783- 
§. I. The Commissioners can by no means depart from the 

the principal, that the State is not Obliged to Honour Bills 
drawn by persons unauthorized, but where artickles have been 
furnished to the amount, which artickles have been really 
applyed to the Support of the Troops, such Bills they are of 
opinion ought to be taken in at the real value of the Bills when 


That the Bills drawn on the Treasury of Virginia ought 
to be paid off agreeable to the Illenois scale of Depreciation, 
after depreciation took place in that Country. 

But as it appears by M^ Shannons Book's that he drew 
bills counter signed by General Clark for artickles of a mixed 
nature, some appearing to be purchased by depreciation Cur- 
rency, whilst others are not and many of his Vouchers being 
lodged with the Auditors, the Commissioners cannot in Justice 
fix the Payment of those Bills either by the scale of any other 
way in their Power 

It appears to the Commissioners that many Bills are 
drawn by those authorized by Government, for which they 
can produe no vouchers for artickles for which these Bills 
were drawn, and of course the Bills become chargable to 
the Drawers, But the Commissioners cannot undertake to 
say whether the state ought to take up these Bills or not as it 
is of great consequence they think it worthy the attention of 
the Legislative, by the first general principle, none of Mont- 
gomery's Bills for which articles do not appear to be expended 
on, or for the support of the Troops, are legal demands against 
the State. The bills for Cash in the recruit^ Ace* is reduced 
by the scale of the State, which brings the bounty allowed 
for enlisting equal in both Countrys, as depreciation was so 
rapid after the 15'" of Nov'' 1779 that it kept pace with the 
depreciation here till paper currency stop'd altogether, on the 
calling in the two emissions of 1779 & 1778— where money 
was advanced the Commissioners have reduced by the State 


The time of M'' D' Murray's contingency on the Department 
of Commissary not being mentioned prevents the Commis- 
sioners from liquidating his Account. 
M"' Murray will expect the inclosed Bills to be returned — 


Benjamin Harrison to Virginia Delegates in Congress, 

April 19, 1783 

[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1783-1786, pp. loo-ioi.] 

Virginia Delegates in Congress. 

Richmond April 19'" 1783. 

I received your favor by the last Post. It appears to me 
astonishing that Nathan should give you so much trouble, when he 
must know his Debt can be paid no where but at this place this his 
Agent has been told, and that there are no funds as yet establish'd 
for that Purpose; I shall lay the Award of the Arbitrators before 

the next Assembly, who will no doubt provide for the payment. 

You must consult your own Prudence in the affair of Pollock, the 
Assembly have refer'd it to you to take proper Security, and it will 
probably behove you to be cautious, as 1 have additional reasons 
(lately received) to those I formerly had for thinking he has been 
at least the most imprudent Man in the world; great Part of his 
demand is for Bills taken up by him after the receipt of a Letter 
from Col : Todd from the Illinois a Copy of which I have forbiding 
him to pay them and informing him they were drawn by Adven- 
turers who had no right to draw and who were procuring Money 
in that way for their Private Purposes.- 

I am waiting for a public Express with Official Accounts of 
the Confirmation of Peace, your Proclamation is arrived by a Private 
Hand but of that I can take no Notice. I am with respect 

Yrs: &c. 
B. H. 


DECEMBER 22, 1783 ^ • / > 

Problem of the Indians — Lands Granted the Officers of the Illinois 
Regiment — Plea for Western Creditors — Reasons for High Prices 
IN the West during the Revolution — Clark Relieved of his Com- 
mand — Clark Asked by Jefferson to Lead a Party for the Explor- 
ation OF THE Territory West of the Mississippi River — Clark Ap- 
pointed Principal Surveyor of Bounty Lands. 

Clark to County Lieutenants of Jefferson & Lincoln 
Counties, Kentucky. 

\_Cal. of Fa. Stale Papers, 3478.] 

Read Creek, April 30th, 1783. 

By late dispatches from his E.xcellency the Governor, I find 
that the Ta.\es of the Kentucky is to be appropriated to the suppott 
of different Garrisons intended to be kept up for its defence, and 
that letters have already been sent to the different County Lts: to 
that purport. This will enable the Building & Garrisoning the 
mouth of Kentucky which his Excellency is Extremely anxious for. 
I have Instructed Majr. Walls to have it put into Imediate Execu- 
tion Caling on the County Lts: for a proportion of their militia 
to build & garrison that post and the falls and to divide the Regular.^ 

between the two posts, you will be pleased to furnish him with 

men when called for, to be releived agreeable to Law observing this. 
That every Delinquent furnisli'd is to be Included in the number 
called for. I am sensible that nothing in you will be wanting to 
promote this business, and hope the people will be convinced of the 
propriety of it and chearfully give every aid. Especially when they 
are informed tliat the faitli of Government is pledged for the pajm't 
of any expence they may be at. And that a total subjugation of tiic 
Indians is now in contemplation, which their Implicit Obedience 
to the orders of Government will greatly facilitate, and Encourage 
the Executive to study the promotion of their future hapiness. 



You may take it for granted that a genl : peace hath taken 
place much to our advantage. All the brittish posts on the lakes 
are to be given up to us & garrisoned by Continental Troops, and 
hope that a spirited exertion of the frontiers this summer will put 
an end to their sufferings, that peace and tranquillity will take place 
in your little Country when the long and spirited Exertions of the 
people so much entitled them to it. I don't think that any thing 
on the part of Government will be wanting, as they apear Exceed- 
ingly dispos'd to use the most salutary measures to answer the pur- 
pose of Reducing the Indians to Obedience. And their circum- 
stances must be so widely different to what they formerly were that 
they will he able to execute what they please." 

Jacob Rubsamen to Clark, April 30, 1783 
i [Draper MSS., 51J85.— A.L.S.] 

Lead Mines Aprill 29'" 1783. 

I recieved Yours & the Order of the Governour for 1500"* 
I>ead, Si shall punctually Comply with it, as far as lays in my Power. 
I am sending off this Evening to M' Roger Oates in Order to hire 
his AVaggon having none of my own. Should I be disapointed in 
getting his Team, I hardly Know what to do as Waggons are ex- 
trcamly scarce to be had, at this bussy time of the year. However 
I will forward it as quickly as possible. I am Your very 

hble Sv' 

Jacob Rubsamen 
His Excellency General Clark 

Endorsed: M' Rubsamen Ap' 30"" 1783 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, April 30, 1783 

[Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3 H7*-477] 

Geo: Rogers Clarke to the Governor of Virginia. 

Read Creek, April 30th, 1783. 


Your several favours of March, and 9th of April Inst: come 
to hand on my Rout to this settlement. The agreeable news with 

CLARK rO HARRISON. APRIL 30. 1783 229 

Brittain I am in hopes will greatly alter the face of affairs in the 
back Country. The prospects of our possession of the posts on the 
. lakes will, I make no doubt, divide the councils of the Indians for 
some time, and prevent their making any Capital stroke on the 
Settlement of Kentucky. 

As the Inclosed speech to a few of the cheifs of the Oubash 
that continue in our Intersest, will be fully credited among the 
whole, as it calculated for the purpose of dividing their Interests. 
But I have not the least Idea of their Quitting the war until they 
are Envited to A treaty by the prospect of presents, or Reduced to 
a peace by an armament in their own country. They are, or will 
be convinced that a peace will take place and will push the war by 
small partyes with great Vigour, supposing that the greater number 
of prisoners they got, or the more formidable they make themselves 
to apear to us, the greater price they will get for peace, making no 
doubt of it whenever they choose to offer it, suposing that we are 
under obligations to them for it. This is the Idea that I could 
wish to be destroy'd. that they should be obligated to treat with 
us on our own terms, and convinced that they were Inferiour to us, 
and that they are under obligations to us for the Very lands they 
live on. An Army of 1500 men would be necessary to do this. I 
belcive easily to be got, but how they are to be furnish'd, it is im- 
possible for me to tell not knowing the Resources of Government. 
But as I hope to h.ive tiic pleasure of waiting on your Excellency 
in a few days. I shall Endeavour in the mean time to Inable myself 
to sketcli out some plan the most agreeable to my Ideas of the Gen- 
eral Interest of the State. Inclos'd is copies of Instructions &c., 
which I hope your Excellency will aprove of. I could not think 
of any plan so likely to have the lead convey'd to Kentucky as the 
one I have fallen on. I am in hopes that the orders you have sent 
for the different Taxes to be deliver'd will Inable us to garrisou 
the mouth of Kanlucky in time, Except the collectors should be 
negligent in their duty. I could have heartily wished to have been 
at the treaty with the Chicasaws, but am convinced it will not take 
place until the fall or latter part of the Summer, as it will be a 
considerable time before Mr. Reed gets to that nation. I met him 
on his Rout to Kantucky and Recommended it to him to go by 


water from the falls as the most Expeditious and Safe Rout he could 
take, and if it was agreeable to the Indians, to have the Treaty 
at that place. My principal Reasons for such Recommendations 
was the great scarcity of provisions at the French Lick. The Indians 
continue to make Incursions into the different Countys in Kantucky 
and have Repeatedly suffer'd the loss of some of their men. 

In answer to your Letter of the 29th of Novemb'r 1782, 
which lately came to hand, I can only say that Major Landot 
[Linctot] was Employed by me in tlie Spring of '79 as an Indian 
Agent for the upper Mississippi. That he rendered singular serv- 
ices in that department, and was permitted to go to Government, 
where he was Commissioned as Agent, and I beleive was very serv- 
iceable until his death, previous to his latter appointment I Gen- 
erally Judg'd of the propriety of iiis Expenccs, and paid tliem my- 
self and charged them to the State, which was the case with all the 
Agents in the Western Departm't, several of them being necessaries. 

I am S'r your Excellency's 

Obedt. Humble Servt." 

Clark to George Walls, April 30, 1783 

[Cat. of Va. Slate Papers, 3476.] 

Geo: Rogers Clarke to Majr: George Walls. 

Read Creek April 30th 1783. 

I have Inclos'd the last Letters from Government to me, 
for your perusal, and make no Doubt but it will give GenI : Joy to 
the Inhabitants of Kentucky when they find the prospect of peace 
with the Indians so certain, In the course of the Insuing Summer. 

You'll find that his Excellency still wish to have the post 
at the mouth of Kentuckey Established & to Inable it to be done 
hath Sent orders to the Different Counties to deliver the Taxes for 
the purpose of Victualing the Troops which you will call for as 
they are wanted, orders to the Different County Licuts: accom- 
panying this for furnishing you from Time to time with one hundred 
militia — Lincoln 65. Jefferson 25. Fayette 10 men, those aded to 
the Regulars you have will Inable you to Garrison both of ye posts 
with 68 Rank and file. Exclusive of a small party that may occas- 


ionally be Detach'd on hunting parties &c. It's highly advisable 
to Divide the Regulars Equally between the two posts, by which 
means the militia be kept to the duty. As I expect this will have 
a speedy conveyance to you, I hope you will loose no Time after ye 
Reception of it to have the orders put in Execution. By all means, 
the plan is highly advisiable as it may cause the Indians to suppose 
that we determined to correct them for tlieir former Insolence, and 
perhaps confuse their Councils. I think the plan proposed last 
winter for tiic Building those works very Good and wortiiy atten- 
tion. I hope that you will find no great Difficulty in furnishing the 
Troops Tolerable for four or five montiis, by which 'I'imc I think 
you may be sure of assistance. Don't fail in Embracing every 
opertunity that ofifers in fowarding all Inteligance of Importance 
to Government. 1500 lbs. of Lead is Sent to the Block-house on 
Holston, to be from thence conveyed to Kentuckey. You know 
how necessary it is to pay the Greatest Attention to the Expenditures 
of Amunition as it is Exceedingly Difficult to be got to you. 

I am Sir, your 

Obedt. Servt." 

William Preston to Benjamin Harrison, May 5, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

Montgomery the 5th May 178J 

Your E.xcellency's letter of the 6th & 7th of March last 
came to hand the 19th of that month. Previous thereto, & at the 
earnest request of the People most exposed to danger, I had ordered 
out some good Woods men as Scouts & directed the Captains on that 
Quarter to hold their Companies in readiness to move on the short- 
est notice to the relief of that frontier in case of any Alarm. In 
this Situation matters stood untill the 21st of March, when a party 
of Indians came undiscovered past the Inhabitants of Clinch Si 
Blue-Stone to Walkers Creek and killed one Man, took his Wife 
& two Children Prisoners; also two Children belonging to a poor 
Widow. They were immediately pursued for several days through 
the mountains by a Party of good \Voodsmen, who lost their tracks 
and could not overtake them. A few days afterwards a man was 


killed on Blue Stone by a small Party who were also pursued to no 

I have, in consequence of these alarms sent out two Com- 
panies for the defence of the People, who were in the utmost Con- 
sternation, and they are there at this time on duty; which has in 
a great measure guided the minds of these distressed Inhabitants — I 
have taken every possible measure to procure Provisions for the 
Militia on duty by recommending it to the Holders of Provisions, 
who are able to wait for their money, to spare what they can; by 
opening a Subscription to purchase from such as are not able to 
wait for the money, to which I have engaged to pay fifty pounds, 
& the People of property who have no Provisions to spare have 
generous contributed thereto, and have agreed to lay out of the 
Money untill Government can be enabled to repay them: as also 
by issuing a press warrant, not to be used unless both the other 
Methods fail- By these means I hope the men on duty will be 
supplied on good time, without impressing. 

The bad State of Health I have been in for several Months 
past, have put it out of my Power to meet Col' Campbell to confer 
with him on the Subject recommended by your Excellency. 

I had it not in my Power to give your Excellency earlier 
Notice of the damage done here unless I had hired an Express, which 
I was not willing to do, but hope it will answer the same Purpose 
to send it now by my Nephew Mr. Breckinridge who is going down 

I would beg leave to assure your Excellency that nothing in 
my Power shall be wanting for the defence of this Frontier, in doing 
which the strictest attention shall be paid to Oconomy. 

I am 

Your Excellencys most & very hble 

Wm Preston 


Officers of Illinois Regiment to the General Assembly of 

Virginia, May 21, 1783' 

[Legislative Petitions, Va. State Archives.] 


the Petition of the Officers of the Ilinois Regiment 
humbly slieweth, 
That sometime in the Year 177 Cd'o George R. Clark 
knowing the great advantages that would be derived to the Comnion- 
wcaltii and especially to the Western Frontier from the Conquest 
of the British Posts on the Oubache and Missisippi Rivers proposed 
a plan for their Reduction which was approved of and Authority 
given him to carry it into immediate execution; he was likewise 
promised if the Enterprise succeeded a liberal Gratuity in Lands, 
in that Country, for the Officers and Soldiers who adventured with 
him: that witii great labour and hard marching the Expedition was 
conducted with so much secrecy and the Affair managed with such 
address, that all the settlements on the Missisippi were surprised 
and forced to surrender before any Assistance could be sent them ; 
the Reduction of Post Vincents following that of the Kaskasky 
Forts and Villages the designs of an industrious Enemy who were 
then meditating the means of depopulating our Frontier Settlements, 
were entirely frustrated and an extensive and fertile Country put 
into the possession of the State. That the Assembly sensible of 
the importance of the services in the Cession of the country North- 
West of thee Ohio to Congress, among other Reservations, made 
the following, to wit, "As Colonel George Rogers Clark planned 
and executed the secret expedition by which the British posts were 
reduced, and was promised, if the Enterprise succeeded, a liberal 
gratuity in Lands in that Country, for the Officers & Soldiers who 
first marched thither with him. That a Quantity of Land not ex- 
ceeding one hundred and fifty thousand acres, be allowed and granted 
to the said Officers and Soldiers, and the Other Officers & Soldiers 
that have been since incorporated into the said Regiment, to be laid 
ofl in one Tract; the length of which not to exceed double the 
breadth, in such place on the north west side of the Ohio, as the 

'For the proceedings of the officers of the Illinois Regiment disposing 
of lands granted to them, see post, 413^- 


majority of the Officers shall choose, and to be afterwards divided 
among the said Officers and Soldiers in due proportion according 
to the Laws of Virginia," That a majority of the Officers of the 
said Regiment having convened for the purpose, after the most 
effectual Steps being taken to make themselves acquainted with the 
Country, made choice of the Lands opposite to the Town of Louis- 
ville on the North-West side of the Ohio, Beginning where the 
Silver Hills bind close to the River, running thence up the River 
as far as the Grant will admit and back for the quantity; which 
Land Your Petitioners concieve may answer several valuable pur- 
poses to the public as well as to the Regiment as a Settlement on 
them will serve as a Barrier to the Settlement on this side the Ohio, 
and in case of a continuance of the Indian war, it will draw thither 
the attention of the Ouabache and Miami Tribes; and from its 
situation is well calculated for an Indian Trade, which from an 
Experience of their disposition. Your petitioners apprehend is the 
most effectual mode of conciliating their Affections, and from in- 
veterate Enemies making them substantial Friends. That as the 
immediate settling these Lands is an object of national as well as of 
individual Interest, and as the Officers and Soldiers of the Ilinois 
Regiment have in a peculiar manner experienced every evil which 
so remote a Station cut off from any Intercourse with a civilized 
people, and a savage Enemy could impose, and bore up under all 
the calamities of Hunger, Nakedness and Shame without a murmur, 
keeping always in view that as soon as the State was able she would 
comply with her promise and recompense her suffering Troops for 
all their misfortunes. Your Petitioners pray that the Assembly would 
explain and confirm the Grant of the above mentioned Lands to 
the said Regiment, appoint a surveyor for the purpose of running 
the Lines which shall include the Bounty, and as it is uncertain 
wliat description of men are entitled to a proportion of these lands, 
that the Assembly would declare what office and what Services give 
Ripht to a share thereof, and in what proportions tliat are to be 
divided amoung the several Claimants. That as the establishing 
a Town on a proper Basis may be a great means of bringing a Trade 
to the Country and of collecting a sufficient number of Men to with- 
stand the attacks of the Enemy should they attempt it, Your peti- 

CLARK TO HARRISON. MAY 22. 1783 235 

tioners further pray, That Trustees may be authorized to lay off 
a Town in such convenient place within the Grant on the River and 
upon such plan they shall find most convenient, with power to per- 
petuate their succession in case of Vacancies, and also to reserve a 
proper place for a Landing above the Great Point, to have Ware- 
houses erected for the reception of Tobacco, Hemp, etc. and for 
other purposes. And Your petitioners will ever pray etc. 

G. R. Clark 
Will Shannon 
Jn' Montgomery 
H Clark 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, May 21, 1783 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.]' 

Richmv 21" May 1783 

Nothing but necessity could Induce me to make the follow- 
ing Request of your E.xcellcncy, Which is to grant me a small sum 
of money on Ace', I can assure you S' that I am ExceedinKlv 
destress,d for the want of necessary cloathing &c and dont know of 
any channell thro which I could procure any- Except that of the 
Executive, The State I believe will fall considerably in my debt, 
any supplies that your Excellency favour me with might be deducted 
out of my Accounts 

I have the Honor to be your 
Excellencys Obed' Serv' 

G R Clark 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, May 22, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— A.L.S.] 

Richmond 22 May 1783 

Inclosed is a farther answer to your last letters to me. It 
is my Ideas of tiie most advantageous policy that could be usd in 
order to Reduce the Indeans to that subordination necessary to 

■This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3487. 


Ensure a perfect tranquillity to the frontiers, I have not Enlarg'd 
so much on several heads as I at first intended as it bore so much 
the apearance of dictating to your Excellency but am in hopes that 
I have been sufficiently Explicit 

I have the Honor to be Sir 
Your Devoted and 
Very Humb'' Serv' 

G. R. Clark 
His Excellency the Governor of Virg* 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, May 22, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives — A.L.S.] * 

Richmond 22* May 1783 

Agreeable to your Excellencies Instructions, I lay before you 
the plan of such oflencive measures as I sliould suppose the general 
Interest Requird to be put in Execution this season against the 
Indians, It is notorious that those tribes that have been for the 
greatest length of time acquainted with us fermly beleive that they 
can make war or peace with us at pleasure. And that we would 
at all times gladly Embrace the offer of any terms with them. They 
have abundant Reasons to believe it if they Judge from our former 
conduct, as a treaty was always attended with considerable presents 
from us which causd them to believe we were afraid of them, In 
short Every kind of lenity Shewn them by us is Imputed to timedity. 
And untill this Idea is destroyd, a war will be the consequence of 
the least Supposd afifront they Receive from us, which period the 
j'oung warriors will often wish for. And promote in order to have 
an Opportunity to shew their Valour to which they are also Excited 
by the prospect, of gain as well as by plunder as that of presents 
at the End of the war. Confidently assured of peace when Ever they 
shall offer it. The Idea I presume hath not yet gaind much ground 
on the Oiiabacii and the nations west of that River, As by some 
lucky strokes and the Smiles of fortune the Effections of near four 
thousand of their warriors were weaned from the brittish Interest 
in the fall seventy Eight, Having the management of them myself 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 3:488-490. 

CLARK TO HARRISON, MAY 22, 1783 237 

thro the means of agents I Endivourd to Instil such notions into 
them as will yet be of advantage to us in future treaties, altho, they 
have lately made war on us owing to the Inabillity of our Merchants 
to supply them with goods and the distresses of the State being such, 
that they could not give any assistance. Those Circumstances gave 
the british Emisaries Every advantage in Engaging them again to 
Receive their bloody belts, And I make no doubt but their corre- 
spondence with the sliavvances wiandots and others will Induce the 
whole of the to Embrace those Ideas I have before mentiond. They 
have no notion of being dependant on Either the Brittish or anieri- 
cans. But would make war on both if Equally Insutltd, They 
Conceive tlie English to be greatly Indebted to them for the assist- 
ance given them during the war, and I suppose are by this time 
pretty well convinced that a peace will take place, and I am confident 
tlicy will prosecute the war with a great Violence as possible in 
order to make themselves more formidable to us. That the terms 
of the treaty may be more to their advantage. Which might be 
brought about in a very short time by sending a general Envitatioii 
to them. It is what they will Expect, and generally attend to, In- 
fluenced by the hopes of Receiving presents. Rather than a desire 
of being friendly witli us, should tliis line of Conduct be persucd 
they will yet View themselves as superior to us. And we shall be 
Eternally Involved in a war with some nation or other of them, until 
we shall at last in order to save blood and treasure be Reduced to 
the necessity of convincing them that we are always able to cru'^h 
them at pleasure, and determind to do it when Ever they misbeha\c, 
A peace between us and brittain may not have the Impression on 
them as is generally supposd. Of conveying to them such an Idea of 
our Importance as to cause them to fear us, I make no doubt but 
the English Emisaries Explain the case in its most favourable light 
on thier side and cause us to appear as Insignificant in the eyes of 
the Indians as possible, A greater Opportunity can never offer to 
Reduce them to Obedience than the present moment, as they are 
generally at war (I allude to those north of the Ohio) And nothing 
we could do to them would destroy our faith among other tribes. 
On the contrary have a Valuable Impression on them as we have 
Every Excuse, If Reducing them to Obedience should be Resolvd on 


I sliould Recommend the following plan, To march an army of at 
least two thousand men immediately into the heart of their Country, 
If they Imbodied and fought you, a defeat would Ensure the terms 
you wish for. But I am confident they would generally sollicit to 
treat when it would be in your power to Convince them of what 
you were determined to do, Giving them their own Choice Either 
to come to your terms or Continue the war. There would be no 
doubt of your wishes being compleated as they would be at once 
convinced that their non compliance would be the destruction of 
their families Judging from your uncommon and apparently deter- 
mind conduct, your speeches to them could not be too daring but it 
mipht be advisable to have the terms Easy and let them know, that 
if they broke a single article that you would make war on the nation 
that did it, Such conduct would soon put a final End to the thoughts 
of a war Existing among them. At the same time Justice Requires 
that we should not Infringe on the treaty ourselves, From their 
disposition I have found that nothing will so firmly bind them to 
us as the fear of our arms and the dread of loosing their country. 
Which would be the greatest Security we could possibly have for 
thier good conduct by obliging them to give up part of their Country 
to pay us for the Expence of the war which might lay waste until 
government chose to have it disposd of. And Informing them that 
whenever they Acted Contrary to a single article of the treaty that 
you would make war on them and take as much of thier lands as 
would pay the Expence, Should your Excellency order such an 
armament, I conceive the most Easy and cheap plan would be to 
have the Rendezvouse at the Kantucky, The people of tiiat Country 
wo\ild Rejoice at the prospects of an advantageous peace with the 
Indians, and most chearfully furnish near half the number of men, 
Malitia might Easily march from Ilolston, New River and other 
parts of the frontiers without any great Expence and I should sup- 
pose ought to be Equally Interested with the Kantuckians as they 
undoubtedly have been greatly coverd from the depridations of the 
Savage by that people, Perhaps it might be thought advisable for 
some assistance to be given from the frontier in the neighborhood of 
piitshurg thro' the channell of the Ohio, Rut your Excellency will 
be the best Judge in what manner such force could be collected with 


the greatest Ease to the falls of Ohio, which is undoubtedly the 
most Central and advantageos post that is now Possesd by the Ameri- 
cans for the management of the Indian department in general, To 
Equip such an army as here proposd with all those necessary supplies 
that would Enable them to do the greatest service possible would 
Require a sum of money which I doubt from the present state of 
affairs could not possibly be furnishd, And of course suppose that 
the Smalest scale that could be thought to answer the purpose would 
be preferd. From my long Experience in Indian afifairs and tlie 
knowledge of the policy of those nations alluded to, I take it for 
granted that if the plan was Enterd into and prosecuted with Vigor, 
that it would be of but short duration, and that two or three months 
provisions might answer the purpose, The greatest part of which 
must be procurd in the pittsburg Country, The Expence of the 
small supply of Horses and provisions necessary to enable such an 
armament to answer the desireable purposes could not be V^ery con- 
siderable provided they get on thier march by the latter part of this 
summer, I learn the brittish posts on the lakes are to be Garrisoned 
by Continental troops, If those troops and the armament propos'd 
were to commence thier Rout nearly at the same time it might great- 
ly promote the general Interest, A few troops of horse would be 
much wanting as it is found by Experience that they are of singular 
service in the Indian department. If there is any farther informa- 
tion in my power to give your Excellency that may Enable you to 
Conduct your western frontiers to greater advantage I shall a' all 
times do it with pleasure I have the Honor to be 

Your Excellencies Devoted 
and Very Humb' Serv' 
G R Clark 
His Excellency The 
Governor of Virginia. 

Meeting of Illinois Officers for Location of Lands, 

May 27, 1783 

[Cal. of Va. State Papers, 3 492-493-] 

Tuesday Richmond May 27th, 1783. 
Proceedings of a meeting of a number of State Officers, in 
consequence of an advertisement from Major Meriweather, request- 


ing them to meet, "for the purpose of endeavouring to get proper 
means adapted for locating, allotting & surveying their lands: to 
have their certificates put upon proper footing, and measures taken 
to give them a sufficient credit: & to have their claim to half pay 
finally determined by the Assembly." Genl : G. R. Clarke acted as 
President. Resolutions were passed That a memorial be pre- 
sented to the assembly requesting that officers & soldiers of the State 
Line & navy be put upon the same footing with the officers & soldiers 
of the Va. Continental Line with respect to these Land Bounties, 
&c., and stating that in lieu of their half pay for life, they preferred 
to receive full pay for five years only. 

Genl: Clarke, Colo. Brent, Colo. Muter, Col. Dabney, 
Major Meriweather, Capt: Rogers, Capt. Boswell & Capt: Roane 
appointed to draw the memorial. 

Genl: Clarke, Colo. Montgomery, Maj : Wayles, Capt: 
Walsh, Capt: Rogers, Lieut. Humphery Marshall, Lt: Rice & Lt: 

C appointed to "superintend the surveyors employed to survey 

the Lands, together with the Officers appointed by the Continental 

Line for that purpose and to see that the regiments and corps 

that had served "in the westward" were duly provided for: as all 
other troops, in the memorial to be prepared for the Genl : Assembly. 

The officers appointed to draw the memorial, presented it 
according to order, which having been signed by the President, was 
on the next day "given in to the Assembly." 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, June i6, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J86.— A.L.] 

Richmond June 16"" 1783 
Sir I am aprehensive that few persons since the Commencement 

of the war with america have had the same cause to address their 
superiors on a subject similar to that of this letter. It is with pain 
E<]ual to the misfortunes that cause it that I daily View persons in 
this City and Reflect on others absent that have Reduced themselves 
to a state of Indigence by supporting the Credit of the state to the 
westward with a zeal that I at that time thought actuated the breast 
of Every friend to his Country, What must be the feeling of those 
men that advanced their property with the pleasing Reflection of 



suporting the General cause, making no doubt of a speedy Reward 
at the End of the war should they find that they were not to Receive 
their payments for a series of years to Come; since my Return to 
this place I have discoverd Various opinions Respecting the propriety 
of those Expenditures, As it is a truth that will apear Obvious to 
Every man that will make himself acquainted with the situation of 
the frontiers and its enemies I can with the greater boldness afHrm 
that it hath been the Consequential services attending those Expen- 
ditures that have savd the frontiers of this state from ruin and pre- 
vented us from going to three times the Expence. What would 
have been our situation had not the Executive prosecuted the meas- 
ures she did to the westward, And tlirough the means of her Offi- 
cers Silcncd many of those tribes of Indians by treaties and othcrways 
and kept them Either attach' to us or in suspence until it was too 
late for tlicm to Execute any plan destructive to our Interest, had 
not those measures been taken it is Easy to Conceive what would 
have been the Consequence of four or five thousand Indian warriors 
with all tiie assistance brittain could give them let loose on our fron- 
tiers for the course of seven years, might we not with propriety 
suppose that part of the blue Ridge would have been contended for, 
and all the assistance you have Received from those Valuable fron- 
tier countrys would have been lost to you. For my own part altho 
I have sufferd Every disadvantage that a person could Experience 
for seven years anxiety and fatigue, subject to the Clamours [of] 
Every Vilinous principal perticularly the Enemies of this state I 
could bear it with greater fortitude was I to be the only sufferer 
and the Creditors of the state alluded to paid. The whole of the 
western accounts will now be laid before you After considering 
the Expence of Recruiting and supporting several hundred troops 
for a number of years in a Country where Every article necessary 
for them was Extravagantly dear. And the great number of treaties 
that have been held with Various tribes of Indians, Every kind of 
military stores to purchase. Expeditions against the Enemy &c I 
flatter myself you will find them when Reduced to their Value 
Exceedingly inadequate. As I know that Every attention was paid 
in order to have them so where they came under my notice, Hut 
the great distance from One post to another often put it out of my 


power certainly to know for a considerable time what conduct was 
usd and many large accounts presented which the department under 
my command had nothing to do with, The whole of which I Expect 
the Commissioners of western accounts will fully point out to you, 
As those Gentlemen have been at uncommon pains to make them- 
selves fully acquainted with Every circumstance ther knowledge 
of the conduct of the greatest part of those Creditors induce me 
perhaps to be more Sollicitous for their being favourd as I Conceivd 
the motives which Enduced them to advance their property was of 
the purest nature, and it must be granted that they have been of 
Infinate advantage to the State, as they at the Earliest period shewd 
their Zeal for the cause otherways the Country we had possession 
of must have been abandond. Our Interest with the Indian nations 
totally lost, The Kantucky (The great preservitive of the frontiers 
of this state) would have been depopulated, and those numerous 
savages would have pourd in on Every quarter of the frontier which 
must have been supported by the Very troops which have Renderd 
Such signal service in the Eastern defence. Those ideas I always 
had in View and thought myself happy in preventing the Evil, many 
of my smaller charges against the state have no Vouchers, After 
you consider the V^arious circumstances attending the Command I 
was Intrusted with you could not suppose it strange that only memo- 
randoms should be taken of some of them and many totally neglected 
which I doubt will prove Ruinous to my private Interest as the 
great Variety of other publick business solely Engaged my attention 
and Required all the adress I was master of to superintend the 
publick Interest to advantage, not only the Civil Government of 
the people of the Illinois to attend to Recruiting & disposing of 
troops that was difficult to support &c But numerous tribes of Indians 
that had Ingagd in war against us that Required great and constant 
attention as well as Considerable sums of money to support necessary 
Comisarys among them, many that was continued in service thro 
the necessity of employing them, Altho their Characters otherwise 
not Equal to your wishes, at so great a distance from Government 
to get Council or much aid, and but few persons to give assistance, 
and latterly numerous partizens to Contend with that was Confusing 
the Inhabitants and nearly [MS. illeffible] to the departments, I 


hope to be Excusd in praying for an Immediate Redress of those 
Creditors which I Expect there is no doubt of as this stale hath 
Repeatedly given proofs of her gratefull disposition, and which will 
farther Inable her with greater propriety to claim that honour she 
deserves for protecting through the Course of the war at least one 
third of the western frontier of the united states. 

As for the advances I have made of my own by bond &c in 
Cases where the necessary Requisites Could not be otherways ob- 
tained from the low state of our finances I pray for an Indemnity 
by your Interposition 

I Have &c 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, June 26, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— A.L.S.] ' 

Richmond 26''' June 1783. 

The following hints will sufficiently |X)int out the Cause of 
every Article of Life on tlie Ouabacli being raised to so great a 
price as charged in June of the Western Accounts, On our getting 
possession of Fort S» Vincennes in 1778 and gaining three or four 
thousand Warriors to the American Interest, all Commerce between 
that Country and Detroyt immediately ceased, the Checasaws, part 
of the Cherokees and other Southern Indians warmly attached to 
the British Interest, rendered it exceedingly difficult for the Merch*" 
to get supplies from the Mississipi as numbers of them were cut off 
on their passage up the Ohio by the Indians who had been instructed 
by the English to block up that River if possible. Those Circum- 
stances caused every Article at S' Vincent to raise at least to four 

or five prices The Garrison kept at that post were obliged to 

recive its Supplies from the Inhabitants of the Town whom consisted 
of about three hundred Militia, about one Fourth farmers, : -t 
scarcely raised a Sufficiency of provisions to supply the Inhabitants, 
The British on the Lakes sensible of our growing Interest with the 
Savages, spared no pains, to regain them by Emissaries &c» which 
made it necessary that the greatest attention should be paid on our 
part. Consequently vast numbers of Savages were constantly at that 

'This letter is printed in Calendar of lirginia Stale Papers, 3:501-502. 


Post, councilling &c* as Agents were kept in every Quarter of their 
Settlements where we could venture them, and S' Vincent at once 
became the Seat of Indian Affairs— and those Articles necessary for 
the Solemnity of Treaties, support of troops, &c* was generally 
procured for the State by a few Merchants (Lagrass [Legras], 
Barrow, Lanetot [Linctot], and others ) whose zeal induced them 
to advance their fortunes for the public Interest Governor Hamil- 
ton by his Enemies in the Pittsburg County being informed there 
was a great number of disaffected Persons in that Quarter, ready 
to join him, resolved to make a Descent on that place, with all the 
power he could raise. General Carlton approved of his plan, but 
recommended it to him just to drive the Rebels of the Illenois Coun- 
try, otherwise they might possibly step in and take possession of 
Dutroyt, as he would have to leave it in a defenceless Situation, 
after puting the latter into execution he might regain the whole of 
the Indian Interest, and complete his fame to enable him to execute 
his first Design (the attempt was daring) but the prudent measure 
that Gentleman conducted himself by, enabled him to get possession 
of S' Vincent without much Difficulty, the Season being too far 
advanced, he was obliged to take up his Winter Quarters at that 
place and of Course disperse his Indian forces untill the Spring, In 
the mean time got Captured by a Superior force, which doubly re- 
vived our Interest in that Quarter and extended our Influence nearly 
to the Walls of Dutroyt, and the great Concourse of people that 
consequently happen'd for many Months, Troops, Indians, &c* 
nearly caused a famine. The Inhabitants not being able to receive 
their former plenty, in 1 78 1 were obliged to aband" the Post for 
the want of Supplies, from which moment our Interest with the 
Indians s»mk as rapidly, as we had gained it, and nearly the whole 
engaged in War against us - . 

I am S'' your Humble 
And Obed< Serv< 

G R Clarke 



Clark's Accounts with Virginia, July i, 1783 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.— Copy.] 

In Council July i" 1783 
When the Auditors have settled the accounts of Gen' Clark 
they will grant him Military certificates for the part of his pay 
which shall appear to have been due before the 8"' day of JanJ' 1782 
& warrants on the Military fund for what has become due since that 

Benj Harrison 
Shoud any Monies appear to be due to Gen' Clark exclusive of his 
pay the Auditors will grant him a warrant for them. 

Benj Harrison 

£3397-16.5 i/2 Commissioners Office 28th June 1783- 
It appears to the Commissioners tiiat there is due to General 
Geo. R Clarke, for flour &c furnished the Garrison at Fort Nelson, 

One Thousand two hundred & Four Pounds 6/5 J^ for his pay 

as Colonel from 2nd January 1778. untile 22 January 1781 :£iiOi- 
for his pay as Brigadier Gen' from 22 January 1781. till 26th June 
1783- £ 1092.10- in all Three Thousand Three hundred & ninety 
seven Pounds 16/5^ as p Accounts and Vouchers received— 

By orer of the Board. 
J A Lyle j? Ass' Sec' 

Benjamin Harrison to Clark, July 2, 1783 
[Benjamin Harrison Letter Book, 1783-1786, pp. 164-165.] 

General George R: Clarke. 

In Council July 2* 1783. 

The conclusion of the war and the distress'd situation of the 
State with respect to its Finances call on us to adopt the most pru- 
dent Oconomy. It is for this reason alone I have come a deter- 
mination to give over all Thoughts for the present of carrying on 
an offencive war against the Indians which you will easily perceive 
will render the Services of a General Officer in that quarter unneces- 
sary, and will therefore consider yourself as out of Command, but 
before I take leave of you I feel myself called on in the most forci- 


able Manner to return you my Thanks and those of my Council for 
the very great and singular services you have rendered your Country, 
in wresting so great and valuable a Teritory out of the Hands of 
the British Enemy, repelling the attacks of their Savage Allies and 
carrying on successful war in the Heart of their Country, this 
Tribute of Praise and Thanks so justly due I am happy to com- 
municate to you as the united Voice of the Executive. 

I am with respect. 
yrs. &c. 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, July 2, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 11J25. — Transcript.] 

"Richmond, July 2, 1783. 
Sir : I had the pleasure of receiving your letter of this day's date, 
and can assure you tiiat no reward for past services could be so satis- 
factory to me, as that of the gratitude of my country. I am happy 
in the idea of having met with the approbation of your Excellency 
and Council. Should anything hereafter transpire, wherein I could 
he of service to you, in the promotion of the interest of your govern- 
ment, its execution will again enable me to enjoy some of those 
pleasures that I have often experienced on the reflection of having 
rendered service to my country. 

I have the honor to be, Your Excellency's 
Most obedient and humble servant, 
George Rogers Clark. 
His Excellency, Ben. Harrison, Esq." 

Walker Daniel to Clark, September 15, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J91.— A.L.S.] 

Bachelors Office, Sept. 15th. 83. 
Dear General, The Inhabitants of this Country have been vari- 
ously agitated since You left us, occasioned by some reports propa- 
gated by designing and perverse members of Society, that the claims 
under Virginia were all void, and that Improvements would entitle 


to more certain estates from Congress: however the partial acceptance 
of the Cession of Virginia by Congress has in a great measure quieted 
these commotions. 

You have, I think, to blame Yourself, for not mentioning 
to me the Suits that Cleveland brought against You for the impress- 
ing his Whisky and for false imprisonment. In Your absence they 
have prosecuted both Suits with great vigor: last Court they were 
tried. As I was wholly unacquainted with the circumstances my- 
self I endeavour'd to get what information I could from others, & 
learned that M"" Finn, now at Post Vincennes, could prove some- 
thing in Your favor: accordingly I moved to postpone the Trial 
till Finn's return, but was overruled. The Suit for the Whiskey 
was then brought on ; fortunately for You they had committed two 
Blunders, which I tho't myself justifiable to take advantage of & 
nonsuited them. The other was immediately tried, the Jury brouglit 
in £217 Damages, I moved for a new Trial as the Damages ap- 
peared excessive, but the Court would not grant it. I then proposed, 
at the request of some of Your Friends, to pay off the Judgment in 
property to be valued by two honest men, on a promise from Cleve- 
lands att° not to issue Execution. However my back was scarcely 
turn'd when a fieri facias was levied on every Thing, without ex- 
ception, You had in the County, and they were proceeding to sell 
them at cash prices to tiie highest bidder. Provoked at their want 
of common veracity & generosity I prayed & obtained an Appeal, 
which has superseded all their proceedings: and so tlie matter rests. 

■^'ou may prosecute the Appeal or not as You please. I am 
confident they have committed Errors, and that the Gen. Court 
will reverse the Judgment, but perhaps You and Cleveland had 
better compromise the Affair, as perhaps the man might have suffer'd 
undeservedly. I hope You will think I have done what Friendship 
dictated, & perhaps [more] than You ought to have expec[ted] con- 
sidering Your own negligence. I am much pleased at finding no 
obstacle in the way of the Grant's being establish'd, tho' I am sorry 
it was obliged to be postponed till next Session. However a matter 
of some consequence can now be alter'd w''" might have injured the 
Business if it had been finally compleated last Session.. I will write 


^'ou more fully the first opportunity. 
Permit me to subscribe myself 

Your Friend & hble Sert. 

Walker Daniel 
P. S. Have You seen any of my friends in King & Queen? & 
will they ever write me? I wish anxiously to be building on our 
great Point. W. D. 
Addressed: Brigadier Gen. Clark Richmond 

Clark to Benjamin Harrison, October 12, 1783 
[Cal. of Fa. State Papers, 3:535.] 

Geo: Rogers Clark to Gov: Harrison. 

Caroline October 12th 1783 

I have been informed that your Excellency hatli lately re- 
ceived dispatches from the Westward. Being anxious to know the 
success of the Commission to the Chicasaws induced me to take the 
liberty of writing to you hoping that some moments of leisure might 
offer, and that your Excellency would Honour me with the Infor- 
mation, from report I fear all is not well in that Quarter. I hope 
Sir that you will pardon this intrusion, and beg leave to subscribe 

Your Excellency's very 
Hbl. Serv't." 

James Monroe to Clark, October 19, 1783 
[Draper MSS., S2J92.— A.L.S.] 

Richmond Ocf 19. 1783. 
Dear Sir I was fav* a few days since with yours by our friend 
Majf Crittenden and thank you very sincerely for the contents. 
My engagements with the Major are to a considerable amount, were 
founded & have since been conducted upon a perfect confidence in 
his honor & integrity: sentiments w^ were formd in my mind in fav"" 
of him by your own & the communications of Col' Marshall & his 


son John.' His conduct hitherto has been perfectly honorable & 
fully corresponding with y'' information ; so that I have no appre- 
hensions that I shall at any future period have reason to be dissatis- 
fied [with] him: on the contrary my confidence hath increas'd from 
a personal acquaintance & tryal of him. I have to beg of you that 
as you will be in tiiat country with the Maj"" & will have an oppor- 
tunity of seing his land sold me that you vv^ill with him give me y'' 
opinion of that w^ you think y' perferable. he will give you a list 
of the tracts out of which I am to chuse. tomorrow I sit out for 
Princeton so that I shall not have the pleasure of seing you before 
you go. my wishes are that you have a safe & profitable trip, with 
respect to the employm' you have heard I have in contemplation I 
can assure you I have not made up my mind thereon even if I had 
y' office within my reach, but if I had & was ever so solicitous of 
it these appointments are so incertain & depend on such a variety 
of contingencies that it wo'' be to be calculated on as a remote 
probability. I intended going with M'' Jefferson some time since 
when he held y' appointm' to the C of Versailles to negotiate y' 
peace but whether he will now go or not is incertain & if he does 
'tis very doubtful as s^' above whether I shall accompany him. but 
whether I stay on the continent of America or go abroad I shall 
always be glad to hear from you & shall be very happy to render 
you service, you will continue to correspond with me at Prince- 
ton or whereever Congress may reside & shall wish you make yr. 
communications as usual with perfect freedom, our interests in the 

'This was the John Marshall, son of Colonel Thomas Marshall, who 
afterwards liecame chief justice of the United States Snpreme Court. 
Father and son entered the continental service in the Revolution in the same 
organization, Thomas Marshall as major, John as lieutenant of a regiment 
of minute men from Fauquier, Orange and Culpeper counties, which met and 
defeated Dunmore's forces at Great Bridge late in 1775. This organization 
was soon disbanded, and John Marshall was on July 30, 1776, commissioned 
lieutenant of the Third Virginia Regiment where his father held the rank 
of major. He was commissioned captain-lieutenant in December, 1776, to 
rank from July 31, and was transferred to the 15th Virginia Line. In the 
winter of 1777-1778 he was with Washington at Valley Forge, having been 
appointed before going into winter quarters deputy judge advocate of the 
army of the United States. He participated in the battle of Monmouth and 
July I, 1778, was promoted to the rank of captain. Later in the summer 
of 1779 the term of enlistment of his regiment expired, and with other 
supernumerary officers he went back to Virginia, returning to active service 
only for a brief time during Arnold's invasion of Virginia. 


western country are very similar & of course whatever will promote 
mine will serve yours: the plans w^ I take with respect to my pri- 
vate property I will inform you of & wish you also to inform me 
what you think y' most eligible, of this you may rest assur'd that y' 
object of this part of y° State an object w^ will govern in all our 
Councils will be to effect a separation & erect an independend' State 
westw^, as it will enable us to oeconomize our aff^s here & give us 
greater strength in y« foederal councils. 
I am very sincerely yr. 

most ob- & very humble serv' 
Ja' Monroe 

Thomas Jefferson to Clark, December 4, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 52J93.— A.L.S.] 

Annapolis Dec. 4. 1783. 
Di;ar Sir 

I received here about a week ago your obliging letter of 
Oct. 12. 1783. with the sliells & seeds for which I return you many 
thanks, you are also so kind as to keep alive the hope of getting 
for me as many of the different species of bones, teeth & tusks of 
the Mammoth as can now be found, this will be most acceptable. 
Pittsburg & Philadelphia or Winchester will be the surest cliannel 
of conveyance. I find they have subscribed a very large sum of 
money in England for exploring the country from the Missisipi to 
California, they pretend it is only to promote knolege. I am 
afraid they have thoughts of colonising into that quarter, some 
of us have been talking here in a feeble way of making the attempt 
to search that country, but I doubt whether we have enough of that 
kind of spirit to raise the money, how would you like to lead such 
a party? tho I am afraid our prospect is not worth asking the ques- 
tion, the definitive treaty of peace is at length arrived, it is not 
altered from the preliminaries, the cession of the territory West 
of Ohio to the United states has been at length accepted by Congress, 
with some small alterations of the conditions, we are in daily ex- 
pectation of receiving it with the final approbation of Virginia. 
Congress have been lately agitated by questions where they should 
fix their residence, they first resolve on Trentown. the Southern 


states however contrived to get a vote that they would give half 
their time to Georgetown at the Falls of Patowmac. still we con- 
sider the matter as undecided between the Delaware & Patowmac. 
we urge the latter as tlie only point of union which can cement us 
to our Western friends when they shall be formed into separate 
states. I shall always be happy to hear from you and am with very 
particular esteem D'' Sir 

Your friend & humble serv' 
Th: Jefferson 
Addressed: Gen' George Rogers Clarke 

Clark appointed Principal Surveyor of Bounty Lands, 

December 17, 1783 

[Draper MSS., 32J93.— D.S.] 

Be it remembred, that on the seventeenth day of December in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & eighty three, 
that George Rogers Clarke of the State of Virginia for and on the 
part of himself, his heirs, executors & administrators of the first 
part and Col George Muter, Lt Col Charles Dabney & Maj' 
Thomas Merriweatlier the deputation on the part of the officets and 
soldiers of the Virginia State line for this purpose duely appointed 
for and on the part of the said officers and soldiers, for themselves 
& their successors, in such deputation of the second part, have cove- 
nanted, promised, contracted and agreed And do by these presents 
covenant, contract, promise and agree, to and with each other in 
manner and form following, that is to say. First, the party of the 
first part being elected, the principal survejor, for the purpose of 
locating & surveying the several bountys of land, which have been 
given & granted by the General Assembly of this State to the said 
officers and soldiers, shall forthwitli proceed to proceed to obtain the 
legal qualifications for effectually executing his said office of prmci- 
pal surveyor, and having obtained such qualifications, shall proceed 
as early as may be, on the bussiness of locating and surveying the 
bountys of lands aforesaid, for the several officers and soldiers en- 
tittled thereto as original grantees of the State, & for their heirs, 
agreeable to their respective warrants, according to such modes and 
regulations as have been, or shall hereafter be established by tlie 


Gen' Assembly, faithfully & effectually doing & performing at every 
stage of the bussiness whatever it is customary for surveyors to do 
& perform. Secondly the said party of the first part, shall carry 
with him and keep in service during the time of his being on the 
said bussiness, or untill discharged by the superintendants, four 
effective men for chain carryers, markers & hunters, armed & fur- 
nished with ammunition, and also equipped with the necessary uten- 
sils for performing the dutys aforesaid for each deputy or assistant 
surveyor he shall employ, whose pay shall not exceed three shillings 
per day, to be paid by the said surveyor, and he to be reimbursed 
therefore, by the partys of the second part. Thirdly, the party of 
the first part, shall out of his own fees pay the College dues that 
shall arise on this bussiness, exonerating the said officers & soldiers 
therefrom. Fourthly the partys of the second part, that is to say, 
the said officers and soldiers, their heirs, executors or administrators 
respectively, shall pay or cause to be paid, to the party of the first 
part, his heirs, executors & administrator or assigns, the usual sur- 
veyors fees as by law established ; three shillings whereof for every 
tliousand acres to be paid down at tiie time of lodging the warrant 
or warrants, on which the said surveys are to be made. 

In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto interchange- 
ably sett their hands the date above written. 

G. R. Clark 

George Muter 

Cha Dabney Lt Col. 

Tho' Meriwether 

Clark as Principal Surveyor of Soldiers' Bounty Land, 

December 20, 1783 

[Cal. of Va. Stale Papers, 3:550.] 

Decern. 20th 1783 
Bond of George Rogers Clark and Wm. Croghan, in the 
penalty of Three Thousand Pounds, to George Minter, Chas: Dab- 
ney, and other Officers of the State Line and State Navy, 

authorizing them to receive from all officers and Soldiers of said 
Line, as Principal Surveyors of Public lands, for such amounts of 
lands as they may be entitled to respectively, "one half dollar for 


each tliousnnJ acres" as Surveyor's fee, and "one dollar for eacli 
hundred acres" contained in sucli warrant, upon delivery of the 
same, to form a continpent fund for executing the provisions of act 
of assembly granting public lands, &c., &c. 

Clark assumes Revolutionary Accounts, December 22, 1783 
[Draper MSS., 46J45. — 1 ranscript.] 

June 5"" 1783. General George Rogers Clark 

To Charles Gratiot assignee of Cap^" lixctot Dr 
To a bill of exchange accepted by you for 7678 Livres* £427-13-4 

To Interest on the above Bill from the 5^* of June ] 
1779 til the s'"" of June 1783 4 years at 5 p. c J 85-10-8 

To Bill of Exchange accepted by you for 3836 Dollars 1150-16 
To Interest on the above Bill from 5" of June 1779 ] 

til 5'" June 1783 4 years a 5 p c | 230-3 

£1894- 3 
* 6 livres to a french Crown. 

I certify that Gen' Clark as paid to me the with 
account with Interest 

By power of attorney of Godefroy Linctot 
(Signed) Ch. Gratiot 



Richmond 22'' December, 1783 


JUNE 9, 1783 

Virginia Debtor to Clark — Virginia Creditor to Clark — Summary op 
Accounts Connected with the Conquest of the Northwest — Bills 
Drawn by Various Officers — Pay Roll of Captain Joseph Bowman's 
Company, August 8, 1778 to December 14, 1778 — Pay Roll of Cap- 
tain Edward Worthington's Company, July 17, 1778 to June i, 1779 
^ Pay Roll of Captain Jesse Evans' Company, December 29, 1778 to 
April 5, 1779. 

Clark's Accounts with Virginia* 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

The State of Virginia 

To Brigadier CJen'' G. R. Clark 
For Sundry Payments, Expences & other Disbursements by him 
made in behalf of the said State, & Illinois Department. Viz: — 


Many of the Vouchers for this a/c 
are in a Bundle endorsed, "Vouch- 
ers for Gen' Clarks a/c consisting 
of &cn 


Mnr 30 
A p. 4" 




May 12" 

To a treat at Rendezvous 13}^ 

p<' an Express from the Mouth of 

Muddy Creek 
p'l for flour for Cap' Helms' C".. 
p'' 10 Men for bringing boats from 

Wheeling to Redstone 

p<' for a Treat to Capt Helms's 


p'^ioT-.d" .. for Cap' Bowman's 


p"l for 66 yds Linnen for Boat 

Covers 2fi}i 

p"" for repairing Boats i6J^ 

p'' John Maxwell, for 12189" flour 

in Barrells ^ii^'A 

p'l Jacob Bousman for 130 ferriages lo^^ 



'This material has been printed, in part, in English, Conquest of the 
Country Northwest of the River Ohio lyyS-ljSs and Life of George Rogers 
Clark, 2:1040-1056. 






July 5" 




Aug' i" 





























p"* for 4 ?■■ Hand Cuffs 10 

p^ Francis Charleville for 10 

Beeves 237^^ 

p'^ Cha^ Charleville for 150" Gun- 
powder 248 

p'' for rum..p Cap' Worthing- 
ton's rec' 19 

p'' for 142" Gun Powder 340 

p'' M'' Murray for rum for use of 

the Troops ^^Ys 

p'' for sundry ferriges to the Span- 
ish side of Cert 4 

p'^ for 14" Bacon at 1/2 a Dollar 
?■• lb 7 

p*" for a Boat p'' Major Bowman's 
Cert 30 

p"' Delouri, for Storage & Cartage 
of Merchandize at Misereinthe 
Spanish Country 36 

p"' an Armorer for 37 Days Work 

at 8 livres p'' day 59^^ 

p'' a Carpenter for 38 Days Work 

at Fort Clark 61 J-^ 

p'^ for repairing the Garrison at 

Kaskaskia 2sVi 

p'^ for 20 Powder at 2 Dollars 

p'' lb 40 

p'' for 50 Lead at 1/2 Dollar p'' lb 25 

p"^ for roo flints 2 

p* for 15" Flour Barrells 15 

p'^ for 40" Lead 20 

p'' for 70" Powder 140 

p'' for I Grappling Iron (say Boat 

Anchor) 30 

pi^Diff' ferriages over the Missis- 
sippi 10 

p'^ M'' Labadie for 1000" Lead... 250 
p^ 3 Men employ'd by Will'!' Swan 

for repairs at Fort Clark 28^ 

p^ Serj' James Espy, as p'' rec' on 
his Pay Roll 50 

Carried over. . . . 



























To Amot brot over .... 3,583 
John Sanders for Services p 

rec' 31 

for transporting Troops to the 

Cherokee Fort 352 

for an Horse furnished M'' 
Gibault for his services to S' 

Vincent J 60 

Doctor Laffont for like Ser- 
vices 60 

Charlo Charleville for 56 Gall. 
Tassia, deN to Ind^ at Sun- 
dry Councils & treaties @ 

4 Doll p Gall 224 

d° for 13 Quarts Liquor for like 

purposes 19% 

d" for an Horse 40^ 

dofor ^ Gall. Tassia, del'i ' 
the fatigue Party for rais- 
ing a Boat J 3 

Mr Gratiot for 112 Gunpowder 112 

d»for Cartage of d" i5^ 

d° for 14 Go rum for fatigue 

Party loading Boats f 3^ 

Mr Gibault for a Colt lost 
while his Mare was in pub- 
lice Service 

Capt John Williams his pay 
Abstract 5,128 

p'' Cap' Joneast for sundries fur- 1 
nish'd the Troops p his Accot [■ 
rendered at Fort Clark J 600 

p'' Cap' Edward Worthington his 

Pay Abstract 2,547^ 

p^ Cap' Richd M^Carty. .his d? d". 1,248^ 

pti (Jo (Jo for jiij Volunteer Com- 
pany 72o3i 

piS Lieut. Perault for his Pay 
Abstract 516 

p*! Cap' Joseph Bowman for his 

d° 1,703/^ 

p'l Cap' Ahr"! Kellar for his. .d". .1,855 
p*! Major Joseph Bowman for his 

d° 442f^ 

p'^ for 2 days Work 2^ 

p"! Lieut. John Girault in part of 
his recruiting Acco' his re- 
ceipt thereon J 900 












p"" for sundry necessaries for the 
Hospital 20 

p'' for 205 flour... (S) 8 p hun- ) 

dred, delC Capt Shelby ) i6>^ 

pd Cap' Fras Charleville for his 

Pay Abstract 323 }^ 

p'' for sundry necessaries for use 

of the Hospital 37 

p'' Lieut. John Bayly, exp' on re- \ 

cruiting 21 Men & rect f 118 

p"! an Express from S' Vincents ( 

to the Vermillion Towns.... f 20 
p'' Mons. Antoine Gamelin ) 

Ind. Agent, for sundry Exp? 

while he was treating w'*" 

the Ouabache Ind^ J 1,143^^ 

p'' for sundry necessaries for use ) 

of the Hospital at F. Clark.. ) 45 
p<3 Chs Charleville for 2^ Cw« 

flour at 8 Cwt 17 

Transferred to folio 2 










July 27' 

Sepf 26' 









To Amo' bro' over from folio i 

p'^ 2 Men for 3 days search after 

Public Horses 9 

p"' for 2 Gall' Tassia for Kaskas- 

kia Indians 12 

p^ for 4 loads of Wood 4^ 

20 Gunpowder 40 

100 flints 2 

50 Lead 20 

p'' an Express to Kahokia 10 

p<i a Coxswain for 70 
days Service on 
Board the Willing Bat- 
teau on the Exped" 
to Post Vincent 

p<l Jonas Menafield for 45 days 

Work at F. Clark. 

p'' an Armorer for repairing 

Arms at d" 

p"" for 232 Pickets at one Livre 


p'^ Cap' Leon's Helm in 

part of his Pay 

Abstract transmitted to 

Government as p his 

rect thereon 

p'l Cap' Joseph Bowman in part 

of d° as p d° I 

p"" Capt Will Harrod in part of 

d° as p d° I 

p"! Cap' John Montgomery in part 

of d" as p d" 2 


46 Ks 



p'> Ch= Caderon for Pro- 
visions & other neces- 
saries furnished Cap' 
Bowman's Co. on their 
March to Illin? J 76^ 

p"! Monsr Bolsey for i Cwt. Gun- 
powder p rec? Cap? Bowman.. 100 

p'' horse hire as p rec' of Cap' 

Bowman 87^ 

p'' Lacroix's Acco. p Majr Bow- 
man's Cert 115/^ 

p<i Lacroux's d° for Provisions p 

Cert of d" 254^^ 

p'' Tho' Brady's d° for Rations 

p d" of d° 560^ 










Oct 31" 


Sepf 20" 


Nov"' 10" 






Dec 2 



Jany 28" 











p"' Lacroix's d° for...p d" of d° 

(Ind Acco) 43?^ 

piJ Lacroix's d" for pdoofd".. 359^! 

p<iRichS MfCarty's Acco.p di'of d" 76^ 

p^ for horse hire p d" of d" . . 8 

p* Mons'' Lavasseur. . .p d° of d". . 2^ 

p'lfor Stone, Wood &c. .p d" of d" i^A 

p-ifordO-.-do &c pd"ofd"... jYs 

piiford". . .do &c pd°ofd"... ^yi 

p'^ Lacroix's 2 Accot* for Provis- 
ions p d" of d° M°% 

p"" Monsr Cotineau for rum for 
Volunteers & Ind' p Cap' 
Mccarty's Certificate J 3>^ 

p''atPraire de Roche p Cert, of 

Capt Bowman 20'J^ 

pd Exp? at Philips to S' Pierre p 

d" of d" loH 

p'' Rich^ M'Carty for Ensign Le- 

vine's Board 11 days 35^ 

p"" Exp9 at Kaskaskia p Capt Bow- 
man's Cert 88 

pS Monsr Barbee's Acco^ Certified 

by Cap' M<^Carty 2oJ^ 

Transferred to folio 3 










To Amo' brot over from folio 2 



May 22 


p'l Lacroix's prov" Acco Certified 
bv \faior Bowfnan 



p"! Lacroix's d". . .d". . .by. . .d". . . 


p"! Horse hire & Loss of saddle 
p Cert... do 



p< ..d" p ...d" ..d".... 



p-lfor d<>& ..d" p Cert. ..d» 



p"! for Provisions at Kaskaskia 
p d" d" 



p'' for I Perriogue. . .p d°...d''... 



p<i for 2 Flour 2 recepts Dan' 



p"! Mr Barbineau for 1000" flour 
& 600" Ind. Meal p rec' of 
Dan' Murray 



p<i d° for icxx) lb flour p rec' d".. 



p'iRago Bauvais for 291 flour p 

rec' d" 





p"" M"' Charleville for 2205 flour & 

2059" Ind. Meal, & 50" Loads 

Hay p rec' Daniel Murray... 



p'lM'' Plassy for 2" Nails 



p") for Corn p rec' of Dan' Murray 



p"! Mr Plassy for 200" flour p 
rec' d" 



p* Ml" Barbineau for 200" flour 


p rec' d° 


pd d" for 200" d" prec'd".. 


p'lRenovf for Corn prec'd".. 



p<i d" for d" prec'd".. 



pd Degane for d" prec'd".. 



p"" Mr Barbeneau for 100" flour & 

Corn 18 dollf= for Corn 

p rec' d". . 



pd d" for 200" flour prec'd".. 



p^ d" for 100" D" p p rec' d". . 



p"i Rago Bauvais for 49 d° 

p rec' d". . 



pdMr Plassy for 100" d" 

p rec'd".. 



p^Rago Bauvais for 49 ''" 

P rec' Ho. . 



p'' d" for 100" d" prec'd".. 



p'' M'' Bienvenue for 4000" flour 
p rec' do. . 



pOMr Plassy for 29" Buffaloe 

beef p rec' d". . 














p<l Cerre for SoU Indian Meal 

prect d".. 2V^ 

542" flour prec'd".. 32^ 

19,824" Beef p rec' d".. 1982 Ji 

100" flour p rec'd".. 6 

400" d" p rec' d". . 24 

405" Buffaloe Beef 

p rec' do.. 2o5S 

1,784" flour prec'd".. 107 

446" Ind: Meal. p rec' d".. 13?^ 

1 Canoe prec'd".. 10 

CartageiDay.p rec'd".. 2 



Transferred to folio 4 






Jany 11" 













Feb 39 



July 28" 


Sept. 24' 










To Amot bro' over from folio 3 

p"^ for Dan Murray's Cert, to 

Bienvenue 5 

pi^ for 5,424 BufFaloe Beef p Dan. 

Murray's Cert 325?^ 

p* for 7,150" flour., .p. .d". .d". . . 429 
p* for D. Murray's rec' of this date i^ 
piJ for d" d° of this date for 

Wood 36 

piiford" d" of this date for 

Provision 132 

pd for d° d" of this date for 


p* for d° d" of this date for d" 

p'Sford" d° of this date for 


pii for d" d° of this date for d° 

pd for d" d" of this date for 

1000" flour 

p"! for d° d" of this date for 

5,580!' d" 

pd for d" d" for 600" Ind 


p<i for d" d". .for 119" Loads 


pdford" d<'..for 725 Pork.. 

pd for d° d". . . .for Wood. . . 

p<J for do d". .for 33 Loads d" 

pd for d" d" to Mr. Plassy.. 

p<) for d" d" for Provis- 
ions 60 

p* d" for I Hde Taffia 

p'l for do Cert, for Provisions.... 

pd for 6 days board for an Ind. 

pd L B. Lacroix for 
sundry Expences 
treating with the Ind' 
between i" Aug & this date 
p his Acco. rendered 

pd Thos Brady's 2 Acco" for 
sundry Indian Expences as 
Certified by Major Bowman 

pd Mons"" Lacroix's Acco. for sun- 
dry d" p Cert, do 

pd Moses Henry for his Acco of ) 
d p Cert of Cap Helm ) 







• 3 






















p"" d". . . .for d". .p order of d". . . . 60 
p^ an Acco. certified by Capt Bow- 
man 144^ 

p"" M'' Danis his Wages as Ind. 
Interp' from Kaskaskias to 
Wiaw, under Cap' Hela., & for 

Horse hire &ea.&ea 260 

p* Mods'' Lacroix's sundry Ex- 
pences while treating 
with different Na- 
tions of Indians as 

p Acco j izsYi 

piJ for Goods furnished to Indi- 
ans as p Cert. Cap Bowman ) 118^ 
p'3 for rum to Indians at Sundry 

times 2iJ^ 

p"" for d" Goods &ea to Indians.. 156 

p"* for 5 Bottles rum to d° 7?^ 

p'lfor 5 Bottles d" to d" 6 

p"! for Rum at a treaty in Novera'' 12 

Transferred to folio s 
























To Amo' bro' over from folio 4 

p^ Mons' Deneau for a trip to the 

Chipwa nation as Ind. Agent.. 240 
p"! for 2 Bottles of rum for Indians 6 

p'^ for 4 p'' Shoes for d".... 12 

p'' for 13 Shirts for d".... 43?^ 

p"" for 10 pr Shoes for. . . .d". . . . 30 

p* for 3 Quarts Taffia for d" 12 

p<i for I... do d" for d" 4 

p'' for Sundry Exp' at a treaty at 

Post S' Vincent's in Feb. 1779.. 47 
p'' for taffia at sundry times for 

Indians 60 

pd M' Gibault's & Lafont's Ex- 

pences at taking possession of 

Post S' Vincent in 1778 J 657 

p"" Cap' Helm's order fav' M' 

Hubberdeau for sundry Exp'.. 218 
p* d. . .d">. . .fav'' John Louise.... 128 
p"* I. M. Legras' Acco for sun- 1 

dries furnished p Cap' f 

Helms' Certificate J 1,631}^ 

p*" Cap' Helms' order fav | 

Cha» Amoneau for sundries > 

furnished the Troops J 87 

p'i Cap' Helms dft favor John 

Louise for sundries 171 

p") . . .d". . .d" fav' Fra» Bosseron 

for..d"' 500 

p* . . .d°. . .d" favr Pierre Cornia 

for. .d>> 500 

pd Qr Mr Rogers' Cert, fav' Mr 

Renault for d" 123 

p'' Capt Helm's order fav' Jean 

Vauchers for d° 921 

p"! do. . .d" fav' M' Renault for d" m'A 
p^ d°. . .d" fav' John Gibert for d" 2795^ 
p") d". . .d°fav' M' Lafontaine for 

d 300 

pi'd". . .dofav' of the Bearer for 

d 103^ 

p"" Lieut. Rich* Brashear's order ) 

fav' Cripeau for d" J 135 

p"" Cap' Helms' order of JanX last 

fav'. for d" 625^ 

p"! d". . . .d" fav' M Roberdeau for 

do 46 

pOd" d»fav' for d" 178?^ 














p'id" dofav'' for d" 643^ 

pti d". . . .d" fav'' Francois Bosse- 
ron.for d" S'o 

p"" Mich! Antia for Sundry Ser- 
vices &ca 30 

p^ a blacksmith's Bill of this ) 

date for sundry Iron Work ( 53^ 

p"" a Carpenters Acco for Work j 

& repairs at F. Clark j 43^^ 

pil Mons'' Cerre's Acco for Pro- 
visions &ca furnish'd the 
Troops at Fort Clark between 
7"" last July & this date 
p his Acco' rendered J 2,862^ 

p"! James Manafee for 12 Chords 
Wood 12 

p-id" for 12... d" 12 

p^ Armstead Dudley for 8 days 

Work 4 

pi" James Graham for 10 days 
Work 5 

Transferred to folio 6. 










To Amo' bro' over from folio 5.. 




p<> for Patt. Kennedy's Bon's l 
for diff' Public Services p 
his Acco. .2951 2.6 

590 J^ 


p<i Dan' Murray for 24 Bush' 
Salt at fi Doll D 


Casks & Cooperage 



p<i M' Plassy for Pitch & Oakum. 

p<i for Casks by order of Cap' 





pdfor 15!^ Bush. Salt p Cap' 
Harrod's order 



p"ifor63 D»&2 Casks p do-.d". 



pi for 61^ D" pd-.-d". 

91^ D" pdo.-d". 



p"" for 102^ Gunpowder p d". .d". 



piifor i85>4 Lead pdo.-d". 

18 sH 


pi" for repairing Cap' Harrod's 




p* for 2 Hhds Taffia as p rec' 

Capt George 



p'lBartlet Searey for going Ex- 
press from S' Vincents to the 




p^ Harman Consler as Express 

from Kask» to Wmburg 



p^ for sundry Attendance & 

Necessaries furnished for the 
p"" Sick at the Falls of Ohio.. 



pd Edw<" Murray as Express from 
Kask» to the Falls of Ohio.. 



pi Boston Damewood for taking 



To Cash of the recall'd emis- 
sions novf returned p rec' 
Geo. Brooks i 



To d° pi Jacob Lacourse for i 

Hhd Taffia 

p Cap' Helms 3 Sundry Dfts 




on me of the 24 Oct. 78. Viz. 



I in favor Cripeau for 




I in favr Chapoton for 




I in favor I. M. P. Legras 
(of the 29) 




pi M' Barbeau for Lodging the 


Chipwa's vrhen coming to 

Nov 10'^ 







p* I. R. Hanson, for his Acco. of 
sundries for the friendly Ind" 



pOBeaufrere the Taylor p Certi- 
ficate of Major Bowman 



p^Ahavniand at Caho p d" of d" 
for Sundries for the Sick 



p"" Kenell for making flags for 
the Ind» p Cert. Major Bow- 

22 J^ 


p* Major Bowman's dft on me 
for furnitures 

454 J^ 



p'lRich'' M^Carty for sundries p 
his Acco Cert by Maj"" Bow- 




p'JJos. Brown for 793" Beef for 

the Troops per his rec' 




p'' Sundry Expences as p Voucher 




pd Maj'' Smith for support of the 


Kentucky Volunt' p rec' 

p* Will Helm for Bacon as p rec' 








p"! Joseph Andrews for rum for 
Ind' p. Cert Cap' Helm 

p"! T. Brady for Provisions fur- 
nish'd at F. Clark 

p'' for simdrics for use of the 
Hospital p Doctor Rey 

p"' Antoine Hlenvenue for Provis- 
ions furnish'd at F. Clark... 

p'' Ch9 Charleville p rec' for 



428 ^J 



.Tiansferr'd to folio 

7 — 






To Atno' bro' over from folio 6 




p'iChaa Charleville p rec'... 

. 22 Ks 


pii Brasseau for his Acco 



p"* I. B. Lacroix p rec' 

. 6,4H 





p^ for an Horse & furniture 


order Moses Henry 

. 8o 




p^ John Hargis in part of his Cor 
tract for Beef 






pdfor I Gall. Taffia as treat to 

Col" Rogers' men after the 






p"" 2 of Cap Linetots Volunteers 

8 Months oav 



p*' Moses Henry p his 3 Acco^.. 




p*^ Cap' Quirk, sundries for use 




p"" Cap' Helms in part of his Acco' 





piiCap' Worthington for use o 

his Compy p rec' 

■ 9'6H 



advanced Henry Crutcher, a 
reduced Commissary, In 
part of his services 
before he was reduced.. 

(book debt) 







advanced Cap Rich" M«Cart 

(deceased) in part of his Pa 


for recruiting & other nece^ 


sary purposes (book Acco).. 




advanced Capt Ah"!" Kellar i 
part of his pay for recruitin 
& other necessary purposes 

(book acco) 



. 189 



p" Lieut: Perrault in part of his 
recruiting Acco p rec' 




advanced Doctor Rey for 
use of the Hospital 




advanced Cap Evans for use 

of his Compy (book Acco).. 




advanced Cap' 19 Shelby 

for use of his C" 




advanced Cap' Isaac Taylor 

for use of his C» 

(book Acco) 

1 118 

























Cash p<i I. M. Simmons for 

Copying my public Acco 

p rec' 

p'' Will Shannon's 54 dfts on 

me in favr of sundry persons 

for public services &ca, as 

will appear by his Accols 

34,206 livres J 6,841 J^ 

p<i d" dft on the Treasi favr Monsr 

Cerre (N" 120) 875 

pd d" d° on d" favr Charlo Charle- 

ville (N" 132) 1,095}^ 

pd Jo Jo on me (N" 65).. 32 

I p"! d" d" on me (N" 102) . . 461 J^ 

( p'^ d" Sundry Small d on me. . . . 

P his rec' a^ 

p<^ d" dft on the Treas' fav"" 

M.M.Carty (N" 115).. 73 

p'ldodfton the Treas"' fav"' N. 

Randolph N" 170).. 9,718 

Transferred to folio 8.... 

















































Api 8 

Sept , 

Oct s 


feby 12 

Mar 25 

May 19 










To Amo? bro! over from folio 7 

p^ Capt Dodge for one Perriogue 

p^ Swan for Iron 

p^ for a large Copper Kettle 

p^ioT Wood for Barracks 

p'^ expences in making 42 bushels Salt 
at Bullet's Lick per Richard Cheno- 

p^ for Tallow 

p"! for Fuel 

pii M"=Gee for his work p Cert, in lieu 
of 9 yds of Cloth 

p'' for 8 bushels of Corn 

pd for Wood for Barracks 100 Dollars 

d" 18 Dol 

p* Marsham Brashear for Corn p rec'.. 

p* for Beef 

p"" Jesse Rood for Haleing fuel 

p"" Express from S' Vincents 

p'' for Wood 

p'' for Cutting & Hauling fuel 

p'' for repairing Barracks 

p'' Silas Harlan for 16 bush Corn de- 
livered into Store 

3 d" deH to Cap' Haley for 


200" Flour for the Troops... 
p*! John Briscoe J'' for Casks p Cert.... 
p"" Levin Powell for an Iron Chain & 

Grate p d 

p^ d° {oT a Batus appraised to £2000... 
pii d" for 6J4" powder iij^" Lead & 200 


p"" for Whisky for the Troops 

p^ Thomas Vickroy for a Bag p Cert. . . . 
p") John Donnes' Acco for provisions &ca 
p"" Thomas Vickroy for paper p Cert... 
p'' Anthony Rolins for 1635^" flour 

p'' Lieut Col° Joseph Crocket p rec'.... 
pd Isaac Fisher for expences as Express 

to Holdston 

p'' Coleman & Hill as Express from the 

Fall to Fort Pitt 

p* Hardy Hill for 16 bush Corn p rec'. . . 































June 2 


p'' Ensign Tannehill for his expences as 


Express from Richmond to Fort Pitt.. 


July 28 


p* William Harrison' in full of his Acco. 

p rec' £i5i56..i4 




p<i d" Benj Harrison's^ expences p Acco 






piJ d" in behalf of Government p rec' 
£126,582,, b/k-£. i8=9=6J4 (this accot 
for in Accot,) 

p"" John Gibson Merch' for Goods he fur- 
nished Col° Gibson for use of Indians 
on Acco U. States p his rec'. .£72"2"4 


Sept 1 


p"" Daniel M'^Kinneys Acco. of Smith 



p^ Cap' Isaac Craig's Acco. of expences 

from Fort pitt to Philadelphia p rec'.. 
Transferred to folio 9. .£ 90=11=10^= 




'William Harrison, the son of Lawrence and brother of Col. Benjamin 
Harrison, was born in Virginia but at an early age moved to Yohog.inia 
County, Virginia, now the neighborhood of Connellsville, Pa. He was a 
lawyer, served as sheriff of his county and as a member of the House of 
Delegates. He served in the Revolution as major and colonel of the militia, 
and met his death in the expedition of Col. William Crawford, his father- 
in-law, in 1782. Kellogg, Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio (ff^is. Hist, 
Colls., 23), 165-166, note i. 

'Benjamin Harrison, who was the son of Lawrence and brother of 
William Harrison (see above), entered service in the Revolution as a 
captain in 1776, and retired as a major in 1781. In 1782 he was colonel of 
the Westmoreland County militia. After the death of his brother William, 
Benjamin moved to Kentucky, where he had an active career as sheriff of 
Bourbon County, as member of the conventions of 1787, 1788 and 1792, as 
representative in the legislature of 1793, and as state senator, 1795. He 
took part in Col. George Morgan's New Madrid enterprise and later 
settled in Missouri in the Ste. Genevieve district. Kellogg, Frontier Ad- 
vance, 386, note 3. 

"The figure is given as it appears in the original. The fraction, how- 
ever, should be 3/15. 




Penns Currcy 


To Amount bro' over from folio 

8... £90:11:1054 = 

= 665.483 



Sep' I 


pd Cap' Isaac Craig in part of his ex- 
pences at Philadelphia & returning, 
Wagon hire &ca p rec' 




p"" d" Craig bath of said Acco...£"i4 



To Carp p Henry Hoglan Express 




p"! Butler & Hart going Express 





p*^ Edw Murdock as Spye 



pii Thomas Phelp's Acco. for provisions. 




p"! John Allan in part for a Rifle Gun fo 
John Baptist the Indian Chief 



Om'i Aug' 


p'' for Subsistance for wounded Soldiers 


8, 1780 


pii for Liquor for Soldiers on Command. 




p"! for Whisky for d" at Bakers 


•775 - - 


p"! my Expences at Hogs p Voucher.... 


feby 10 


p*" Express to the County Lieut of Berkle 

y 500 



p'' for 10 Quire of paper 

A en 


p"" for three pair of Stockings for Soldiet 

8 Soo 



p"" Expences at Winchester at Edmond- 
sons incluK £ i2o"io"- for N. Ran- 

dolph p rec' 




piljohn Gibson for Sundries 

furnished at Fort= 

= pitt p Acco.... £ i302"7"9 



p''Cap' Robert George in part of his re 
cruiting Ac' as p his receipt thereon. 



pd Jo (Jo in part of his pay Abstract a 
p his Rec' 



p*" Col John Montgomery in part of hi 
pay p rec' 


3 800 


p^ Major Thomas Quirk as p rec' on hi 
pay Roll 


107 tiO 


piiCap' Richd Brashear in part of his re 


cruiting Acco as p his receipt thereo 

1. 4,769 



p^ Cap' John Williams in part of his pa 
as p rec' on his pay Roll 




p* Martin Carney Q Master in part 
his pay p his rec' on his pay Roll.. 




p"! Jacob Pyatt p order of Cap' Joh 
Rogers for provisions p Voucher.... 




piiCap' John Bailey in part of 

his Acco for recruiting as p rec' there 

16 087 


p"" John Donne in part of his pay p Rec' 










Advanced Joseph Lindsay p rec' for 
purchases in the Commissary De- 

Advanced Leonard Helm Superin- 
tend' in part of pay p his Rec'. . . . 

Advanced Cap' Worthington in part 
d° p his rec' 

Advanced Nat. Randolph for publick 
purposes p rec' 

Transferred to fol. 10 ... £1429:13 ijj^ 

Penns Currey 


To Amount bro' over from folio 9. . . . 

£'429:'37)4 = 

Advanced William Shannon p his 

reef for public^ 
purposes § 

Advanced John Donne p rec' on his 
I'ay Acco. . .9:12 :6 
see Voucher N' 64 

To Ballance on this Acco. at yrCr in 
New.Acco.17 4:7= 

£, 1,456:10:9=^ 












Note: The charges mark'd V the vouchers for them have been lodged 
in the auditors office in February 1780. as will appear by the auditors cer- 
tificate. Those charges marked . the vouchers accompany this acco' & 
those not marked are taken from entries made in the Books.' 

' No explanation can be made for those items marked x. 



Virginia Creditor to Clark. 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 







By my dft of th 

s date on Oliver Pollock 

pble to Laffont for... 




By my d° of do . 

.on do. . 

.C. Charleville 




By my d" of d". . 

. .on do. . 

.Rapicault . . .. 




By my d" of d".. 

..on do. . 

.Iluhlierdeau. . 




By my doof d". . 

..on do.. 





By my d°of d". . 

. .on do. . 






By my d" of d". . 

. .on do. . 

.Datchurut . . . 




By my d^of d". . 

. .on do. . 

.Ant Morain. . 



By my doof d°. . 

..on do.. 




By my d°of d". . 

.on do. . 

.C. Charleville 




By my doof d». . 

.on d°. . 





By my d" of d". . 

.on do. . 





By my d" of d". . 
By my d" of d°. . 

.on do. . 
.on do. . 

.Datchurut . . . 





By my d" of d<>. . 

.on do. . 

.Dan Murray. 



By my doof d". . 

.on do. . 




By my do of do. . 
By my do of do.. 

.on do. . . 



.on do. . . 

.Mad? Bentley. 



By my do of do. . 

.on do. . 






By my do of do. . 

.on do. . . 




By my do of do.. 

.on do. . . 

.A. Chouteau. . 



By my do of do. . 

.on do... 



By my do of do. . 

.on do. . . 





By my do of do. . 

.on do. . . 

.Pierre Cornia 



By my do of do. . 
By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 
.on do. . . 








By my do of do. . 

.on do. . . 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 

.Jos Perault... 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 

• Vigo 




Bymy doof do... 

.on do. . . 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 

.Datchurut . . . 




By my do of do.. . 

.on do. . . 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 




By my do of do... 






By my do of do. . 
By my do of do... 

.on do... 
.on do. . . 

.J. P. Perrault 





By my do of do. . . 

.on do. . . 




By my do of do ond°... 



to folio 2.... 







Dec'' 20' 

Jan>' 23' 


Feb. 2| 


April 30 
May l^y 

July 17" 

Aug' 7'' 

May 21" 



June 1" 

2 " 














Aug' 3 











By Amo' bro' 
By my dft On 




















Oliver Pollock of this date 

By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d° on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 

By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on. 
By my d" on. 
By my d" on . 
Bv mv d" on t 
I. M. P. L 

. . .d°. . . .Datchurut 

..d" Cap' Janis 

. .d". . . .Risharry 

. .d". .. .Rapicault 

. . .d" Vigo 

. ..d<'....Charlo Charleville 
. .d". . . .Plassy 

. .d". . . .Rapicault 


. .d". . . .Laulpe 

. .d". .. .Lafontaine 

..d°.... Peter Godin 

..d" F. Trotter 

. .d". . . .Godin 

lie. .Treasurer of Virg^', 

By my d" on. 
By my d" on . 
By my il" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on. 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on. 
By my d" on . 
B)' iny d" on C 

..d" Bently 

. .d". . . .Hubberdeau 

. .d". . . .John Girault 

. .d". .. .Marie Menaze.... 

..(!".... Cb.Trleville 

..d''....F. Charleville 

. .d". . . . Antoine Peltice.... 

. .d». .. .Rapicault 

)liver Pollock., f a V"- A. Bien- 


By my d" on '1 

'reasurer of Virginia fav: 







By my d" on . 
By my d" on . 
By my d° on . 
By my d" on . . 
By my d" on . 
By my d" on. . 
By my d° on. . 
By my d" on . . 
By my d" on . . 
By my d" on . . 
By Cash rec^ 

1778 £ 12 
By d" recti f r 

Col" Mon 

. .d". .. .Pierre Boncaux 

. .d". . . .M. Poure 

. .d". .. .Gratiot (say Feran) 

..d" R. Mt^Carty 

..d''....M?Crae & C 

. .d®. . . . Vigo 

. -d". . . . Ahavmand 

. .d" I. B. Lacroix 

. .d". .. .Rapicault 

. .d". . . . Antoine Gamelin.. 
from Govern' in January 
00 V: Cur)'= . 

Dm d° in May 1779 p'' Lb 

the i»' of these Bills in Legrass the 2'' 
i" in Nf Nathans Possession- 
Transferred to folio 3.... 

44. 1 78' 


'This is the figure given in the original, but the correct total is 44,177. 





Dec 14 



Mar. 28 

By Bi 
By do 
By do 
By do 
By d° 
18, By do 
22 By do 
28 By do 
9 By do 
lyjBy do 
20 1 By do 

By do 
By d° 

--By do. 
--[By do. 
— By do. 

Apl 25 


July 27 




Amo' of C' brought forward from folio 8. 
II on the Treasury fav^ Col" John Todd.. 
Thomas Phelps 

Henry Smith 

Rich Chenoweth 

Evan Hinton 

James Batey 

Marsham Brashiar 

Peter Sturgus 

Henry Ploldman 

Henry French 

William Pope 


Thomas Phelps 

Squire Boon 

Evan Hinton 

on do favr Ch» Myn 

ruston £ iooo"o" — 

..Simon Triplet... £ 2568"9"6 

..Charles West £sTi"ij"6 

..John Smith £ ■j^6"\i"6 

..Charles Dean £ 288"o"- 

.. Levin Powell.... £ 4,77i"8"- 

By Cash rec'' of CoW Todd p John Rogers. . 
By Cash £405,000 Equal to — 
By 13 Bills of 750 Dollars each drawn on the 
Treasurer for the Recruiting Service 
dated Feby 9"' & Mar la! 80 

Transferred to ful. 9. 

Specie — 
Penns Currcy 

By Amount of Cr brot over from folio 9 

By my Bill on Treasurer fav'" Jn". CSibson Merch' 
for £ I4i9"i6"9 

By my At fav. Capt Isaac Craig 36"i4"- 

Transferred to folio 10. .£ 1456:10:9 = 

Penns Currcy 
By Amot of Cr. brought over from Fol. 9 

£ 1456:10:9= 
By Cash rec3 of Capt Cherry last June 

1 78 1 £200,000.. 

£ 1456:10:9 = 








































'The fraction should be 3/10, but the above figure is given in the 



Virginia, Northwestern Territory (Account of expenses incurred by the 
conquest & protection of the Northwestern territory, & due from tlie Ignited 
States to Virginia, From February, 1777, to August, 1784.) Vol. i. 
[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 


General George R. Clarke- 
For Cash advanced him at different 
times upon Account for the use of 
Public expenditures in the Illinois De- 
partment; Viz: 

To Cash upon Account to raise ) 

seven Companies of Militia ^ £■ 1200- 

" Ditto., upon Accf 10,000" 

Decembr 15 

January 10. . . ."Ditto. 
29. . . ."Ditto. 

April 8 "Ditto. 

Decembr 19. .. ."Ditto. 

1785 [>78i?] 

January 19. .. "Ditto. .. .dc 400,000- 

April 3 "Ditto. .. .d'? 200,000- 

. d' 900- 

. dc 67,470-" 

.do 600-" 

A'> 5,000-" 

unt I 

June 2 "Ditto. . . .d' 

23 "Ditto d' Bill fav. Dl Hart.. 

April 27. To Cash in Specie upon Acco' 
for biiililin)^ Hoats., 


May 22 " niilo...(|o ....d' 

June 19 " Ditto... d" for his attendance ic 

on the Gcnl Assembly respect- 
ing the Officers Mem' &c.... 

Decembr 18 " Ditto. . d" &c 

1779 Cap! John Rogers- 

June 24. To Cash upon Account for the use of 

the Illinois Department 

Ditto d? 





October 21. 

Nov'' 25 " Ditto 

Decembr 18..." Ditto d? deduced from pay 


June 19 " Ditto Specie on account for his 

attendance &c: on the GenI As- 
sembly respect^ the Officers Mem' 

25 ••4- 

July. .5. 

Herman Consellea.- 
To Cash on account as Express to 











2 5"4-" 



























Novembr g 

Jan?. . .1 
May 8 

June 7 

August ..4 
Septenil)'' 11 

Jany ....20 

Feby 20 

March 22 
June 23 

August... 7. 


Septembr 3. 

1782 .. 

October 4 


Decembr 1 

John Dodge', Indian Agent i Com7 
For Cash advanced him for various 
purposes in the Illinois Depart- 

To Cash upon Account 

Ditto ditto 



Col? George Slaughter-^ 

For Cash advanced him upon ac- 
count for public use in the Illinois 

To Cash upon Account 

• Ditto 




, .ditto. 
. .ditto 
. .ditto 
. .ditto 
. .ditto 
. .ditto 

. .ditto 
. .ditto 
. .ditto. 
. .ditto. 
. .ditto 

. .ditto 
. .ditto 
. .ditto. 
. .ditto 
. .ditto 

p bill fav. Jn? Fervor 


Jas. Meriweather. . .. 

Geo. Wilson 

S Triplet 

2730 £ 
favr Jos Saunders 
Wt" Pope 575 
fav. Jas Meriweather 

.Rich^ Barbour 

in Jany 1780 






3 000-" 

7 50-" 

I 950- 


3 305- 

6 502 

.Ditto ...Specie 

.Ditto ...dc 

.Ditto . . .d^ . . . . 

.Ditto . . .dv 


15.6. 10 









■ -20 

36 625 



. . 10 

. . 2. 


500 ... 6 

500 14 

600 I 

42 409 

42 154 














14079 19" 
Cap< Linctot- 
For Cash advanced him on ace' for 
1780 the use of the Illinois Departm!- 

Feby..7 To Cash upon Account 127-"- 

March 10 .. Ditto ditto 38.12. 

22.... Ditto ditto 3000-"- 

29- Ditto ditto 305-14 

' A bioj;raphical sketch of John Dodge will be found in Cahohia Records, xcv ff. 
also Kaskiiskia Records, 104, note i. 

' For Col. George Slaughter, see ante, t()i, note i. 





















8 . 









II . 







June 26. 
Septr 14 

August 10. 

Ditto ditto 3000-"- 

CoW Le Gras- 

To Cash upon accot *3-" 

Ditto D9 2500-" 

Ditto D? 5000-"- 

To Cash in Specie. 


Capt Robert Todd- 
To Cash upon accot to recruit for 

the Illinois Expedition 750~" 

Cap? Thomas Quirk- 
To Cash upon accot for the Illi- 
nois Expn 

Ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto. 

Anthony Gamelin- 
To Cash upon Account as Indian 

Agent in the Northern departmt 1000-" 

Dorsey Penticost-* 
To Cash upon Account for the sub- 
sistance of Capt' Jn' Roger's 
Troops 7500-"— 

Thomas Bentley.-- 

To Cash on Ace* 5000-"- 

Ditto d? loooo"- 



— I 







2 50 


Major George VValls.- 
To Cash on Account. ...£ 30,000-"-" 
deduct for so much p^ 
Capt Wni Cherry paymt 
to Col' Crockets regt.. J ..24,533- 

Balance expended for the use of 
the Illinois departmt.... 

5,367-" 70 










366. 12- 












' Dorsey Penticost, a Virginian who had settled in Westmoreland County, Pa., in 1769, 
moved to the Youghiogheny River region in 1777 and became judge of Washington County. 
As county lieutenant in 1778 he gathered troops for Clark's expedition to the Illinois coun- 
try. He died in 1802. Thwaites and Kellogg, Dunmore's IVar, 101-102, note 47. 

'For a biographical sketch of Thomas Bentley, see Cahokia Records, xcv ff., au'l A«. 
kaskia Records, xvii ff. 




>.iril 24 





May 8. 

Novr 7. 

June 26 

br 29 

20. . 







Monsf Carbonneaux- 
To Cash on Account. 

James Fr» Moore,' Corny Genl in the 

Illinois depi 
To Cash upon Acct as Commissary 1 

in the Illinois departmt ) 

.Ditto ditto 

.Ditto . . . .ditto 

.Ditto ditto 

. .Ditto 
. .Ditto 
. . Ditto 


. . ditto bill in fav. J. Bisen 

. .ditto Hugh Faber 

ditto J S Triplett 1937.10:0 1 
Sullivan: 20000 


30,937 10 

William H. Cavendish.- 
To Cash upon accot p Andrew Don- 
elly to purchase provisions for the 
of the Militia embodied against 

the Indians 

To Ditto.. for balance of his ac- 
count as Com^ of Green= 
briar Militia stationed on the 



Daniel Clarke- 
To Cash on accot in part paymt 
Certain Bills of Exchange... 


5 000 

Evan Raker,' depty Q'^Master.- 
To Cash upon accot as Qr Mas- } 


ter for the Illinois Departmt 


20 Ditto ....ditto 50,000-" 

25 Ditto ....ditto i55"io 

26 Ditto ditto £67,590-"-" 

22 Ditto ....ditto .... 32541. 16. II 








tt » 



























- - -0 




6 2 


5- [2] 


5 2 

70 714 

6. 7 

100 500 



12. 5 


£ 100,131.16.11 

' For James Francis Moore see Kaskaskia Records, 421, note 10, Cahokia Records, index. 

'Evan Baker and his father, Isaac Baker, had moved from Maryland to settle in the 
Ilolstdn River region near the Virginia-Tennessee border line. In the latter period of the 
Kevoluiiiin Evan Haker was commissary of Washington County, Virginia. Kellogg, Fron- 
tier Retreat, 193-194, note 2. 















21 . 
























Deduct for sundries not 
expended for the use of 
the Illinois Departmt..£ 70,255.16.11 


Joseph Martin,' Indian Agent.- 
To Cash upon Account as Agent 

to the Indians 500-" 

... Ditto d<? 773-6.7 

. .. Ditto d? 800-"-" 

. . . Ditto d' 500-"- 

. .. Ditto dl 4800-"- 

. .. Ditto d' 10,000- 

. .. Ditto ... .Specie. . .d» . . .£ 100. 1 

. .. Ditto ....dv d<> 180. J 

Capt Rowland Madison-' 
To Cash upon acco' for the use I 

of the Illinois Department... f 100 

. . . Ditto d' 500,000" 

. . . Ditto d^* 400,000 

William Harrison— 

. . . To Cash on Account 300000 

...To ..Di'..d(> ...f 400,000 

Deduct for so much Cash 

returned of the aliove to 

(he Treasurer 243,660-" J 156340 



Dec!^ 16 

Colv John Montgomery — 
To Cash upon Acco! to recruit men ) 

for Illinois Expedition ) 

James Buchanan— 
To Cash on Accot for procuring 
provisions for use of the Illinois 



22 — 22 
36 — 21" 

-65 -12" 










7 — 










100 3000 o 

400 390 17 

36928" 4" 9" 

36928 4 9 
10 300 o - 

6 376 13 4 

'For General Joseph Martin, see anle, 11, note 2. 

'Rowland Madison was the son of John Madison, who was first cousin of the father 
of the president, and the younger brother of James, first bishop of Virginia. He came to 
Kentucky at an early day. Thwaites and Kellogg, Dunmore's ll'ar, 280, note 98 ; Kellugg, 
Frontier Advance, 276, note i. 

'From this point the totals obtained by adding the items do not check with those given 
in the original. 




Feb? 5 

Pecembr 18 


October 21 

April 8 


Octobr 5 . 


Jany 20 

Feby 6. 





.Ditto d' 2500-" 

John Todd- 
To Cash on Acco? of the Illinois Dept. 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 1000-"-" 

. Ditto ditto 1366.6- 

Williaiji Shannon, Conductor- 
To Cash on Acco* as Conductor in y' \ 

Illinois Jacob Myers • ) 4765-" 

. D? d? James Sullivan 3000-" 

D' do John Philips 6750-" 

D9 dejohn Byars 5,239 19- 

. D9 A9\\'m Pope 655-" 

James Sullivan 3000 

D' d' James Wright 4000 

Ja. Vameter 72000 
Aq. Whitaker 2300-8 

D' d'John Hundly 737-' 

DC dcW'!' Pope 2787-" 

, D? dvThs. MfGee 6000-" 

,D9 dc .. .Sundries 54i299"">-" 

V> d? James Wright 4,000 

DC dcThs Doudle '5«> 


Octobr 5. 


io8,30o"8 -80 








































•353" '5 I— 
























D' dc Jacob Myers. 


1779 Capt Jesse Evans- 

Novf 10. To Cash upon Account to recruit Men 

to serve in the Illinois Departm* 10,000-" 36 277" 15 6 
June 26 Ditto dc d? .... 2,135-" ^5- " 32" 7" 

1778 Henry Smith, Com? 

Dcct 14 To Cash upon Acco' for the use of 
Washington Militia ordered to 
Kentuckey 1000-"" 6" 1.66 13" 4 

1779 Ditto dc in September last .... 63.4- 6 10 10" 8 

June 23 Ditto dc 4152. 1.9 20 207" 12" i 

N. B. A Bill in favour of Col" Legrass was presented to the Commis dated Feby 2, 
•779. for I7ii2 the 2'' Set Legrass says Is in M' Nathans hands, this Itill is not on Genl 
Ace' but one of the same tenor & date in favour of Carlo Charleville N"> 46. which we 
su'pose to be the same. — 


A GENERAL STATE of the Amount of Bills drawn by the Officers of the Illenois depart- 
ment, on the Credit of the State of Virginia, is as follows, viz. 

Amount of Bills drawn by General Clark ) Dollars £ S D. 

as appears by his Books --------- ( 146,400 5'6 

{Amount of Bills drawn by Mr William Shannon ) 

as pr his List in 1779 f 97,827 
Amount of Bills drawn by William Shannon | 

after the first January 1780 as p his List - - ) 434,116 3 5 
Amount of Bills drawn by Col' George Slaughter ( 

as pr his Lists | 148,920 6 2 

Amount of Bills drawn by William Lynn as pr | 

List N>? 5 ) 6,zj6 y% 

Amount of Bills drawn by David Rodgers as pr ) 

List N' 6 - - N? 6 i 4,633 Vi 

Amount of Bills drawn by John Montgomery as | 

pr List I 25,161 Yi Specie 

Amount of Bills drawn by Robert Elliot - - - - 607 

Ditto drawn by Isaac Collier -------- 1.096 

Ditto - - - drawn by Stephen Gooding 707 5^R 

Ditto drawn by Richard M'Carty 4.000 

Ditto drawn by William Gillaspie- - - - 235 Yi 

Ditto drawn by Alexander Henderson - - - S% Y& 

Ditto - - - drawn by Perault - 50 

Ditto drawn by I B Bacon -------- 46 Y2 

Ditto - - - drawn by Jean Pieto - - - 100 

Ditto drawn by Powree 759 ^6 

Ditto drawn by Mr Serpey - 160 

Ditto drawn by Ja? Robinson - . 1.503 % 

Ditto - - - drawn by Robert Dunn 27 Yi 

Amount of Bills, Orders &c drawn by I 


Leonard Helm -) 1,492 

Ditto drawn by Robert George- ----------- 242.740 

Total dollars 533-839* ^ 583.036 9 7 

'This figure does not check with the total obtained by adding the items given. 



Pay Roll of Capt^' Joseph Bowmans Company of Infantry of the Illinois- 
Virginia Regiment. Colonel George Rogers Clark, commander August 8, 
1778 to December 14, 1778 

[Clark MSS., Va. State Archives.] 

When In- When dis- pay pr 

listed Charged No of Month 


Joseph Bowman 
Abrn Kellar 
Abr"' Chapline 
Daniel Durst 
Isaac Kellar 
James Brown 
John Hoosard 
Ab"" Miller 
CurneKis Ruddell 
Will'" Montgomery 
Tilman Camper 
Sam' Ilumphres 
Geo: Levenstone 
Cha? M=Glochland 
Peter Coager 
Jacob Coger 
James Whitecotten 
Philip Long 
Tho= Chlifton 
\ym Berrey 
James Bentley 
John Bentley 
Michael Setser 
John Setser 
Joseph Anderson 
Henry Funk 
George King 
James Curr 
(torn) Flandegin 

Barney Waters 
Philip Orben 
James Holmes 
Peter Blaine 
Patrick Conray 
Peter Brazer 
James M intosh 
Abr Lewzader 
James Cox 
Michael Senkler 
Geo: Waise 

'There is a discrepancy between the figure given in the original and that obtained by 
totaling the separate items which is not accounted for by the amount to be substituted where 
the manuscript is torn. 


into the 

out of th 

e days 












served Dollars 





Aug' 8 

Dec"i 14 




















Sarg'Majr do- - 


















- - -12 



























do-- ■ 








do-- - 








do-- • 







do- - - 

do-- ■ 















do- -- 
















do- •- 









do- - 















do- - 







do- - -• 

do- - 




























— -8 












do- - 




— -8 










































































































Aug' 14 








Sep' 23 












hat the above Payrolle is Just 

& True 



G R Clark 



Pay Roll of Captain Edward Worthingtons Company of Cavalry of 
MANDER. July 17, 1778 to June i 1779 

when entered 
in service 

No the names of the Company 1778 

1 Edward Worthington Capl July - -17 

2 John Gerault L' - - - - - -July 17 

3 Francis Charliville Corn' -July - -17 

4 Shadrach Bond Sergent - -Aug' - 20 

5 Pleasant Lockett Serg' - - -Octor 20 

6 William Moires private - -July 17"" 17 

7 Thomas Moore Aug' 8"" 8 

8 John Moore Aug' - - 8 

9 William Marshal ----- -Ditto 9 

10 Jonas Manefey ------ -July - —27 

11 Armestead Dudley July - —27 

12 Joseph Durnovv ------ -Aug' - — 4 

13 Daniel Blewen ------ -Aug' i 

14 Edward Murrey ------ -Aug' 9 

15 William Ryley ------ -Aug' 23 

16 Frances Contraw ----- -Aug' 23 

17 John Leveridge Deem'' — 11 

i3 Daniel Boalton Sep'' - -17 

19 Joseph Pelter Nov'" - -13 

20 Michel Compo - - -Octo'" i 

21 James Kincade ------ -Novem 12 

22 Samuel Perkins Augt 9 

23 James Drumgold Serg' - - -April 3 

24 William Drinkwater D" - -May - -20 

25 William Paine April 3 

26 Frances Comprey ----- -May - - 8 

27 Frances Lafarlow - - May - - 8 

28 John Gaines -April 12 

29 Isaac Booth Ditto 12 

30 Ric* Mi^Deade - -Ditto 13 

31 Samuel Wadkins ----- -Ditto 14 

32 James Sharlock ------ -Ditto 3 


34 Pearce Martin May 2 

35 Jackway Lecase May 2 

36 James Green May 9 

37 William Lickledg Aug 8 
William Prescott April 11 

[Clark MSS., Va. 

when No. of pay 

Discharged Days p Day 



























267 @ 


























- -212 













































"58 @ 




























































( Pay Roole 

( Capt Worthington ) 




THE Illinois-Virginia Regiment, Colonel George Rogers Clark, com- 

State Archives.] 


money Dead or Deserted £ Amount 

20 Doll' pr month _..- 223'* 16 " 

10 Doll' p Month - 100" 7 " 

10 Doll p month 74" x g 

9" 3 - 

24" 9 

Dead - 22" 5 " 

18 3 4 

18 3" 4 

19 II 8 

23 3" 4 


ii" 8" 4 

17" 13" 4 pd 

- 3" 5 

24 - -3 - -4 

22 II' 

9" 5" 

21" 8" 4 

3" 13" 4 

2" 18 

17" I 

-- 19" 10 " 

8" 14 

•;' '3 

Deserted 4" 10 " 

I' i8' 4 

i" 18" 4 

4" i" 8 

4" i" 8 

Deserted 4 " " 

■ 3" 18" 4 

Deserted torn " 4 

2" "8 "4 
2" 8" 4- X 

i" 16" 8 

>9 ■ " ' 

Deserted - - - - 4" 3' 

764 7 — 

Fort Clarke June i;"" 1779 

Then Rec from Col GeorRe Rogers Clark the above amount 
of seven Hundred & Sixty Four Pounds Seven Shillings Current Money of 


Test- John Hawkins 


Pav Roll of Captain Jesse Evans' Company of Infantry of the Illin 
MANDER December 29, 1778 to the Expiration of time of Services 

[Clark MSS., Va. 

Time of Service 
Names Rank Commencment Ending Months days 

Jes^e Evans Capt.. Dec"- ag'" lyySJuUy 13 1780 iS 15 

Antony Crockett Lieut. Ditto 29 78 Jully 13 1780 18- 15 

William Campbell Ensign March 29 79 August 14:79 4- 16 

William Perie Sergeant Feby 20.79 July 13 80 16 22 

John Slaughter Ditto Jany 4:1779 July 13 80 18--- 9 

Andrew Clark Ditto Ditto 4 78 July 13-- 80 18-- 9 

Lewis Wallers Private Ditto 4 79 January 13:80-12 9 

David Fannen do-- Jany 6- -79 March 30 79 i 25 

James Mayfield do--- Jany 6- -79 July 13 80 18 7 

Isaac Mayfield do do 7- -79 do 13 80 18-- 6 

Michaja Mayfield do--- do 7- -78 do 13 80 18 6 

Elisha Mayfield do--- do 7- -79 do 13 80 18 6 

John Brown do do 7- -79 do 13 80 18 6 

Low lirown do do 7- -79 do 13 80 18 6 

John Lasley do do 7- -79 do 13 80 48 6 

Richard Chapman do do 29- -79 do 13 8017 15 

Abenezor Maid do do 29 79 Decern"' 10: 79 10 12 

John Bennet do Feby 7- -79 March 30: 79 i 25 

Robert Smith do--- Feby 28 79 Ditto 3° 79 ' 

William Cheek do--- Feby 28 79 Ocf 19 79 7- 19 

James Rise do--- Feby 29 79 March 30 79 i 17 

Jipshua Ilollis do April 5 79 July 13 80 15- 8 

John Patterson do--- April 5 79 July 13 80 15 8 




State Archives.] 

Amount of pay !n 
Dollars Virginia Currency 
pr Month £ S D 

- - 50 







- - 25 - - - 



- - 8 - - - 




- - 8 




- - S - - - 







- - (,% - - 




- - 6?/j - - 




- - iVi - - 







- - 6^/3 - - 



- - 6^/3 - - 



- - bVi - - 



- - 65/3 - - 



- - 6^3 - - 



- - 6J/3 - - 




-- 6% - - 







- - 65/3 - - 




- - 6^3 - - 












Warr' for Bal<= deliv'' Col" Christian 
March 12 r 1784- - 

Resigned the 14 of August 1779 
Discharged dd D B 

ditto Do 

ditto Do 

Ditto Do 

Quartered March the 30"' 1779 dd D B 


dd D B 













Killed Decern'' lo"" 1779 dd 
Disarted March the 30"" 1779 
Ditto March 30"" 1779 
Killed 19"" Oct""" 1779 
Disarted March the 30"" 1779 
Discharged Do 

ditto Do 

D B 



JULY I, 1783 

First Meeting of Commissioners at Harrodsburc, November i, 1782 — 
Recommendations of the Commissioners on the Construction op 
Forts December 23 — Misapplication of Funds or Stores — Report of 
Proceedings of the Commissioners, February 17, 1783 — Situation at 
Fort Nelson March 24. 1783 — the State not obligated to Honor 
Bills Drawn by Unauthorized Persons — Bills to be Paid According 
TO the Illinois Scale of Depreciation — Doctor Connard, Surgeon 
TO THE Illinois Troops, June 19, 1783 — Amounts due Clark. 

Appointment of Western Commissioners, December 20, 1781 
[Draper MSS., 2ZZ86.— A. L. S.] ' 

Uecr 20. 1781. 

I was favoured a few days ago with a letter from the Executive 
inclosing a resolve of the House of Delegates of June y° 21*' im- 
powering the Executive to call to Account all persons concerned in 
the disbursement of public monies, who have been or ar in service 
in the Western country, belonging to this State &c: likewise an 
order of Council of Dec'' y' 7'^ 1 78 1, appointing W" Fleming in 
the room of Col : W"!* Christian to carry into execution the above 
resolution of Assembly, and for liquidating all claims whatsoever 
which any person or persons in that Western country may have 
against the State, those resolves were accompanied with a letter 
informing me the Gentlemen to act in conjunction were Col' W"" 
Preston Col: Sam' McDowal & Col: Tho' Marshall and that it 
was expected by consulting witli each other a day might be fixed on, 
to meet at the Falls of the Ohio before the first of march next, and 
afterwards to adjourn to such place or places as a majority shall 
find expedient " If I am not mistaken when the Legislative made 

' A summary of this letter is printed under date of December 26, 1781, 
in Calendar of l^irglnia Stale Papers, 2:672. 

'The men originally appointed on this commission were Colonels 
William Christian, William Preston, Thomas Marshall and Judge Samuel 
McDowell. The first two named declined to serve and Colonel William 
Fleming, brother-in-law of Colonel Christian, and Judge Caleb Wallace 
were appointed as their successors. 




the resolve of June y° 21^' they apprehended frauds were committed 
by persons intrusted in that quarter and that the great distance from 
the seat of Government prevented detection. The Executive were 
authorized to call tlie delinquents to Justice. This the Executive 
have Judiciously choose to do by appointing persons on the spot to 
examine the validity of each claim. On this supposition that the 
Legislative intended to bring to light any Frauds that may hitherto 
have taken place, or to introduce a reform in the disbursements of 
that department. Your Excellency will pardon my mentioning the 

For Colonel Thomas Marshall, see ante, 124, note i. 

Judge Samuel McDowell was born in Pennsylvania but removed with 
his parents to Virginia in 1737 when he was two years of age. He was 
captain of a company of militia from Augusta County at the Battle of Point 
Pleasant. For a number of years preceding the Revolution he represented 
that county in the House of Burgesses, and took a prominent place in the 
pre-revolutionary conventions. He was colonel of a regiment from Augusta 
County during the Revolutionary War. During 1783, he presided as one 
of the three judges over the first district court ever held in Kentucky and 
in 1785 was president of the first convention which was called to consider 
the separation of Kentucky from Virginia. 

For a sketch of Colonel William Fleming, see ante, 32, note i. 

Caleb Wallace was graduated from Princeton and became a preacher 
in the Presbyterian Church at Cub Creek and Little Falling River in Char- 
lotte County, Virginia, but later removed to Botetourt County. He was 
appointed one of the western commissioners. During 1782, he was elected 
to represent Lincoln County in the Virginia Assembly. The following 
year he removed to Kentucky, settling on Elkhorn Creek, Fayette County 
(Woodford). Taking up the practice of law, he was appointed (1783) one 
of the assistant judges of the Supreme Court in the Kentucky district. He 
was a member of four, and possibly others of the nine conventions which 
were held for the consideration of the admission of Kentucky into the Union. 
When it was admitted, he was chosen judge of the Court of Appeals, 
holding this oflice until 1813. 

March i, 1782 was fixed as the date for the first meeting of the com- 
mission at Louisville, but it was early in October before they were pre- 
pared to set out on their journey of 450 miles from Botetourt, Virginia. 
The distance was covered on horseback in twenty-three days. The first 
meeting of the commission was held at Harrodsburg, November i, 17S2, 
but so many persons had accompanied Clark on the Shawnee expedition 
that they adjourned to meet at Lexington on November n. 

Numerous difficulties were met in the execution of their task. A num- 
ber of the creditors had removed from Kentucky, others had died and their 
papers were in great confusion. Persons from the Illinois country, cited to 
appear, were much delayed. Having collected all possible evidence, in 
which they were greatly aided by Clark, they set out for Virginia April 16, 
1783, with a "horse-load" of papers. The records of the legislature for 
many years show frequent petitions against the decisions of the commission. 
There is said to have been not a single instance in which such a petition 
was granted. 


powers the Commiss'^ should be furnished with, as what occurs to 
me at present to enable them to carry the resolves into effectual 

execution I am a Stranger to the instructions Your Excellency 

and the Hble board have given your deputies but I am no Stranger 
to the difficulty there will be, in bringing defaulters in that quarter 
to Justice, at the same time it is a matter of great moment to the 
peace & wellfare of this state, that right should be rendered indi- 
viduals by persons intrusted by Government perhaps a neglect 

on this point has lost us the affections of the Western French, and 
greatly weakened our interest with the Indian tribes, and may still 
be attended with greater inconveniences It is a very consider- 
able trust reposed in your commiss"'' to liquidate all claims in that 

quarter They should be allowed a Clerk & proper books that 

every account adjusted by them may be properly entered, copies 
of which should be transmitted from time to time to the Auditors, 

Treasurers or where else directed A list of the sums of money 

advanced to any person, in that department on publick account shoidd 
be given the Commissioners, and if not finally settled, what part 
remains unaccounted for, this may prevent double claims for the 
same service any accounts before the boards & not settled should be 
transmitted them, it might be proper to give the Commissioners in- 
structions by a table of depreciation or the price of tobacco at differ- 
ent times, if that is made the medium to reduce contracts in currency 
to specie, they should be acquainted with the powers vested in 
Commandants or Indian Agents, in drawing bills, or extending that 
traffick on the credit of the State, to enable them to detect frauds 
they should be assisted by the Civil power to send for Witnesses 
&c: otherwise their going out will be only a burthen to the state, 
and these accounts may be better settled in Richmond. The number 
of Commiss" that can proceed on business I think is not mentioned. 
I would infer from the letter I was honoured with, that the whole 
were required to attend, if so, the business may be stopped either by 
disapointment in not meeting. Sickness or some other accident. It 
is a Journey of about 450 miles from Botetourt to the Falls of the 
Oliio, a great part of the way through an uninhabited desert in- 
fested with Indian Enemies, the Country there still more dangerous 
than the road, it would be necessary the Commissioners be provided 


with escorts in their different adjournments I am willing to 

obey any Instructions or orders I may receive where I can be of 
any service to my Country, an infirm state of health makes it very 
uncertain, whether I will be able to undertake the Journey, a 
rhcumatick complaint that has seized my right arm, renders it diffi- 
cult for me to express my thoughts on paper. 

I am with the greatest respect 

W. F. [William Fleming] 
Your Excellencys -&c. 
To THE Governor. 

Journal of Western Commissioners, 1782-1783 

[Illinois Papers, Vol. 7, Va. State Archives.] 

Harodsburg, Friday November ist. 1782. 
William Fleming Tiiomas Marshall Samuel M'Dowcll and 
Caleb Wallace Esti"^' Being appointed by the E.xecutive Commis- 
sioners for settling and liquidating Claims in the Western Country, 
in consequence of a Resolve of the Legislature of the 2 1st of Jutie 
1 78 1, and a Resolve of the E.xecutive of the 20th of July following. 
Met at this Place according to Appointment, when their Powers 
and Instructions, dated January 29th and September 6th 1782, being 
read; They proceeded to choose John M'Dowell Secretary. 

The Board then took it into consideration, that as an Expe- 
dition is now carrying on against our Enemy Indians under General 
Clark, and most of the Claimants being absent. They could not 
proceed on business before the Troops returned. 

They therefore think proper to adjourn and do accordingly 
adjourn to meet at Lexington in Fayette County on Monday the 
Eleventh Inst. 

Le.xington Monday November nth 1782. The Commis- 
sioners Met according to adjournment. Present William Fleming 
Thomas Marshall Saml M'Dowell and Caleb Wallace Esqr= Set- 
tled several Receipts for Rations furnished the Militia of Green 
Brier County while on duty here in 1 78 1. Entered in Page 266 
as p Vouchers No. 1.2. & 3 in Bundle A. In Vouchers No. 2 & 3 
The Claiments appear to have boarded more men than specified in 
the Certificates, but the OflScer has returned the whole number of 


rations as if furnished for one. Wrote circular Letters to the 
County Lieutenants of Fayette Lincoln and Jefferson as in Letter 
Book No. I. 

Adjourned till tomorrow morning Tuesday November I2th 
The Commissioners met according to adjournment and proceeded to 
business. After settling the Claims of several persons for boarding 
the Militia of Green Brier County entered in Page 266 as p vouchers 
No. 4. 5, 6 Bundle A. 

Adjourned till tomorrow Wednesday November 13th The 
Commissioners Met according to adjournment and proceeded to 

Being informed that a great quantity of Public Beef &c is 
lodged in the Store at Lexington which is much damnefied and unfit 
for use Request Levi Todd Robert Todd and William Henderson 
Gentlemen to inspect the stores in sd. magazine and make a special 
report of the state they are in to the Board. 

Adjourned till tomorrow Thursday November 14th The 
Commissioners met according to adjournment, and proceeded to 

The Gentlemen who inspected the Magazine agreeable to 
the order of yesterday Report that they found in the Magazine about 
five or six thousand weight of Beef quite unfit for use by reason of 
age, and no inattention or neglect of the Commissaries; and about 
fifty weight of good Tallow, see return No. i Bundle B. 

The Troops not being returned the Commissioners find they 
cannot proceed further on business at present Ordered a Letter 
to be wrote to General Clark to inform him of the arrival of the 
Commissioners &c. see letter Book No. 2 And then adjourned. 

General Clark having returned from the Expedition against 
the Indians the Board of Commissioners met at Viney Grove in 
Lincoln County on Monday the 25th of November 1782. 

Present William Fleming Samuel M'Dowell and Caleb 
Wallace, The Board proceeded to look over the several accounts 
and papers relating to their business. Adjourned till to-morrow 

Tuesday November 26th. 
The Board Met according to adjournment. Present William Flem- 


ing Samuel M'Dowell and Caleb Wallace Directed that circular 
Letters be wrote to sundry Debtors to the Commonwealth on account 
requiring them to attend the Board without delay that their accounts 
may be settled see Letter Book No. 3 adjourned till the 28th Inst. 

Thursday November 28th 
The Commissioners met according to adjournment. Present Wil- 
liam Fleming Samuel M'Dowell & Caleb Wallace Esq"-' Capt" 
Rowland Madison appeared before the Board, and represented that 
he was not now prepared to settle his accounts with this Common- 
wealth, For which he assigned the following reasons viz. That 
his late instructions as Quarter Master & Commisary dated 23* 
Decf 1780. specified that his accounts are to be finally settled with 
the Board of Auditors. That his Excellancy the Governour has given 
his Opinion upon the said Instructions dated April 13'" 1782. that 
they Auditors ought to settle the business as it does not appear 
necessary to send the person imployed to the Commissioners. And 
that Majr. Patrick Lockhart of Bottetourt as a District Commis- 
sioner gave him notice to render his accounts to him. And therefore 
not Expecting to be called on by the Commissioners he left his Ac- 
counts and Vouchers in Bottetourt County. The Board after hear- 
ing Capt' Madison's Reasons and considering their own Instructions 
and the nature of the Account against Capt» Madison referred to 
them by the Executive. Think proper to require Capt" Madison 
to lay his Accounts before them as soon as in his power. Adjourned 
to meet at Colo. John Bowman's on Monday 

the 2nd of December next. 
Monday December 2« met according to adjournment. Present 
William Fleming Samuel M'Dowell and Caleb Wallace Esq^' 
Colonel George Slaughter appeared before the Board. Directed that 
the Settlement of his Accounts be deferred untill his Quarter Master 
and Commissary is also present who he is desired to have before 
them as soon as possible. 

Adjourned till tomorrow Morning Tuesday December 3'' met 
according to adjournment. Present as above. 

The Board Spent the Day in looking over the Papers of Joseph 
Lindsay late Commissary, which were laid before them by M^' 
Lindsay. Adjourned till tomorrow Morning 


Wednesday December 4ih. 
Met according to adjournment. Present as before. Received by 
M' Isaac Hite sundry Papers belonging to Silas Harlin, George 
Owens and others as p"^ Receipt delivered see Bundle No. i Iron 
Bank Papers. The Consideration of which is deferred untill further 
information can be obtained. Settled a certificate belonging to 
George M'Afee for a Steer furnished the Militia of Kentucky in 
1780. Enter'd in Page 271 as p Voucher in Bundle E. 
Directed that a Letter be wrote to Capt" Robert Todd Executor 
of Colo. John Todd Dec^ desiring that his Papers as Escheater 
with his other public Accounts may be laid before the Board as 
soon as possible, as in letter Book No. 4. 

The Board wrote a Letter to the County Lieutenant of Jefferson 
with Advertisements inclosed to give Notice of their meeting at 
the Falls of Ohio the 15"" of January next. 

They also wrote Letters to the Court of Kaskaskias and to CoK 
Le Gras at St. Vincents, with Advertisements inclosed, to have their 
meeting on the 15th of January next notified in the Illinois Coun- 
try, and amongst the Spaniards on that Quarter, as in letter Book 
N' 5. 

And the Secratary was directed to inclose these Letters to 
Gen' Clark requesting that he would have them forwarded \viti» 
Dispatch, as in Letter Book N? 6 Adjourned till Friday the 6th 

Friday December 6tli met according to adjournment Present 
jfi flbovo vvill 13m r iprninp ^ jniiipl .jYTp IjowpI li ■jrid C^nl ch* V y n l 1 ncP' 
E*^' Directed letters to be wrote to Colo. John Montgomery and 
John Dodge Esq' two of the Debtors to the State. See letter Book 
N' 7 & 8. 

adjourned till Monday the g"" Inst. 

Monday December gth met according to adjournment Present 
jg ^P Qy fl AA il liam Fl cminc Sa muel iV ^^ IJ o w cll nnn Cal eb A\^n l 1 'ii'f* 
Esq''^ — directed that -the- Secretary a Letter be wrote to the County 
Lieutenant of Lincoln requesting him to furnish the Board with a 
list of all the Pay Rolls and accounts for which he has drawn Money 
from the I'reasury and also a list of those he has paid, see Letter 
Book No. 9. 



adjourned till Thursday the I2th Ins* 

Thursday December 12th met according to adjournment. Present as 
before. Ordered that William Gillispy be Summoned to appear 
before the Board to be examined concerning Bills of exchange drawn 
by him and in his favour, At this place on Monday the 16th Instant 
Directed that the Secratary write Colo. John Bowman late County 
Lieutenant of Kantucky requesting him to furnish the Board with 
a list of all the Pay Rolls and Accounts for which he has drawn 
money from the Treasury and also a list of those he has paid see 
Letter Book No. 9 

Adjourned till tomorrow Morning. 
Friday December 13th Met according to adjournment Present as 
before. William Gillaspy appeared before the Board and was 
examined on oath concerning sundry Bills drawn by him & in his 
favour — see deposition N? I in M'' Pollocks papers. From which 
it appears that the Bill drawn by Colo. Montgomery in favour of the 
said Gilaspy dated June 7th 1779 for 3500 Spanish milled Dollars, 
was given for about 4000 Dollars paper Currancy and not for sun- 
dries for the State of Virginia as expressed in the Bill. It also 
appears to the Board from the Scale of Depreciation for the Illinois 
Country, that the Bill ought not to have been given for more than 
666 2/3, Spanish Milled dollars. 

Adjourned till to-morrow morning. 

There appears due to William Morrow for a Hors lost on an 
Expetion against the Indians two pounds fifteen & four pence half 
penny Specie, as p Voucher entered in Page 256 also forty Shillings 
Specie for Horse hire on S^ Expedition Entered in ditto. 

There appears due Robert Bowmer as p Voucher rec^ two 
pounds Six Shillings & one penny Three farthings Specie for a 
Horse lost in an Expedition against the Indians, entered in Page 256. 
Monday December 23* Met according to adjournmt. 

Present as before 

There appears due to William Morrow as p Voucher received the 
depriciated value of one hundred and Eighty pounds in July 1780 
for a Horse lost on an Expedition against the Indians, also forty 
shillings specie for the hire of a Horse on s^ Expedition, entered 
in Page 163- There appears due to Robert Bowmer as p Voucher 


received the depriciated value of one hundred and fifty pounds in 
July 1780 for a Horse lost on an Expedition against the Indians, 

entered in Page 163 

The Board wrote the following Letter to the Executive Dated 

December 23" 1782 


We received your Excellancys favour of the 16''' of October 
by M"" Netherland Novf 24'" and yours of the 4'" of Novf by Colo. 
Buford tlie i8th Ins' and shall pay due attention to their contents- 
Gcii' Clark has consulted the Board with regard to erecting Posts 
at the Mouths of Kantucky Licking & Limestone, in consequence of 
your Excellancys orders to him on maturely considering tlie affair. 
We are of opinion that a Fort at the Mouth of Kantucky would be of 
great service to the Country and may be more easaly supported than 
one at Licking, that a Fourt at the mouth of Licking would not be 
an effectual security to the Inhabitants of Fayette as it is more 
than 60 Miles distance from them & the Indians not being oblidged 
to come that way, they may penetrate into the Country without the 
Garrison having it in their power either to prevent them or warn the 
Inhabitants of their danger that to the greater part of the Enemy 
Indians the mouth of Kantucky is more immediately in their course, 
and a Fort there would cover the Inhabitants of Jefferson Lincoln 
& Fayette to more advantage than either of the others proposed — and 
by it the watter carrage from the Ohio to the internal parts of both 
the Counties of Lincoln & Fayette would in some measure be sup- 
ported, Drenings Salt Lick a place of great consequence would be 
commanad by it which would greatly distress the Enemy as it is 
much resorted to by them for game, here they kill and cure meat 
to serve them in their incursions, for these reasons the Board advised 
the Gen' to have a Fort erected at the mouth of Kantucky as soon 
as posible, they look upon the mouth of Limestone which is further 
up the river, more out of the way of the Indians and much more 
dificult to supply with provisions to be still more inconvenient, but 
if a post is thought necessary in that Quarter the blue Licks on 
Licking for the same reasons that were given about Drenings Lick 
may be a proper place, but it is our opinion that neither the state of 
you n^reasury, nor the State of this Country are equal to the ex- 



pence of money to support three additional Posts, nor to furnish 
men if to be Garrisoned by the Militia, When we arrived in this 
Country the 24'" of October all the officers civil & Military & the 
generality of the men being engaged under Gen' Clark in an Expe- 
dition against the Miami Indians we found that little could be done 
untill the return of the Troops, Notwithstanding the Board met at 
Harodsburg the first of November with design to get in what Ac- 
counts they could, afterwards went over to Lexington in Fayette 
County with the same intent and there prepared Letters for Gen' 
Clark the Militia OiT'^' Debtors to the State &cc. In that to Gen- 
eral Clark lie is required to lay before us copies of the orders & 
Instructions, he had given either to Quartermasters Pay Masters 
Commissaries Contractors Agents in the commercial department 
or supcrinlcndants of Indian alfairs, and informing iiim We call 
upon all who have been concerned in the disbursements of public 
Monies to appear with their Accounts & the proper Vouchers for 
their expenditures; That those who have drawn Bills are required 
to attend with their powers for drawing &c: and those who have 
commanded Posts are to make out returns of the strenth of their 
Men from Time to Time that we may be able to judge of the ex- 
penditures In return to which the Board received a Letter from 
Gen' Clark assuring them of his chearfully complying with our re- 
quest, as it was what he earnestly wished for; that some persons 
alluded to in theirs did not come- witiiin his line in the settlement 
of their Accounts as John Dodge Commercial Agent Colo \\'ill. 
Harrison purchaser for the Campaign Eighty one & Capt" Rowland 
Madison Quarter Master &c: As the Geni^ Papers are at Louis- 
ville we can not enter into a thorough investigation of his Accounts 
till we sit at that place, and the parties concerned are collected. We 
have despatched a Messenger to Kaskaskias and S' Vincent and wrote 
to Colo. Montgomery, Dodge &c: and ordered M^ Madison to lay 
his accounts before us and expect to be at Louisville before the 
return of our Messenger from y" Illinois Country, Capt" George 
went with the Chickesaw Indians to their Towns and is not yet 
returned, Colo. Harrison, Colo. Lynn, Colo Todd and Mr Lindsay 
are all killed ; Their affairs will require time to investigate & great 
care to come at the truth, as some of them have kept no regular 


accounts, these reasons have prevented us from advanceing in the 
business with that Expedition we could wish. They Survyors 
Offices in Fayette and Jefferson Counties being opened to recieve 
Land Warrants the attention of the People is so much engaged as 
greatly to retard the getting the Militia Accounts settled. Our 
Letters to the County Lieutenants required tiiem to order Pay Rolls 
of their different Comp™ or Parties of their Militia that have been 
on actual service and which have not been settled by the State, to 
be made out, and after having been attested by the Capt' or Com- 
manding officer on Oath and certified by them to be laid before the 
Board. All Commissaries Accounts or others furnishing provissions 
by their Orders with proper Vouchers are likewise to be laid before 
us, also Vouchers for Provisions and other articles impressed for the 
use of their Militia, and when Vouchers cannot be had Witnesses 
to prove facts are to attend. We expected by this method to have 
settled the Militia accounts with expedition, but calling on the County 
Lieutenant of Lincoln for his returns, he informed us he could not now 
attend, as his business called him to wait on the N. Carolina Com- 
missioners at Cumberland. Your Excellencys Letter of Nov'' the 
4^^ informs us that many demands have been made by Mf Nathan 
and some others for payment of Bills drawn on the Treasurer or 
Governour of this State, by Colo Todd & Gen' Clark, and that 
from the enormity of the sums demanded and the high price of 
every article where an Account has been rendered, there is just cause 
to suspect that the goods were bought for depreciated Money, and 
that some advantage has been taken of the Drawers, And that it 
now rests with us to take such measures as may be in our power to 
investigate the truth which you requst we will do as soon as posible 
and give our opinion at large. We beg leave to observe that we 
are not furnished with a list of the Bills in whose favour drawn 
the sums drawn for, nor the invoices or accounts referred to by your 
Excellency there must be an oversight in the Clerk not transmiting 
such necessary copies. Gen' Clark informs us that he is altogether 
a stranger to what Bills Colo. Todd drew, and that he cannot at 
present charge his memory with what Bills he has drawn himself, 
so that until he can have recourse to his papers at Louisville he can 
only refer your Excellency to his certificate upon the Scale of De- 


preciation for the Illenoies, which you mention in your Letter, to 
which he cannot recollect an exception but one Bill in favour of an 
Agent whose name he has forgot ; for the expences of a treaty with 
the Upper Wabash Indians, which probably were settled in specie 
and the Bill given accordingly. Colo Todds Executors cannot lay 
his papers before us till some days hence so that it is not in our 
power now to send your Excellency that explicit oppinion which is 
required. We have too much reason to fear a backwardness in 
some who have had the disposal of public Monies & Stores to lay 
their Accounts before us but as soon as our Messenger returns from 
the Illenoise we shall loose no time in closing the business in general, 
We shall use every precaution to guard against impositions and 
report very specially on such accounts as may require further investi- 
gation, Wc take in all accounts with the Vouchers that we adjust, 
and enter them in our Books under their proper titles with remarks, 
and give certificates that wc have received them. We have given 
your Excellency this state of the business as it stands at present that 
you may be enabled to send us such instructions as you may think 
proper. With great respect we have the honor to bc- 

Your Excellencys 
William Fleming 
Most obedt hum' Ser" Samuel McDowell 

Caleb Wallace 

Adjourned till tomorrow morning. 

Thursday December 26th Met according to adjournment. 

Present as before 

No business coming before the Board Adjourned until To- 
morrow Morning 

Friday 27th Met according to Adjournment. Present as be- 
fore No business coming before the Board Adjourned until! 

Tomorrow Morning. 

Saturday December 28th Met according to adjournment. Present as 
before No business coming before the Board. Adjourned till Mon- 
day morning. 

Monday December 30th Met according to adjournment Pres- 
ent as before. No business coming before the Board Adjourned 
until Tomorrow morning. 


Tuesday December 31st Met according to adjournment. 

Present as before Received Capt' William Hogan's Pay Roll. 

from May Fifteenth until August i8th with Voucher inclosed. See 
Bundle Fayette Militia — The Board observe that the above men- 
tioned Pay Roll from May 15th to July 17th is made out in conse- 
quence of a Custom which was practised in this Country of keeping 
the Inhabitants inrolled, and drawing pay for them when at home 
but it does not appear to the Commissioners that they should receive 
pay but on the date of Colo Lx)gans orders. See paper N' i Inclosed 
dated July 17th 1780. Unless this custom was by order of Gover- 
ment. from July 17th they were in actual service on an Expedi- 
tion under Colo G: R: Clark. It is likewise the opinion of the 
Commissioners that the pay of those whose names are opposite to the 
cross' in the Collumn of days in Service, should remain in the Treas- 
ury, till it is either personaly called for or their Heirs apply to the 
Auditors for it — Likewise his Pay Roll from the 20th of Novem- 
ber until the 27th of December 1780. See Bundle Fayette Militia. 
The Commissioners observe that the above Pay Roll is for no actual 
service performed but for guarding the Fort of which they were 
Inhabitants, And Colo Todd's certificate seems to be given in com- 
pliance with a custom formerly practised, in the infancy of the Settle- 
ment; Whatever the necessity of the Country might be at that time 
The Commissioners cannot see the reasonableness of continuing it, 
as they drew rations at the same time and considerable consequential 
expenses were incerred. The Commissioners observe as in the other 
Pay Roll, that it "is their oppinion that the sums opposite to their 
Names, who are crossed in the Collumn of days in Service, Should 
remain in the Treasury, till either personally called for or applied 
for by their Heirs 

There appears due to James Hogan twenty pounds Specie as 
p'' Voucher received, intered in Page. 163 

Received of Colo. Daniel Boone C. Lieutenant of Fayette 
the following Pay Rolls & Accounts for his Militia viz: Capt^ 
Hazlerigg's Pay Roll from the 24th of October until the 23'' of 
November 1782. See Bundle Fayette Militia accounts. The Com- 
missioners observe that Capt' Hazelrigg is only entitled to Ensigns 
pay the Lieu< to Sergents Pay and one of the Sergents to have pay 


as Private, as an Adjutant for the Battallion. a Quarter Master a 
Packhorse Master for the Battalion & a Packhorse Master for the 
Artillery, were taken out of this Comp^ In adjusting their Pay we 
have considered them as privates and added to their pay the allow- 
ance by Congress for such extra Services when done by officers from 
the Line. 

Capt' William M'Connells Pay Roll from the 24 of Octolier 
untill the 23'' of November 1782. See Bundle as above — Tiie 
Commissioners observe in this Pay Roll that the Captn. is only to 
draw Ensign's Pay, the Lieutenant Sergents and one of the Sergents 
to be reduced to a Private. Capf Robert Johnsons Pay Roll from 
the 27th of March untill the 27*^ of April 1781. See Bundle Fay- 
ette Militia accounts — Entered as above. The Commissioners are 
of oppinion that the pay of those whose names are crossed in tlie 
above Pay Roll should be reserved in the Treasury till Personally 
called for, or applied for by their representives or Heirs. As Colo 
Boone does know them & supposes many of them have removed, and 
some of the killed have no heirs in the Country, in which case their 
pay would be entirely a perquisite to the Capt' & lost to the persons 
or their heirs who have performed the Service. 

Capt" Constants Pay Roll from the 24"' October untill tiie 
23* Novcm'' 1782 Sec Bundle Fayette Militia accounts — The Com- 
missioners observe in Capt' Constants Roll that the Capt' is only en- 
titled to Lieutenants Pay and two of the Sergents to be reduced to 
Privates. Capt" Robert Johnsons Pay Roll from Ocf 24 until No- 
vember 23^ 1782 See Bundle Fayette Militia Accounts 

The Commissioners observe that in Capt' Johnsons Roll, He 
is entitled to Lieutenants pay the Lieu' to Ensigns pay the Ensign 
to Sargents pay and two of the Sergents to privates. 

Capt. William M Connells Pay Roll of M Connells Station, 
from the 24"* October untill the 23^ of November 1782 See Bundle 
Fayette Militia Accounts — Capt' M Connell in his Pay Roll is 
entitled only to Lieutenants Pay, the Lieutenant to Ensigns and the 
Ensign to Sargents pay, and one of the Sergents to be paid as private. 

Capt' Robt. Johnsons Account and Voucher for Plank, in 
which there appears due three pounds seven Shillings and eight pence 
Specie entered in Page 171 


M' William Hayses Appraisment Bill for a Beef Steer, In 
which there appears due three pounds one Shilling & sixpence farth- 
ing Specie Entered in Page 173 

Colo Boons Accounts for five hundred & eighty two pounds 
of fresh Beef at two pence p pound which amounts to four pounds 
seventeen Shillings Specie entered in Page 173 

Martha Boons Account for Horse hire for thirty one days 
at one Shilling & three pence p day which amounts to one pound 

Eighteen shillings & nine pence Specie Entered in Page 163 

Mordecai Morgans Account for Horse hire for thirty one days, 
at one Shilling & three pence p day which amounts to one pound 
Eighteen shillings & nine pence Specie entered in Page 163 

Colo. Todds Certificates for services performed by Spies in 
March, May & October 1781 — It appears to the Commissioners 
on the whole certificates that there is due from the Treasury twenty 
Eight pounds fifteen Shillings Specie as entered in Page 167 

There appears due to William Grant for six hundred & 
Seventy seven bushels of corn Seventy five pounds four shillings & 
nine pence Specie entered in Page 171 also to Israel Grant for 
Eighty bushels of Corn, nine pounds twelve Shillings Specie entered 
in Page 171 

There appears due to William Marshall and Barnabas BoyI 
fourteen pounds fourteen Shillings Specie for their services as Spies 
entered in Page 167 

There appears due to Hugh Cunningiiam for on hundred 
& forty seven rations furnished the militia as pr. vouchers. Three 
pounds fourteen shillings & six pence Specie entered in Page 169 

There appears due to Edward Hammon three pounds, for 
thirty bushels of corn furnished Col' Crocketts Regiment Entered in 
Page 171 

Adjourned untill to-morrow morning Wednesday January 
i^' 1783 Met according to adjournment Present as before 

The Board had some of Colo Todds papers laid before them, 
which they examined but could find nothing relative to the Bills 
mentioned in the Governours Letter of the 4"" of Novem"" last. 

The Papers of Maj'' Joseph Bowman Dec*" and Capt' Isaac 
Bowman were laid before the Board, Which were examined ; and 





finding them necessary for the settlement of other Accounts — take 
them with them to the Falls of Ohio 

The Board being informed that M' Isaac Hite & Angus 
Cameron could give information concerning the dissipation of some 
of the Public Stores by the Officers of the Illinois Regiment ordered 
them to be summoned to attend the Board at the Falls of Ohio on 
the is'^ Ins' and subpencs were issued accordingly. 

Ordered that public notice be given — requiring all who can 
give the Board any information concerning the dissipation or mis- 
application of any of the Public stores or Monies by any persons to 
attend at the Falls of Ohio for that purpose See Letter Book N» 
14. Adjourned to Jefferson County 

Monday Jan'' 6'*'. Met in Camp, near Colonel Coxes Pres- 
ent as before. 

The Board being informed tliat Joseph Blackford Squire 
Boone Philemon Waters & David Glenn were meterial witnesses 
concerning the discipation of Public Stores by the Officers of the 
Illinois Regiment ordered Subpoenes to be issued to summon them 
to appear at the Falls of Ohio the 15'' Ins' 

Adjourned till tomorrow. 

Tuesday Jan'' 7'^ Met according to adjournment Present 
as before - The Board received information that Tho' Phelps Wil- 
liam Oldiiam Geo. Owens & others were Witnesses to some miscon- 
duct of the Officers of the Illinois Regiment, ordered them to be 
summoned, to attend the Board at the falls the 15''' Instant — Ad- 
journed till Tomorrow 

Falls of Ohio Jan' 10"' 1783 

In your favour of Dec'' 16'" you was pleased to consult the 
Commissioners about the propriety of erecting Posts at the Junctions 
of the Kantucky Licking & Limestone with the Ohio on which 
subject we had afterwards a conferrence with you and then gave 
it as our opinion that it was impracticable for many reasons to 
carry on the building of more than one of these Posts at a time 
And on mature consideration We judged the Post at mouth of Kan- 
tucky to be of the most immediate service to the Country in general 
and accordingly recommended it, to be first undertaken & immedi- 
ately set about, you sir are acquainted with the reasons that induced 


us to give the above advice, and wishing to have our opinion in 
writing we chearfully give it and are with great respect your most 

obedient Hum' Ser' 

Signed, William Fleming 
Sam^ M'^Dowell 
Brig" Gen^ George R Clark Caleb Wallace 
And finding that they could not do business at the Falls, as the 
Garrison was scarce of Provisions— no forrage for horses. Or enter- 
tainment for Persons obledged to attend the Board, and sundry 
other reasons— Adjourned to some convenient place in the Neigh- 

The Board expected to meet with the Persons summoned on 
the 6— and seventh Instant to appear at this place, and take their 
depositions, but none appeared. Adjourned till Tomorrow morning. 

Thursday Jan? i6 Met according to adjournment Present 
as before. 

Ordered that the Secretary advertise the siting of the Com- 
mis", at New Holland &c Adjourned to meet at New Holland 
Station Friday January 17th. Met at New Holland according 
to adjournment Present as before 

Drew off separate lists of Bills of Exchange drawn by each 
perticular Person from the general Abstracts for the convenience 
of future enquiries 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Mor'^ Saturday Jan? iS'"" Met 
according to adjournment Present as before 

Were employed in taking lists of Bills of Excliange etc. (as 
on the proceeding day) 

Adjourned untill Monday Next 

Monday Jan? 20"" Met according to adjournment Present 
William Fleming, Tho' Marshall, Sam': M Dowell & Caleb Wal- 
lace Esq."- 

Colo. Pope Sheriff of Jefferson County returned to the 
Board some of the Subpoenies directed to him executed on the fol- 
lowing persons Viz: Angus Cammeron, Isaac Hite, Edw* Tyler, 
Rob* Tyler, Rich^ Masteson, Philemon Waters, Tho' Phelps, Tho' 
Wilson, Joseph Blackford, Wm. Oldham, Geo. Owens, David Glenn 
and George Wilson 

1; i 


The Commissioners finding it inconvenient at present to take 
the depositions of some of the witnesses summoned relative to Mf 
Shannon's Accounts deferred their examination untill the 29"" Ins' 

The Board rec'' Gen' Claries accounts for examination 

Proceeded to take the Depositions of several witnesses sum- 
moned before the Board, relative to the misapplication of Monies 
or Stores by the Officers of the Illinois Regiment. See Bundle 
Depositions Illinois Depart""^' No. I. 2. 3. 4 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning Tuesday January 21" 
Met according to adjournment Present as before 

Rec^ Sundry accounts of Francis M'Dermorth as p"" Receipt 
delivered the settlement of which was deferred for further examin- 

Took the deposition of Rich* Masteson with regard to some 
of Capt' Shannons Accounts, See Bundle Depositions Illinois Dep' 

Capt' Barbours accounts were laid before the Board, which 
were rec* for examination & Capt' George called upon to elucidate 
the same. 

Several Depositions were taken with respect to the Stores in 
possession of Capt' George & his Officers at the Iron Bank or Fort 
Jefferson. See Bundle Depositions Illinois Departm' N" 6.7 

Adjourned till Tom^ Morns Wednesday Jan? 22" Met ac- 
cording to adjournment Present as before 

Rec'' Sergeant Crumps Account and Vouc'' for services per- 
formed as an Express, from which there appears due from the Treas- 
ury four pounds ten Shillings Specie. Entered in Page 175 

The Com"^ took the deposition of Majf Moore with regard to 
Capt' Shannons Ace" See Bundle Depositions Illinois Depart""* 

The Board being informed that John Burk M^ John May W™ 
Crump Eliz. Burke Bosten Demote Maj"" Moore Isaac Kellar. Lieu' 
Clark & Martin Carney were material evidences concerning Bills of 
Exchange drawn in favour of Cap" Barber by Capt' George and with 
regard to the accounts of other Officers of the Illinois Dep' Ordered 
Subpoenies to be issued summoning them before the Board. 


The Sheriff of Jefferson County executed the Subpoenies on 
the above named persons and made return to the Board 

The depositions of M'' Clark & M^ Carney were taken rel- 
ative to Bills drawn in favour of Capt' Barber by Capt' George 
for a large cargo, and the application of it See Bundle Depositions 
Illinois Depart"^' No 9. 10 

Adjourned till tomorrow Morning Thursday Jan^ 23* Met 
according to adjournment Present as before 

Wrote to Capt' George requiring him to lay before the Board 
returns of the Strength of his Garrison at Fort Jefferson, a copy 
of his Letter to the Executive relative to the Bills of exchange in 
favour of Capt' Barber, also the Invoices Capt' Barber gave him 
for the Cargo purchased. 

The Board rec* information that Ed" Worthington Marsham 
Brashears Isaac Kellar Aquilla Whitaker, Abraham Whitaker, 
John Foakes & James O. Finn were witnesses to prove the dissi- 
pation of Public Money or Stores by the Officers of the Illinois Regi- 
ment and ordered them to be summoned to appear before the Board 
on Monday the 3* of Febf ^4«rt: 

A petition from the Soldiers of the Illinois Regiment was 
presented to the Board praying redress of deficiences of Cloathing 
pay and other Grivances. Which was received, and the Board 
desired Gen' Clark to order the Capt" of the Regiment to make out 
pay rolls and accounts of Cloathing and lay them before the Board 

The Depositions of Isaac Kellar & Bosten Demore were taken 
by the Board with respect to the application of Public Stores &c. at 
Fort Jefferson, Kaskaskias St. Vincents See Bundle depositions Illi- 
nois Department — N' 11. & 12. 

Adjournment till Tomorrow Morning Friday Jan'' 24. Met 
according to adjournment Present as before 

The Commissioners finding it necessary that a Sheriff should 
attend the Board at certain times during their sitting at New Hol- 
land directed Col' Pope to attend on Monday last which was omitted 
to be entered in that day's Journals 

Ordered that the Sec^ Write to Mr. Carbeno desiring him to 
wait on the Board See Letter Book N. 15 


The Board was employed in examining Gen' Clarks Accounts 
which were mentioned in the Journal of the 20^^ to be received by 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morn*, Saturday Jan'' 25'^ Met 
according to adjournment Present as before. 

Mr. W^ Clark was called before tha Board Sworn a second 
time and Further examined relative to Capf Georges Accounts See 
Bundle Depositions Illinois Deparf" No 13 

There appears due to John Cardine Seven pounds ten Shill- 
ings for services performed as Express, as p'' Voucher N' I — Entered 
in Page 177 — Also for Services performed as French Interpreter at 
S' Vincents One Hundred and sixty nine pounds one Shilling as p' 
Vouchers N' 2 & 3. Entered in Page 177 

Agreeable to the Letter of Yesterday directed to Mr. Carbeno 
the Board had an interview with him in which he was informed on 
the powers given the Commissioners which being explained to him 
he informed them he would lay his accounts before them on Monday 
and desired a private interview with M^ Daniel Atti' Gen' of the 
State when it was convenient, +}*»*- fey- -Wfri- he meant to inform the 
Board of some matters of importance 

A Subpoena was issued to summon evidence in favour of Capt" 
Shannan to appear on the 29th. Ins' (relative to his Accounts) 
Adjourned until Monday morning, Monday Jan^ 27"" Met accord- 
ing to adjournment Present as before. 

A Subpoena was issued to summon Zephaniah Blackford to 
appear before the Board and give in evidence (In behalf of the 
State) what he knows concerning the Misapplication of Money or 
Stores by the officers of the Illinois Regiment. 

There appears due to Domenic Flannagan sixty-two pounds 
Eight Sliillings Specie, his arrears of pay as a Soldier when in Cap- 
tivity as p Voucher N' 4 entered in Page 177 

The Board rec* a Letter from Capf Rob' Todd Executor 
of Col' John Todd, Dec"" informing that he had carefully examined 
all the Col^ Papers, and was sorry it was not in his power to lay 
before them such papers as are necessarily required to elucidate his 
accounts respecting the Bills that were drawn by him when acting 
in the Illinois Department See Letter in Bundle. (Letters) No. 3 — 


Agreeable to Mr. Carboneauxs request made the 25 of last 
Month to have a private conferrence with the Att^ Gen' for the 
Western District the Att>' met him at the Falls, and by the assistance 
of Capt' Tardeveux as Interpreter collected what he had to say, and 
presented it in Writing to the Board, See Letter N' 4 in Bundle 

Adjourn till Tomorrow Morning Wednesday Feb?' 5th. Met 
according to adjournment Present as before 

The Commissioners laid over Capt' Barbours Accounts from 
the 29th Ult' untill the present date expecting to be better informed 
with respect to the different prices of Goods at New Orlans at the 
time Capt' Barbour purchased the Cargo sold at Fort Jefferson but 
having re* no further inforrriation, they proceeded to settle them, and 
Call* upon M'' William Clark to inquire of the Different qualities 
of the Goods purchased by Capt' George, & desired Capt" Shannon 
was desired to give in Writing the different prices of Goods as far as 
he knew while at N. Orleans from which Acc*^, and the Inventories 
of other Cargoes they proceeded to fix prices to the Different Articles 
contained in the Invoices of the Cargo, the final settlem' of w^ was 
deferred untill Tomorrow 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning Thursday Feb'' 6*^ Met 
according to adjournm' Present as before. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 
Phips for services performed as Express from S' Vincents to the 
Falls of Ohio four pounds ten Shillings Specie as p. Voucher No. 4 
Entered in Page 175 — There appears due to James Asturgus One 
Hundred and six Dollars, for Fifty three days work in building the 
Galley at the Falls, (as chief Artificer), at two Dol- p day as p 
Voucher N» i Entered in Page 178 

It appears to the Commissioners that James Asturgus is en- 
titled to one Thousand four Hundred & ten pounds Currency by a 
Bill from Will. Shannon dated July i« 1781 which is when re- 
duced by the Scale of Depreciation Three pounds ten Shillings & 
Six pence Specie, Entered in Page 169 

There appears due to John Ray two pounds thirteen Shillings 
and seven pence Specie for two Hundred and sixty Eight weight of 
Flour @ 20/ p Hundred, as p Voucher rec* Entered in Page 173 


There appears due to Joseph Phelps twenty one pounds Specie 
for a field of Corn taken for the use of Public Horses as p Voucher 
rec^ Entered in Page 171 

The Board in a note to Gen* Clark requested a Copy of his 
instructions to Lieu' Col' Montgomery for drawing Bills of Ex- 
change on the Credit of the State, in answer to which the Gen' gave 
his instructions in writing & a copy of his orders for the distribution 
of the Troops at different Posts under his command See in Letter 
Bundle (Letters) N' 5 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning Friday Feb^ 7^ Met 
according to adjournment present as before 

The Board Wrote to Capf Rob' George requiring his im- 
mediate attendance; as the Final Settlement of Capt' Barbours Bills, 
(with them) was near a close, and Capt" Barbour having purposed 
to produce Witnesses to cast new light upon his Acct' it was neces- 
sary he should be present at their examination See Letter Book 
N' 17 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Reuben 
Camp Two pounds seventeen Shillings and two pence Specie for 
services performed as a Waggoner in the Service of the State as p 
Voucher N' 6 Entered in Page 163 

Colo. William Pope & John Edwards came before the Board 
and being sworn, (at their own request) gave testimony with re- 
spect to the conduct of Capt' Shannons Commissary General in the 
Western Department See Depositions in Capt' Shannons Ace'" 
Bundle Illinois Separtment. N' 24. 25 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning, Saturday Feb>' 8th. Met 
according to adjournment present as before 

At. Capt' Barbours request Martain Carney Qr M. at F 
Jefferson was call^ before the Board and examined on Oath relative 
to some articles of his s* Barbers Cargo which was delivered at 
Fort Jefferson not contained in the Invoices, in the Hands of the 
Commissioners ; and was questioned with respect to the quantity 
and quality of different articles in s"* Cargo. Also Sergeant Pit- 
mans Deposition with respect to sundry articles of Cloathing and 
Taffia rec^ of Capt' Barbour by him, for Soldiers of the Illinois 


Regiment on their passage up the Missisipi, See Depositions in Capt' 
Georges Accounts Bun' Ilh'nois Department. No. 26. 27 

Mr. Wilh'am Clark was call'd upon by the Board to inform 
on oath whether the Inventories in possession of the Commissioners 
were wrote by him & whether they contained all the Goods brought 
by Capt' Barbour &c. See Deposition in Capf Georges Ace'' 
Bundle Illinois Department N' 28 

Adjourn till Monday Morning. 
Monday Feb'' 10^ Met according to adjournment Present as be- 

The Board being informed by Majf George Walls that the 
Garrison at the Falls of Ohio had not received any Salt as rent for 
the public Kettles at the Salt Works, for some time past, and that 
he apprehended the rent of S* Kettles was misapplied by Private 
Persons, They took the matter under consideration and resolved on a 
future enquiry witli Colo John Bowmans Manager of the Public 
Kettles in behalf of the State — and proceeded to examine Joseph 
Brooks & John M'^Fall relative there to See Depositions in Bundle 
John Bowmans Acct' N' 1.2 The deposition of Majf George 
Walls was taken by the Board in consequence of a report circulating 
to the prejudice of Gen' Clarks character respecting a private Trade 
carried on by the Gen' in partnership with Mi" Rob* Elliot, See 
Deposition in Gen' Clarks Accounts, Bundle Illinois Departm' N' 29 

On the 21^'- Ulto. Capt' Phillip Barbour Merchant, laid 
before the Board a copy of a first of Exchange drawn by Rob* 
George, Capt' Comd- at Fort Jefferson on Olliver Pollock Esq"" 
Agent at New Orleans for the united States of America in favour 
of the said Philip Barbour or Order, and dated i^ of Jan'' 1 78 1 
expressing 232,320 Spanish Milled Dollars to be paid on Sight, for 
Liquors and Dry Goods furnished the said George, for the use of 
purchasing provisions, and to support the Troops in the Illinois 
Department ; and on the Back — Received of Olliver Pollock Esq'' 
the sum of 32,500 Dollars on the Account of the within contents — 
dated New Orleans 18*^ July 1781, signed Philip Barbour; likewise 
a Certificate signed Zach. Burnley, a Magistrate for Orange County, 
That the within contains a true Copy of a Bill of Exchange as pro- 
duced by Capt' Philip Barbour with a receipt on the back agreeable 


to the original and dated 4^ September 1782.. Some days after 
Capt" Barbour produced the Original Second of Exchange for 
232,320 Spahish Milled Dollars, also a Second of Exchange drawn 
by Robert George Capt" Com*" at Fort Jefferson on Olliver Pollock 
Esqf Agent at New Orleans for the United States of America in 
favour of Philip Barbour or Order and dated i" January 1781. 
expressing 5000 Spanish Milled Dollars to be paid on sight for 
Liquors & Cloathing furnished the said George for the use of the 
troops in the Illinois Department. These two Setts of Bills with 
a Letter of Advice were inclosed in a Letter for Capt" Barbour to 
M^ Pollock of the same date requesting that he would Act with them 
agreeable to what they formerly Spoke of; Endorsed on the back, 
This Letter with the Bills enclosed, is not to be sent to New Or- 
leans until you hear from me P. B. See Bundle K. No. i 

The Letter of Advice from Capt' George, directed to Mr. 
Pollock, Agent for the State of Virginia at New Orleans informs 
him that Capt' Philip Barbour had furnished him with a large Cargo 
of Liquors & dry Goods for which he had given him two Setts of 
Exchange for 237,320 Dollars which he most earnestly begs M' 
Pollock may pay in Gold or Silver Coin without hesitation. See 
N» 2 — The Board call'd upon Capt' George for information on 
the Case, and required him to lay before them his powers for drawing 
these Bills of Exchange, and his reasons for incurring a Debt so 
enormous on public Account, Upon which Capt' George produced 
a Letter from Lieut" Colo. Jno. Montgomery dated Nov^ 15 1780. 
advising him to purchase the whole of Capt' Barbours Cargo for the 
use of the Troops &c. drawing Bills upon Olliver Pollock Esq'' Agent 
at -New- Orleans, See N' 3 

Capt' George also pleaded that the Necessities of the Garri- 
son, and the solicitations of the Officers of the Garrison were so 
pressing that he was constrained to purchase the Goods of Capt' 
Barbour, and thought himself authorized by Col. Montgomeries 
Letter above mentioned to draw Bills on Mr. Pollock for the 
Amount of the price 

Colo Montgomery then informed the Board that he himself 
was only authorized to draw Bills either on Gen' Clark or the 
Treasury of Virginia to defray the necessary Expenses of the troops 


in the Illinois Department See N' 4. From which it does not 
appear that Colo Montgomery had any powers himself, and conse- 
quently he could not authorise Capt' George to draw Bills on Mr. 
Pollock — The Board therefore, after mature deliberation are 
unanimously of opinion that the State of Virginia are under no obli- 
gations to Honour them as a legal Claim. 

It being alledged that the distresses of the garrison would 
justify the purchase and entitle Capt" Barbour to payment. The 
Board proceeded to inquire into the Fact, and find by the Testimony 
of W™ Clark George Owens and others. See No. 4 that the troops 
and inhabitants had been several times invested and their Crops 
of Corn greatly Injured by the Indians in the Summer preceeding 
the afforcsaid purchase, that during the Fall Season they were very 
sickly, and at the time of Capt. Barbours arrival they were nearly 
destitute of provisions and entirely without Spiritous Liquors; To 
confirm these Testimonies Capt' Barbour produced a Writing dated 
August 20'' 1782, subscribed John Montgomery Colo, of tiie Illinois 
Regiment certifying that he met Plu'lip Barbour on the Missisipi 
Nov'' 1780 with his Battoe ladded with Goods; He (Montgomery) 
knowing the great want we were in of them, wrote a Letter of advice 
to the Agent or Capt. George to purchase them ; — and if the pur- 
chase had not been made, a great part of the Troops must undoubt- 
edly have perished — See No. 5 — 

From these Testimonies as it does not appear that Cloathing 
was greatly wanted, or that Capt. Barbours cargo afforded an im- 
mediate supply of provisions, the Board cannot be of opinion that 
the purchase was indispensible. Yet the Board being conscious of 
the equitable Intentions of the State of Virginia, and their readi- 
ness to reward those from whom they have received Services; Are of 
Opinion, as the necessities of the Garrison might in some measure 
induce Capt' George to make the purchase and as the Cargo was 
made use of by the Troops under his command, that Capt. Barbour 
should be paid a generous price Therefor, And the Board ordered 
Capt. George to lay before them Invoices of the Goods. Capt. George 
informed them that he had lost or mislaid the Invoices, and that 
after using the most anxious endeavours they cannot be found 


Upon wliich Capt' Barbour produced a writing dated rort 
Nelson Falls of Ohio 7"" of July 1782. Given under the Hand of 
Robert George Capt' before a Magistrate of Jefferson County. In 
uhicii he certifies tliat he received of Capt. Philip Barbour at I'^ort 
Jefferson Sundry Invoices for a Quantity of Goods of him there 
received, amount of the first cost of the same in New Orleans, 23,732 
Dollars &c which Invoices through the tiurry of removing from tliat 
Post have been cither lost or mislaid. See No. 6 — 

This certificate Capt. George informed the Board he gave 
from a memorandum which he found amongst his papers, and which 
he has since lost. But laid before the Board an Inventory of a 
Quantity of Taffia &c by him delivered to Martin Carney Q'' M. 
and another for a Quantity of Broad Cloths &c with a receipt on 
the Back signed Israel Dodge Dep^ Agent dated Fort Jefferson De- 
cember 15*^ 1780, and witnessed by John Baley Capt' & Leonard 
Helm, expressing that he had received of Robert George Esq'' Capt' 
&c the within Merchandise for the use of the Troops in the Illinois 
Department belonging to the State of Virginia See N» 7 & 8, 
Also Accounts of the Issues made of the said Goods by the s^ Quarter 
Master & Deputy Agent. See N» 9.10, In which he alledged were 
specified the whole of the Cargo that he purchased of Capt' Bar- 
bour, This allegation was supported by the Testimony of William 
Clark referred to above. The Inventories were read over Article by 
Article to Capt. Barbour who answered that he thought the Quantity 
was small but not having a copy of the Invoices, he could not cer- 
tainly remember any part of his Cargo, but what is contained in 
the afforesaid Inventories, — only two Half Hogsheads of Taflfia, 
twelve blankets, twenty-eight yards of Stroud, Six pair of Shoes 
& Sixty Gallons of Tafiia which by the certificate of Martin Carney, 
Q. M, and the Deposition of Buckner Pitman, Sergeant See N' 1 1 
& 12. were also furnished the Troops of the State by Capt' Barbour 
on their passage up the Missisipi, as also a Bale of sewing twine 
some dozens of pocket Looking Glasses, several pieces of Stroud 
& a Quantity of Blankets & Butcher Knives whicii arc not ascertained 
by Testimony. From the afforesaid Inventories &c, The Board 
made out an Invoice & from the best information they could obtain 
of the prices of such Goods at New Orleans, the latter part of the 


Summer 1780, the time which Capt. Barbour is said to have pur- 
chased them there, affixed the first cost of each article as p Invoice 

Doll. Liv s 
N' 13 The amount 7,588 i. 6^, which is far below the sum 
expressed in Capt. Georges certificate, but as the certificate was 
given from a memorandum that is now lost, and no proof being pro- 
duced that a greater quantity of Goods was delivered, the Board 
can only form a Judgment upon the afToresaid Inventories & returns 
from the Quarter Master and D" Agent. Before the Board deter- 
mined what advance it is reasonable to allow Capt. Barbour upon 
this Invoice, He laid before the Board a letter dated 25 Jan' 1783. 
Setting forth his motives for bringing up his Cargo to Fort JefTerson ; 
the Risk cSc the Loss he incurred in the undertaking, and also the 
profit which he would have made upon the Cargo if he had taken 
it to the Illinois, and that the circumstances he recites will Justify 
his layini; 1 000 pC upon his Cargo. See N' 14 for which he asserts 
he agreed with Captain George subsequent to the Determination of 
the three Officers who awarded him 1 500 pC This Capt. George 
confesses to be the Truth and does not deny that he might have wrote 
the Letter to Mr. Pollock, as recited in Capt. Barbours, but says 
he cannot remember it, and that he generally kept Copies of his 
Letters but can find none of the aforesaid See N' 4 — But as it 
appears from a number of depositions in No. 4 that the Risk and 
expense must have been very considerably; Therefore the Board 
think it Reasonable that the State of Virginia should pay Capt. 
Barbour two hundred and twenty-five percent upon the aforesaid 
7,588 Dollars & i 1/3 Livers, the supposed first cost of the S^ Goods, 
that is to say three Dollars and a quarter for every Dollar laid out 
by him on the purchase of said goods at New Orleans, amount 
24661 Dollars 4 Livers, 6 Sous & 8 Deniers. And the Board like- 
wise think it Reasonable, If it should hereafter appear the first cost 
of the said Goods at New Orleans was greater or a greater Quantity 
was actually delivered by Capt. Barbour to Capt. George, than is 
expressed in the above mentioned Invoice, that the State of Virginia 

should likewise pay the same pC upon their first cost. 

As the Board have not sufficient Evidence before them to form 
a Judgment whether the State ought to reimburse Mr. Pollock the 


32500 Dollars which is receipted on one of the aforesaid Bills they 
herewith transmit Copies of sundry Letters that may assist the 
Executive in the Determination. See N'' 15 

The Board also observe, from the Remarks upon Mr. Pollocks 
Vouchers with which they arc furnished by tlie Executive, tliat upon 
the first of the above mentioned set of Bills for 5000 Dollars there 
is a Receipt on the back signed Philip Barbour 31" of March 1781 
which for the Said Reasons they also refer to the consideration of 
the Executive. 

Colo. M'Dowell, one of the members of the Board, has leave 
of absence, to Lincoln County on private business — Adjourned till 
Tomorrow morning Tuesday Febi' ii"" Met according to adjourn- 
ment Present William Fleming Tho' Marshall and Caleb Wallace 
Esqf' — 

The Board was employed in examining and compairing Mons' 
Carbouneauxs Accounts & Bills of Exchange, presented on the 27^ 
Ult' with the Accounts & Vouchers of the Officers by whom the 
Debts were contracted which were not finally closed but deferred 
for further examination. 

Adjourned till Thursday next — 
Thursday Feby 13'" Met according to adjournment. Present as 
before — The Commissioners were engaged in examining Mons. 
Carbouneaux's Ace" &c as on the preceding day — 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning. Friday Feby. 14"" Met 
according to adjournment Present as before 

Colo Jn' Montgomeries Accounts & Vouchers were presented 
to the Board for examination and Mons'' Carbouncaux Bills which 
were deferred until said Ace'' were laid before the Board, were 
taken up and examined but not finally settled 

Adjourn^ until to-morrow morning Saturday Feb' 15 Met 
according to adjournm*- Present as before 

There appears due from the Commonwealth of Virginia to 
James Orr Seventeen pounds five shillings and four pence Specie 
for his service as a Soldier in Capt' James Shelbeys Comp'' in the 
Illinois Regiment from the first day of Jan'' 1779 until the 16'" 
Scptr following being 259 days at one shilling & four pence p day 
as p Voucher N' 5 Entered in Page 177 


The Board proceeded Finally to adjust and liquidate Sundry 
Bills of Exchange & Accounts laid before them the 27th Ult» by 
Mons. Carbouneaux Viz — Four Bills of Exchange drawn by Wil- 
liam Shannon Commissary Gen' One on Gen' Clark for 204^ Dol- 
lars Specie, in Favour of I. M. P. Legras dated Sepf 1 781. which 

from the S'^ Shannon's Books & Vouchers N' 6 appears just 

and ought to be Settled. 

One Second of Exchange on tiie Treasurer of the State of 
Virginia in favour of Mons. Carbouneaux for 9280 Dollars dated 
the 14'" October 1780. and assigned to Mons. Dalchurust, which 
from Shannons Books & Vouchers N» 25, appears Just, and ought 
to be settled with 127^ Dollars Specie. 

One Second of Exchange on the Treasurer &c. in favour of 
Mons'' Carbouneaux for 1 600 Dollars dated October 14th 1780, 
and assigned to Mons'' Dalchurust, which from Shannon's Books 
& Vouchers N» 25 appears just and ought to be Settled with 21 
Dollars & 5/6 Specie 

And one on the Treasurer &c for 500 1/5 Dollars in favour 
of Patrick Kennedy dated 24'" Sept. 177Q and endorsed Pat. Ken- 
nedy, accompanied with a duplicate of the Account for which it was 
given. The Vouchers Mr. Shannon lodged in the Auditor's Office, 
and therefore the Board can make no certain Report upon the Bill. 

Also Six Bills of Exchange Drawn by Colo. John Mont- 
gomery One on the Treasurer of Virginia in favour of Capt. 

John 'Williams for 750 Dollars advanced for recruiting Service, 
dated Apl. lo"" 1780, assigned to Rennoe, which from Colo. Mont- 
gomery's Vouchers No. 41 appears Just and ought to be settled TVith 
12J Dollars Specie. 

One on the Treasurer of Virginia in favour of Capt. John 
Williams for 182, Dollars, dated April 8th 1780, assigned to M' 
Rennoe which from Colo. Montgomery's Vouchers N*" 12, appears 
just and ought to be settled in Specie though not so expressed in 
the Bill. 

One on the Treasurer &c. in Favour of Aud'" Ray for 550 
Dollars dated 2lst July 1780 endorsed Rew, wlu'ch from Colo. 
Montgomery's Vouchers N' 21, appears to be given for Taffia at 154 
Dollars p Gallon and ought to be settled with, iij Dollars Specie — 


One on the Treasurer &c in favour of John Gerault for 650 
Dollars, dated 21" July 1780, endorsed Gerault, which from Colo. 
Montgomery's Voucher N' 20, appears to be given for Taffia at 
i54,Dollars p Gallon and ought to be settled with laf Dollars 
Specie — 

One on the Treasurer &c for 1372/5 Dollars in favour of 
Antoine Renault dated July 28"" 1780 endorsed Antoine Renault, 
with account of particulars on the Back except Line Second which 
expresses Sundries See Vouchers amounting to 400 Livers N' 24 
which also accompany the Bill, The Board are of opinion that the 
Bill ouglit to be Settled in Specie 

And one on the Treasurer in favour of Stephen Gooding for 
1350 Dollars advanced to Lieut. Perault for the Recruiting Service 
dated nth August 1780 which ought to be settled with 19 2/7 
Dollars Specie, as Colo. Montgomery can produce no certain Vouch- 
ers The Board have charged the Bill to his account with the State. 

Also a Bill of Exchange dated 27th June 1779 drawn by 
Colo John Todd on the Treasurer of Virginia for 741 Dollars in 
favour of Moses Henry, due from the Commonwealth of Virginia 
for money advanced by him. There is no Voucher for this among 
Colo Todds papers laid before the Board by his Executors, but they 
think it probable that the Bill was given for paper Currency and 
that it ought to be settled with 185^ Dollars Specie agreeable to the 
Illinois Scale of Depreci°° — 

Also an order dated 8th December 1778 in favour of Pierre 
Lefevre drawn by Leonard Helm Comm*" deceas* on Colo G. R. 
Clark for 3535 Livers (equal to 707 Dollars) and countersigned by 
G. R. Clark for which no Vouchers can be produced by the Executor 
of tlie deceased and therefore the Board can make no certain report 
upon it 

Also an account against the State of Virginia certified by L 
M. P. Legras L' Colo. 24'^ March 1781 Countersign^ by G. R. 
Clark, amount 2035 Livers equal to 407 Dollars From which the 
Board think it reasonable to deduct, 112 Dollars for excessive 
Charge, and that the remaining, 295, Dollars should be settled with 


Also an account on the State of Virginia dated 1779 drawn 
by Nicolas Perrot for Taffia at sundries amount, 750 Dollars Certi- 
fied by Leonard Helm Superintendant and countersign'' on tbe back 

G. R. Clark, by the Deposition of Capt. Todd No. this 

account must be stated in paper Currency and ought to be settled 
with 75 Doll' Specie agreeable to the Scale of Depreciation for the 
Illinois Country 

Also a certificate from John Rodgers Capt. Commandant 
dated Decem. 8'^ 1780, in Favour of the Estate of Capt. Plasse for, 
65 1 J'-'' Gross Beef, which ought to be settled at J Dollars p Lb 
amount, 81 2/5 Dollars Specie 

Also a certificate from Zephaniah Blackford Dep' Comm' 
dated 13'" August 1781 in Favour of Pierre Mazure for 1800 '" Beef 
at a Liver p Lb, amount 1800 Livers (equal to 360 Dollars) which 
ought to be settled with Specie 

Also two orders on Boje, one dated December 20"" 1780 for 
two Loads of Wood N. i The other dated Jan'' 19th 1781, for 
two loads of wood N' 4 signed John Rodgers Com'- — Two Orders 
on Rennaux, one dated Dec'' 20'^ 1780, for two Loads of Wood No. 
2 the other dated Jan'' 26th 1 78 1, for two Loads of Wood No. 3, 
both signed John Rodgers Com*"' And one Order on Towrenger 
dated Jan'' 2" 1 78 1 for two Loads of Wood N' 5 signed John 
Rodgers Comman"*' The Board think it probable that the Wood 
was received and that it should be settled at one Dollar the Load 

Also Lieu' Mombrun's Pay Roll from the 12"" May 1780, 
till the I2t_h of May 1782, at 26 2/3 Dollars p Month Amount 640, 
Dollars. The Board find that Lieut. Momrun was without a Com- 
mand the greater part of the time specified in this Pay Roll, but 
approve the Claim from the Recommendation Accompanying it 
which are confirm*' by the Report of Gen' Clark. 

Adjourned till Monday morning 
Monday Feb'' 17 Met according to adjournment present as before. 

The Express sent by Gen' Clark at the request of the Com- 
missioners, to Illinois, in Dec"" last with dispatches from the Board 
returned on Sunday the i6"'- Int. with a packett from Kaskaskias 
which was sent to Government by Mons'' Carbouneaux. 


It appears that on the is'" Decf 1782 Edw* Parker & Wil- 
liam Boush were sent Express from the Falls of Ohio with dispatches 
from the Board to the Court of Kaskaskias &c and returned to this 
place the i6th of Feb'' 1783, and they have faithfully perform* this 
Service, the Board think it reasonable that they should receive from 
the Treasury of Virginia the sum of Forty Pounds to be Equally 
divided between them Entered in Page 175 

The Board after making Enquiry relative to Col' Lynn's 
Accounts, find that the Administrator can produce no Vouchers, for 
his drawing Bills of Exchange on Mr. Pollock, State Agent, and 
being informed that Colo Montgomery John Sanders & Gen' Clark 
were acquainted with his drawing Bills on private Account in the 
Illinois took their Depositions. See Bundle Col' Lynn's Ace' Illi- 
nois Department N' 30, 31, 32. 5or. 

The Commissioners are therefore of opinion that all Bills 
drawn by Colo. Lynn accept these drawn when, sent to New Orleans 
for Powder, come under the first General Remark in Page 148. 

The Commissioners wrote the following Letter to his Excel- 
lency the Governour dated Feb" 17"^ 1783 


The Board of Commissioners wrote the 23d of December in 
return to your Excellancy's favours of Oct. i6th & Nov. 4th. In 
compliance with your orders we have diligently searched all the 
papers in our possession, that could throw light on the nature of 
the Bills in Mr. Nathan's Hands, yet remain much in the dark, as 
Colo. Todds Books & Accounts are supposed by the Executor to be 
somewhere in the interior parts of Virginia, and he can only lay 
before us some detached papers amongst which we find a Letter fio.n 
the Executive dated Will"burg in Council August 20"" 177'^ .11 
which the Honbl* Lieu' Governor acknowledges the receipt of several 
Letters from Colo Todd by Colo Slaughter of the i'^ & 2* July 
1779 which were laid before the Council who were pleased with 
the contents and approved of Colo Todds Conduct and plan for 
supporting the Credit of the paper money but that it must be sub- 
mitted to the assembly who alone can give it efficacy. That the 
Eight draughts Colo Todd mentions have not been presented but 
shall be duly attended to, as the Gentlemen to whom they are pay- 


able are highly deserving of the Greatful attention of Government, 
The Board likewise found a Peltry Account amongst Colo Todds 
papers by which it appears he purchased a quantity of Peltry from 
Mf Beaureguard sometime in the Fall of the year 1779 Amounting 
to 2i,ooo£ for which it is probable he drew Bills to the amount. 
The Peltry by this ace' seems to be paid to sundry Persons, Colo 
Montgomery's Certificate & information to the Board likewise ac- 
companies this. On the whole as no Bills of Colo Todds drawing 
have appeared before us, nor are any mentioned in the lists trans- 
mitted to us, We imagine the Bills in M^ Nathans possession may 
probably be for the above purchase but as we are not favoured either 
with the amount or dates of these Bills, and no direct light can be 
got here we cannot be positive. On the supposition that the Bills 
were given at that time, and on that Account the Commissioners 
have to observe that 210 packs of Peltry costs the State 20/ p lb 
and at the time the purchase was made peltry & Silver were nearly 
on a par ; as it appears Colo Todd is said to have given a high price 
for the Peltry allowing 3 livers p lb which is 50 p C higher than it 
generally is; shews the purchase was made with depreciated paper 
money at a little more than five & a half for one, if the Bills in 
question were drawn for the above Ace* the Comm" think they ought 
to be taken up at the above discount, but the Board wish to refer 
your Excellancy to Colo Todds Letters of the i" & 2^ July 1779 
which we suppose lodged in the Council Chamber to elucidate the 
aflair as we cannot meet with copies of them. The Board have 
finished Capt' Georges draughts on M'' Pollock in favour of Capf 
Barbour, but not thinking it prudent to trust the papers relative 
thereto by this conveyance, they hope your Excellancy will dispence 
with the principles they went on till they have an opportunity of 
laying the papers before the Executive as no Invoices were produced 
eitlier by Capt. George or Capt. Barbour, the Board affixed the 
prices to the Cargo delivered at Fort Jefferson from the best lights 
they could get at Seven thousand five hundred & Eighty Eight Dol- 
lars, one Liver & 1/3 as the prime cost at New Orleans, on which 
the Board allowed two hundred & twenty-five p C advance for 
the Cargo delivered at Fort Jefferson, amounting in the whole to 
twenty four Thousand six hundred and sixty one Dollars, four Liv- 


ers six sous, eiglit Deniers including all expences. We have not 
yet closed Gen' Clarks Accounts as we find them so conected with 
the other Accounts both the Quarter Masters & Commissaries as 
well as the Officers that we could not finish them before wc had a 
general view of the whole, we will be able to settle his in ten days, 
to examine all the accounts minutely will take up a great deal of 
time perhaps more than the Executive can imagine, as double receipts 
have always been taken for sums paid, the Vouchers should be listed 
alphabetically to prevent double entries. None of Mf Pollocks Bills 
he presented for payment, have appeared before this Board, but one 
of Jan'' i" 1 78 1 for 5000 Doll' which appears to be for part of the 
same Cargo Capt' George purchased from Capt" Barbour, and was 
a second Bill and is considered as part of the 24661 Dollars 5 ^ 
Liv" allowed as above for that Cargo, By Depositions it appears 
that these Bills drawn by Wm Lynn in 1778 were for Goods pur- 
chased by Lynn on his own Ace' at Kaskaskias & Mesiere and ought 
not to be Charged to the State. It likewise appears that Capt" 
Elliots draughts & the Invoices of Goods ship* on account and at 
the risk of the United States, but charged to the State of Virginia 
by M' Pollock was in consequence of the Cargo being lost in the 
Missisipi and some of the articles that were saved from the Wreck 
being made use of by the troops in the Illinois, Inventories of the 
wliolc Cargo and what was saved & applied to the use of the Troops 
are Copying but as we have not fully examined the affair we defer 
giving our opinion in it. The Board inform* your Excellency in 
theirs of December 23* that an Express was sent off to Kaskaskias 
to which they had a return last evening informing them they might 
expect some of their principle Inhabitants would wait on them with 
the unsettled Accounts &c in a Short time, M^ Carbouneaux who 
will present this is an inhabitant of Kaskakias and comes to get some 
private affairs settled but we suppose principally as a deputy to repre- 
sent the confusion the Country is in, which if not settled by this 
State, we apprehend he will proceed to Congress — None of the 
Posts which your Excellancy mentioned in your favour of the 16^ 
of Ocf last are yet erected. We expect Gen' Clark will lay before 
you his reasons for defering this business. We have lately received 
an address from the Civil & Military officers of Fayette which ac- 


companies this and praying us to report our opinion to Government. 
We think could a Fort be erected at or near the mouth of Lime- 
stone it would tend greatly to encourage Settlements in that County 
and that it should be garrisoned by a Comp^ of Regulars aided by 
the Militia & furnished with flour from the Neighbourhood of Fort 

When we get a little more through the business we will in- 
form your Excellency by an Express of our proceedings with such 
remarks on these Bills, which have been presented for payment and 
are not laid before us as may be necessary for the Executive to have 
before we can return our whole proceedings we are with great 
Respect — 

Your Excellency's Most obed' Hum' Serv'' 
W" Fleming, 
Tho? Marshall 
Caleb Wallace 
Monsf Carbouneaux laid before the Board a Bill of Exchange dated 
6'* Aug'' 1 78 1 drawn by George Slaughter Commandant in favour 
of William Boush for 50 Dollars for performing Express from Fort 
Patrick Henry to the Falls of Ohio. Which the Board are of opin- 
ion is an excessive Charge and ought to be settled with 20 Dollars — 
And also these Certificates drawn by Zephaniah Blackford 
Dep' Comm'' — 

One dated 7"* June 1781 in favour of Mons'' Pazzar for 
373 '" of Beef at a liver in Money p. Lb and-6"' Iron at 2J Livers 
p lb — 

One dated 10'* August 1781 in favour of Maj"" Godfrey 

Linetot for 19I Gallons Taffia at 100 Livers in Peltries p Gallon 

And another dated i"* April 1781, in favour of said Linetot 
for 4I Gallons Bears Gil at 10 Livers p Gallon in peltries — 
Which as they are not properly certifyed cannot be pass'd until 
Blackfords Books come before the Board. .; 

N B The Board observe that on the 15"" Instant Two Bills is 

second of Exchange were adjusted, drawn by William Shannon in ;! 

favour of Mons' Carbouneaux - One for 9280 Dollars and the other :; 

127 1/3, which he informs were given into the hands of Mons'' i|. 

Gratiot, and may probably also be presented for payment ^. 



Mons'' Carbouneaux has obtained an order from the Board 
on Majr Walls at Fort Nelson for a boat belonging to the State 
valued at 40 Dollars, which is to be deducted by the Auditors in 
Settling this Account. 

Adjourned until Tomorrow Morning Tuesday Feb' 18''' 
Met according to adjournment Present as before 

The Commissioners were engaged in examining Colo Mont- 
gomery's Accounts & Vouchers mentioned in the Journal of the 
Eleventh Ins' which were not finally Settled by the Board but de- 
ferred for further examination 

Adjourned until Tomorrow morning, Wednesday Feb^' 19"" 
Met according to adjournment present as before 

Tlic Commissioners were engaged in examining Gen' Clarks 
& & Colo Montgomery's Accounts which were not finished but 
deferred for further examination — Adjourned until Tomorrow 

Thursday Feb'' 20'^ Met according to adjournment present 

as before 

The Board continued to examine Colo Montgomeries Ac- 
counts, (which remain unsettled and are to be furtlier examined 

Mr. Martin Carney, Q M In the Illinois Department, Laid 
his Ace" before the Board, which were entered upon, and part of 
them examined 

Issued a Subpoena at Capt. Shannons request summoning evi- 
dences relative to his conduct in the Q M and Com' Departments. 

Adjourned untill Tomorrow Morning 

Friday Feb^ 21°' Met according to adjournm' present as 

before Received from Martin Carney Quarter Master at Fort 

Jefferson in the Illinois Department in the years 1780 and 1 78 1, 
all his Ace" of Stores and issues with the Vouchers for the same 
Which on inspection we found to be just as p General Account of 
Arms N' i, of Amunition N' 2 of Soap, Tobacco & Whiskey N' 
3 of Flints & Engineers Stores, N' 4 of Quarter Master Stores & 
Artillery, N' 5 of Boats and other Craft, N» 6 of Taffia and Sugar, 
N? 7 of Military Stores, Cavalry Accountrements & Sund^ Stores 
N' 8 of Q' Masters Stores, and Ace' of Artificers imployed by him, 
N» 9 of Sundry Merchandise issued by him, part of a Cargo pur- 


chased from Captain Barbour, N' lo of a Cargo purchased from 
Debruil, N' ii also N» 12 containing issues of sundries brought 
from Richmond in 1782, N' 13 Forrage, waggon Provision and 
Cash Accounts in taking the above to Fort Pitt likewise a memoran- 
dum of Sundry Articles left buried at Fort Jefferson when that place 
was evacuated, Viz: Seven Hand Mills, one Waggon a damnified 
four pound Gun, fifty Stand of old arms, one Grinding Stone two 
56 weights & one 28 "" D' one Beek Iron 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Hanah 
Breeding three pounds nine Shillings Specie for Making Soldiers 
Shirts at Fort Jefferson as p. Account & Vouchers reed. Entered in 
Page 182 (Page 52 O. B.) 

Adjourned untill Tomorrow Morning Saturday Feb^ 22^ 
Met according to adjournment. Present as before 

It appears to the Commissioners that Arch'' Lockard is En- 
titled to ten pounds, one Shill^ & six pence for Extra Service Whilst 
a Soldier, Also £ 15,, 7,, 8J4 for five pair of Hand mill Stones, 
made for the use of the Troops in the Illinois Department as p. 
Voucher', N» 2 & 3 rec* Enter in Page 182 

It also appears that there is due to the said Lockard Six 
pounds Eight shillings & three pence, by a certificate assign'd to him 
by Mr' Nilly Lewis, for attending on the Sick Soldiers in hospital 
as p Voucher rec* N» i Entered in Page 184. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due from the 
Commonwealth of Virginia to M^^ Spangler Administratrix of Wil- 
liam Spangler Deceased Eleven pounds one Shilling for furnishing 
221 days rations to soldiers as p Voucher N' 2 Enter'd in Page 

It appears to the Board that there is due to Edw'' Parker 
Sergeant four pounds five Shillings Specie for going Express to St. 
Vincents as p Voucher N' 5 entered in Page 175 

It appears to the Commissioners by a settlement with Martin 
Carney, Dep^ Quarter Master, (in the Illinois Department) of his 
accounts with the State of Virginia that there is a ballance of two 
hundred & thirty pounds fourteen shillings & Eleven pence half 
penny, due as p account and Vouchers received. Entered in Page 


Adjourned untill Monday morning Monday Feb^ 24'^ Met 
according to adjournment Present as before. 

The Board received of Capt. William Oldham his Pay Roll 
from the 20"" of July untill the 20'* of August 1780, See Bundle 
Jefferson Militia Accounts N' i 

The Commissioners observe that Capt. Oldham is only en- 
titled to Lieu*^ Pay on the account of Deficiency of the Number of 
Men upon his Roll the Lieut, to Ensigns Pay, the Ensign to Ser- 
geants pay and the two Youngest Sergeants to the pay of a private 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Capt. 
Oldham Rations furnished himself on the expedition in the year 
1780, one pound ten Shillings as p Voucher N' 2 Enter'd in Page 
165 Bundle Jefferson Militia. 

It appears there is due to Robt. Hamilton twenty five pounds 
Specie for a Horse lost on the Expedition in the year 1780, as p 
Voucher Entered in Page 163 also a certificate for provisions fiirni'^h'' 
on sd. Expedition amount one pound ten Shillings as p Voucher N' 
3 Bundle Jefferson Militia. 

Mr Isaac Hite having informed the Board that Angus Cam- 
eron had informed him that he was not interrogated by the Board 
relative to some things that concerned the enquiry about Gen' Clark 
At Mr Hites instance the Board ordered another subpoena to issue 
for s* Cameron. He appearing on the 24"" was sworn and interro- 
gated by the Board See Deposition N» i Bundle Illinois Depart- 
ment. (Gen' Clarks Accounts) 

Tlie Militia Accounts for Jefferson County were laid bctorc 
tlie Board by Colo. John Floyd, the settlement of which is deferred 
untill Tomorrow morning. 

The Commissioners being obliged by the business to go to 
Lincoln County, on Friday the 28"' Instant; Called on Col' Floyd 
for an escort of twenty five men to attend them thither 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning. Tuesday Feb'' 25^ 
Met according to adjournment Present as before. 

The Commissioners received of Colo John Floyd the follow- 
ing Pay Rolls and Acc^ for the Militia of Jefferson County Viz.- 
( which was red by Colo. Barber from Aud. offce.) 


Capt. James Davis' Pay Roll from October 21" untill Nov' 
25, 1782- See Bundle Jefferson Militia Amount entered in Page 


From the Number of Men in this Pay Roll the Comm" are 
of opinion that the Capt' should only receive the Pay of a Lieu*, the 
Lt. the pay of an Ensign, the Ensign the pay of a Sergeant & the 
three youngest Serg'^ the pay of privates. 

Capt. James Samuels Pay Roll from the ai** Octf untill as'*" 
Nov' 1782, Bundled and Entered as above — 

From the number of men in Capt. Samuels Pay Roll, the 
Comm" are of opinion that the Capt. should only receive the pay of 
an Ensign & the Lieut, the pay of a Sergeant & the Sergeants the pay 
of privates. 

Capt. James Rodgers' Pay Roll from the 2ist October untill 
the 25th of November 1782. Bundled and entered as above. 

From the number of men in Capt. Rodgers Pay Roll, the 
Commissioners are of opinion that the Captain should only receive 
the pay of a Lieutenant, tlie Lieut, tlie pay of Ensign, the Ensign tlie 
p.iy of a Sergeant and the three youngest Sergeants tlie pay of 

Capt" Jacob Vanmaters Pay Roll from the 21'' Ocf untill 
the 25 of Nov'' 1782 See Bundle Jefferson Militia, Ent^ in Page 
165 from the number of men in Capt. Vanmater's Pay Roll, the 
Commrs. are of opinion that the Capt. is to receive pay as Ens° the 
Lieut, as Sergeant & the Sergeants as privates 

Captain John Varbruse' Pay Roll from 21st of October untill 
the 25 of Nov'' 1782 Bundled and Entered as above 

From the Number of Men in Capt. Verbruses Pay Roll, the 
Com" are of Opinion that the Capt. receive Lieu'° Pay the Lieut. 
Ens" Pay and the Ens" Sergeants pay & two of the Sergeants are to 
be paid as privates 

Capt Ch» Polices Pay Roll from the ig"" of Ocf untill the t 

25"" of Nov'' 1782 Bundled & Entered as above ;■ 

Capt. James Rodgers Pay Roll from the 29'" of June untill | 

the Sixth of July 1782 Entered and Bundled as above — Capt. , 

Rodgers Pay Roll from the 4'" of May until the 11'" 1782 Entered 4 

and Bundled as above ;i 



Lieut. Geo. Wilsons Pay Roll from the 2i'' of Ocf until! 
the 25"" of Nov'' 1782. Entered and Bundled as above 

At the desire of the Lieut, his pay is settled as a Private — 

Capt. Dan' Halls Pay Roll from the iS"" July untill the 25"" 
of August 1780. Entered and Bundled as before. 

There being but fifteen Privates in Capt Halls Pay Roll, 
the Commissioners are of opinion that the Capt' Should receive Pay 
as an Ensign, & the Ensign as a Sergeant- the Sergeants as Privates. 

Capt» Hardy Hills Pay Roll from the i8"» of July untill the 
21^ of August 1780 See Bundle Jefferson Militia Entered in Page 

From the Number of men on Capt Hills Pay Roll the 
Comm"^ are of opinion that the Captain should only be paid as an 
Ens^ the L- as a Sergeant & the Ensign & Sergeants as Privates. 
Also Captain Hills Pay Roll for Rations found from the iS*^ of July 
untill the 21" of August 1780- both entered and bundled as above — 
It apears that the Rations Specified in Capt Hills pay Roll were 
furnisli'd agreeable to yrders from Gen' Clark & considering the 
great Scarcity of provisions at the Time ; the Com"^ are of opinion 
that it should be Settled at one Shilling the Ration 

Capt Charles Polks Pay Roll from the iS^^ of July untill 
the 21'' of August 1780 — as also a Pay Roll for Rations of the 
same dates Entered & Bundled as above 

From the number of men in Capt. Polks Pay Roll the 
Commr' are of opinion that the Capt. ought to draw pay as Lieut, 
the Lieut, the pay of Ensign and the youngest Sergeant the Pay of a 
private — It appears that the rations specified in Capt. roll, were 
furnished agreeable to Gen' Clarks orders, and on account of the 
scarcity of provisions at that time the Comm" are of opinion that 
it Should be Settled at one Shilling p Ration 

Capt. Ricli^ Chinowiths Pay Roll from the 20''' of Oct' 
untill the 24'" Nov. 1782 — Entered and Bundled as above 

The Commis^ are of opinion that from the Number of Men 
in Capt. Chinowiths Pay Roll the Capt. is to receive pay as Lieut, 
the Lieut, as Ensign and two Sergeants as privates. 

Capt Danl. Halls Pay Roll from the 18"" of July untill 


the 21^' of august 1780 for Rations — See Bundle Jefferson Militia, 

Entered in Page 166 

It appears that the rations specified in Capt Halls Roll were fur- 
nished in Consequence of Orders from Gen' Clark, and on the Ace' 
of the great Scarcity of provisions at that time the Commr''' think 
it reasonable that it should be settled at one Shilling the ration , 

Captn. James Davis' Pay Roll from the 24"' of June untill 
the 13"" of July 1782 — Entered and bundled as above — 

From the Number of Men in Capt. Davis's Roll, the Com- 
missioners are of opinion that the Capt. should only be paid as an 
Ensign & one of the Sergeants as a private 58 

Capt. Peter Asturgus' Pay Roll from the 18'" of July until 
the 21'' of Aug*' 1780 — also his Pay Roll for rations furnished 
during the above Service — Entered and Bundled as above 

From the Number of men on Capt Asturgus Pay Roll the 
Comm" are of Opinion that the Second Lieu' should only receive the 
pay of Ens" the Ens" the pay of a Sergeant and the two youngest 
Sergents the pay of privates 

It also appears that the rations Specified in Capt. Asturgus's 
Roll were furnished in consequence of Gen' Clarks orders, and from 
the scarcity of provisions at the time the Comm"^ are of opinion 
it should be Settled at one Shilling the ration. 

Capt" AquUa Whitikers Pay Roll from the 31°' of May 
untill the 22^* of June following in 1782 Entered & Bundled as above 

Capt. James Pattons Pay Roll from the lo'*' of April untill 
the 3^ of May 1782 Entered and bundled as above 

From the number of men on the above roll the Commissioners 
are of Opinion that the Capt. should only receive Lieu'' pay, the 
Lieut. Ensigns pay, the Ensign Sergeants pay and the youngest 
Sergeant the pay of a private. 

Capt. John Vautries Pay Roll from the 20"' of March untill 
the S'*" of April 1782. Entered and Bundled as above 

Capt James Asturgus Pay Roll from 21" of October untill 
the 25 of Novf 1782 Entered and Bundled as above 

From the Number of Men in Capt. Asturgus' Pay Roll the 
Commrs. are of opinion that the Capt. should receive pay as Lieu- 




tenant the Lieut, the pay of an Ensign & the Ens" pay as Sergeant 
& the youngest Sergeant the pay of a Private. 

Captn. James Fattens I'ay Roll from the is"" of July untill 
the 25 of August 1780. Entered and Bundled as above — From 
the number of men in Capt. Pattons Pay Roll the Comm"^" are of 
opinion that the youngest Sergeant should receive pay as Private. 

Capt. Lewis Hickman's Pay Roll from the iS'^ of July untill 
the 25 of August 1780. Entered and Bundled as above. Also his 
Pay Roll for Rations furnished during the above term Specified in 
his roll. From the Number of Men in this Pay Roll the Comm« 
are of opinion that the Capt. Should only receive the pay of Lieu' 
The Lieu* the pay of Ens', the Ens' pay as Sergeant & the youngest 
Sergeant the pay of a Private 

It also appears that the rations Specified in Capt Hickmans 
Roll were furnished agreeable to an order from Gen' Clark, and on 
ace' of the great Scarcity of Provisions at the time. The Commf 
are of Opinion that it should be Settled at one Shilling the ration. 
Capt. Aquilla Whitakers Pay Roll from the 21" of Ocf untill the 
25''' of Noyf 1782. See Bundle Jeflferson Militia Entered in Page 

From the number of men in Captain Whitakers Pay Roll the 
Comm''' are of Opinion that the Capt. should only receive pay as L' 
the Lt. the pay of an Ens' the Ens' the Pay of a Sergeant and the 

two youngest Sergeants the pay of Privates Also Capt. Wliitakers 

Pay Roll from the 15'" of June untill the 20'^ 1782 Entered & 
bundled as above 

Sergeant Ricli^ Lees Pay Roll from June i" untill the 16th 
1 78 1. Entered and Bundled as above 

It appears that there is due to Morris Hansbrough three 
pounds Eighteen Shillings as p Vouch" entered in Page 171 

It appears to the Commf" that there is due to Capt James 
Sullivan twenty five pounds for going Express from the Falls of 
Ohio to Richmond as p Vouchr Ent^ in Page 175 

It also appears that Capt. Sullivan was employed 38 Days on 
the Expedition against the Shawanoes in the year 1780, as Horse 
master and that the Service was performed Faithfully. But as the 



Cominis"» are not acquainted with the Usual allowance they refer it 
to the Auditors to affix his Wages 

There appears due to Geo. Wilson on a Certificate reed, by 
the Comm"^ for rations furnished on the Expedition in 1780. one 
pound Six Shillings & three pence, also on Ace' Sign^ by Gen' Clark, 
for boarding Soldiers in 1779. & 1780 am'« to twenty five pounds. 
Likewise an Ace' of his Wages as issuing Com^ for thirteen Months 
& two days for £ 156 lO S. Entered in Page 184 

The Board not having the State Establishm'* before them are 
induced from a letter of Colo William Davises respecting Martin 
Carney, Deputy Quarter Master in tlie Illinois Department to allow 
Mr. George Wilson 40 Dollars p month as Specified above. 

It appears there is due to Jane Grant for twenty one days 
Horse hire the Sum of one pound Eleven Shillings & tliree pence 
Specie entered in Page 163 

It appears to the Comm^' that there is due to James Brown 
Sergeant, Six pounds for a Rifle Gun lost in the Service of the State 
as p Voucher Entered in Page 177 

It appears to the Commr' that there is due to Samuel Eakin 
Eight pounds twelve Shillings & Six pence for twenty three days 
Service as Express as p Voucher Entered in Page — 

It appears to the Comm''' that there is due from the State of 
Virginia to Graves Wapshot the sum of one pound Six Shillings & 
one penny Half penny, for Flour furnished himself on an Expedition 
in the year 1780 — also a Hunting Shirt lost in service as p Vouehf 
Entered in Page 173 — 

It appears to the Comm" there is due to George Grundy the 
sum of three pounds for Sixty rations furnished a Sick Soldier &c. 
as p Voucher Entered in Page 169 — 

It appears to the Commiss""" that there is due to Edw^ Holman 
Ass«' — of Noah Cruse, the sum of two pounds & Six pence for thir- 
teen days work at the Row Galley as p Voucher Entered in Page 178 

The Commissioners received a Letter from General Clark of 
the 23d Inst, enclosing one from Majf Walls with a Regimental 
return & returns of Stores at Fort Nelson, on which the Board had 
a Conference with the General & Majf and Gave it as their opinion 



that a State of the whole ought immediately to be sent to Govern- 
ment. See No. 6. 

The Board received a letter from General Clark of the 25th, 
See N' 7 requesting tlie Commissioners to join him in the repre- 
sentation to Government. 

Adjourned until Tomorrow Morning Wednesday Feby 26th. 
Met according to adjournment. Present as before 

It appears to Comm"^ that there is due from the State of 
Virginia to Capt' Kellar & Joshua Archer five pounds two Shillings 
& Six pence Specie as p Voucher reed. Enter* in Page 182. Also 
there appears to be due from the State to Joshua Archer Eighteen 
pounds Six Shillings & Six pence Specie as p Vouchers rec*" Entered 
in Page 1 82 — 

It appears that the Estate of James Robinson is Entitled to 
receive pay agreeable to Certificates receiv* for nine hundred & 
forty five days service of his Negro Caesar to be paid at the rates 
usually allowed to Artificers by the State entered in Page 185 

Receiv* of Captain Payette Vouchers & Acc'» of Issues &c 
for the year 1778 of provisions &c. at the Falls of Ohio whilst he 
acted as Commissary by Col' Bowmans Orders by which it appears 
the Issues exceeded what he received in several articles pork excepted 
which was ordered to be served out fresh and no proper returns 


It appears to the commissioners that there is due to John 
McGar for Services as Express at different times to S' Vincents 
&c twenty one pounds twelve Siiillings as p Voucher rec** Entered 

in Page 175 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to Buckner Pitman 
four pounds ten Shillings for going Express from the Falls of Oiiio 
to Col» Logan &c Also for services as Boat Master at Fort Jeffer- 
son Twelve pounds two Shillings & Eight pence as p Vouchers reed. 
Entered in Page 182 

It appears that there is due to Edw* Johnson for work at the 
Row Galley 120 days at one Dollar p day am< 120 Dollars as p 
Voucher Entered in Page 178 

Rec* of Captain Payette his Pay Roll for a Comp" of Mariens, 
Commencing in March and ending in Sept^ 1782 


Received of Capt. Rob' George an account against the State 
for discharging a Doctors Bill for a Soldier amounting to five pounds 
Specie John McGar came before the Board of Commissioners and 
made oath that the State of Virginia was indebted to him fifty six 
pounds two Shillings for Services under Colo Rodgers on the Voyage 
to New Orleans — But as no other Voucher is produced, the 
Comm" refer it to the Determination of the Auditors — Entered 
in Page 175 

It appears to the Commis"* that there is due to Joslah Phelps 
Sixty Six pounds for two Horses a Saddle & Bridle lost in the Service 
of the State as p Voucher Entered in Page 163 

It also appears that there is due to William Cummins forty 
Pounds for a mare lost in the Service of the State as p Voucher 
Entered in Page 163 

Received a Pay Roll for Part of Captain Chinowiths Com- 
pany of Militia in Jefferson County from the 20^^ of April until the 
12 May 1782 See Bundle Jefferson Militia Ent* in Page 166 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to James Patton 
nine pounds Eight & Seven pence for a Quantity of Meat & Flour 
furnish*" the Troops at Fort Nelson as p Vouch"" Entered in Page 

It appears to the Com" that there is due to Joshua Archer 
twelve pounds ten Shillings & four pence for Buffalo Beef & Bear 
Meat furnish* Capt" Georges Troops as p' Vouch"" Ent* in Page 

It appears that there is due to John Nelson two pounds Six 
Shillings & Eight pence for 140''' of Pork as p Voucher, Entered 
in Page 184. 

It appears that there is due to Mark Thomas Six pounds for 
furnishing the State Troops with fifteen pair of shoes at eight Shil- 
lings p pair as pr. Voucher Enter* in Page 184 — 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to James Asturgus 
& James Welch three pounds ten Shillinds for services as Spies in 
Jefferson County as p Voucher Ent* in Page 175 

It appears that there is due to Israel Ruland ass'° of John 
Vaughan Sixteen pounds thirteen & four pence as bounty for en- 
listing as a Soldier as p Voucher Entered in Page 185 


It appears to the Board there is due to Levi Theel as Bounty 
for Enlisting Sixteen pounds thirteen Shillings & four pence as p 
Voucher received Entered in Page 185 

It appears to the Commissioners that Benj' Pope furnished a 
Beef Cow to the Troops at Fort Nelson, by the Commissarys Books, 
and adjudged tiie price to be four pounds ten Shillings as p Voucher; 
It also appears that there is due to Mi" Pope for Sixty Pounds of 
Iron furnish 'd said Troops Six Pounds as p Voucher — Both en. 
tered in Page 184 

It appears to the Comraf that there is due to L' George Wil- 
son Nine Pounds, for thirty Six days Service as an issuing Commis? 
on an Expedition in the year 1782 as p" Certificate. Entered in 

Page 166 in Bundle Jefferson Militia 

Thursday Feby 27th Met according to adjournment Present as 

Rec^ from Capt John Bailey Pay Rolls from Nov"" 1781 to 
Feby 1783 likewise a Certificate for his pay as Lieu^ for 305 days 
from May 9"" 1779 to the 9"" March 1780 

Also Captain Brashears Pay Roll from the 30"" of May 1780 
to November 30'*' 1 781 inclusive with a Muster Roll & recruiting 
Account — 

Rec^ from Capt. Robt. George Pay Rolls & Muster Rolls 
from the 4''' of June 1779 to the first of Feb!' 1783 also a list of 
his Inlistments and Bounty money Paid, also a Certificate for a 
disabled Soldier 

Rec^ from Col» John Montgomery Capt. Williams Pay Roll 
for 1779 beginning May 29'" & Ending May 28"" 1780 likewise from 
the first of June 1780 to the first of Dec^ 1781 Also a Countersign* 
Ace* for Bounty Money — likewise Capt. Isaac Taylors pay Roll for 
his CompJ' from Decf 31" 1778 untill Aug" 22, 1780 likewise Capt 
Tho' Quirks pay Roll for his Com' begining Dec"" 1778 & ending 
Augt lo'*" 1779 Also U Ramsey's Own Pay Roll for May, June, 
July, Aug", Sept. & part of October 1 780 Likewise his own account 
for pay as Lieu* Col°, from the first of Jan^ 1782 to the first of 
May 1782 likewise his Forrage Ace* & D' 

Rcc*' from Capt. Thomas liis Pay Rolls to Novf 30"" 1781 


also Dec' 21" 1781 — likewise the Muster Roll and Several re- 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to Peter Coleman 
& David Glenn for going Express from the Natchez to the Falls of 
Oiiio fifty four pounds Specie Unless it Should appear that the 
Same has already been paid in Consequence of a former Certificate 
mentioned in the Vouch^ to be lost by Colo Todd. Entered in Page 


It appears to the Comm"^ that there is due to Edward Tyler 
Six pounds one Shill? and nine pence, for 574 feet of Plank three 
days Horse hire & 173'^ Flour as p Voucher rec** Entered in Page 

It appears to the Comm^^ that there is due to Rob' Floyd 
Seventeen pounds fifteen Shillings for Sundry Services perform* as 
Express, and his Expenses attending it as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 175 It also appears that there is due to Daniel Sullivan thirty 
Pounds thirteen Shillings for Sundry Services performed and Ex- 
penses attending it as p Voucher Entered in Page 175 

It appears to the Comm"^ that there is due to David Glenn, 
Seven Pounds Sixteen Shillings for going Express from the Falls of 
Ohio to Kaskaskias & St. Vincents as p Voucher Rec* Entered in 

Page 175 — 

The Depositions of Sundry Persons were taken relative to 
Cap' Shannon's Conduct as Corns' and Quarter Master, See Deposi- 
tions in Bundle Illinois Department N' 33, 34, 35. 

Received of Mf Israel Dodge duplicates of Capt John Dodges 
Accounts against the Officers and two abstracts of Issues of his own 
whilst acting in that Department 

Received by Lieu' Clark Capt Geraults Pay rolls for Decf 
1 78 1, and to the first of Aug'' 1782 

The Board received Colo. Montgomerys Deposition relative 
to Bills of Exchange Drawn by him on Oliver Pollock &c wrote 
by himself and Sworn to before the Board, See Deposition N' i in 
Colo Montg? Acc^" Page 67 

Adjourned to meet at Col' Bowmans in Lincoln County. 
Friday March 7^ Met according to adjournment Present William 


Fleming, Sam' M'Dowell & Caleb Wallace Colo Marshall absent 
in Fayette County on Private Business 

The Board was employed, preparing papers to be sent to 
Government by Express 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning Saturday March 8'- Met 
according to adjournment present as before The Board continued 
preparing the packett to Government as on the preceding day — 

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning Sunday March 9'" Met 
according to adjournment Present as before. 

Tile Commis'3 furnished the Dispatches and delivered them 
to Martin Carney, the Express Adjourned to Meet at Lexinton in 
Fayette County 

Tuesday March 11"' Met according to adjournm* Present 
William Fleming Tho» Marshall, Sam' M'Dowell & Caleb Wal- 
lace Esq" 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to Daniel McClain 
three pounds Seventeen Shillings & three pence for Services as a 
Comm'' at Lexington as p Voucher Entered in Page 167 

It appears that there is due to Hugh Martin two pounds, 
Seventeen Shillings & Seven pence Half penny for Beef &c furnished 
for the use of the State as p Voucher Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to Henry McDonald one pound 
Eight Shillings & five pence for Beef furnished for the use of the 
State as p Voucher Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to Dan' McClain One pound, 
for services when Commissary in the Service of the State as p Vouclier 
Entered in Page 167 

It appears that there is due to William Martin one pound 
two Shillings & Six pence for rations furnishd for the use of the 
State, p Voucher Entered in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to Alexr. McClain fifteen Shil- 
lings for service as a Spy as p Voucher Entered in Page 175 

It appears that there is due to Robert Patterson Six pounds, 
for Three Hundred & Seventy five pounds of dry Beef as p Voucher 
Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to James Wason Seven Pounds 
four Shillings & three pence three farthings for Four Hundred & 


fifty one pounds of dry Beef as p Voucher Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to Jn' McDonal five pounds 
Sixteen Shillings for three Hundred weight of dry Beef & thirty 
seven pounds of Tallow furnished for the use of the State as p 
Voucher Entered in Page 1 73 

Received of John Pleak Ens' His Pay Roll from the 25'" of 
March untill the 15 of June 1781 See Bundle Fayette Militia, the 
amount of which is £ 53"ii"5j^ Entered in Page 167 

from the Number of men on Ens" Pleaks Pay Roll the Com- 
missioners are of opinion that the Ensign should only receive the pay 
of a Sergeant 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Mich' 
Warneck five pounds Eighteen Shillings & four pence for Seven 
hundred & Eighty nine pounds of Beef as p Vouc^ Entered in Page 


It appears that there is due to Francis McDermoth Twenty 

three pounds Eight Shillings, for work done on the Row Galley and 

service performed in Salting Beef as p Vouchers Entered in Page 178 

It appears that there is due to Samuel Kelly Two pounds 
two Shillings for Rations furnished two Soldiers of the Green Bryer 
Militia as p Voucher Entered in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to Rob* Thompson Nine pounds 
Eighteen Shillings, for Salting & Smoaking Beef for the State Sixty 
Six days at three Shillings p day as p Voucher Entered in Page 167 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning Wednesday March 12"" 
Met according to adjournment present as before. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Nicolas 
Brabston One pound Eleven Shillings & three pence for the hire 
of a Mare 25 days on an Expedition as p Voucher Entered in Page 


It appears that there is due to Sam' Johnson Eighteen Shil- 
lings for three days Service as Express as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 175 

It appears that there is due to James McConnel twelve pounds 
for Making three Canoes for the use of the State as p Voucher 
Entered in Page 167 


Received Lieutenant Thomas Stevenson's Pay Roll from the 
20^^ of July untill the ag'*" Annount Entered in Page 167 

It appears to tlie commissioners that there is due to Mich' 
Warnick Six pounds thirteen & four pence for building a Store 
House at Lees Town as p Voucher Entered in Page 167 

It appears that there is due to James & Alexander McConnel 
the sum of two pounds two Shillings, for their Services as Spies- 
p Voucher Entered in Page 175- 

It appears that there is due to Tho' Fecklin five pounds 
fifteen Shillings for a Rifle Gun lost at the defeat at the Blue Licks, 
p Voucher Entered in Page 167 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Rob< 
Sanders Eight pounds three Shillings for the Hire of three Horses 
in the Service of the State; also for sundries one pound fourteen 
Shillings & Six pence, as p Vouchers Entered in Page 163 — 

It appears that there is due to John Little, one pound four 

Shillings for his service as a Spy as p Voucher Entered in Page 175 

It appears that there is due to Rob* Johnson, John Sugget 

Michi Stucker & Joseph Rodgers Fifty pounds ten Shillings for 

Corn &c as p Acct. and Vouchers Entered in Page 171 

It appears that there is due to And' Steel for Service as 
Quarter Master & Commissary in the service of the State Seventy 
Eight pounds ten Shillings and Nine pence as p Account & Voucher 
Received- Entered in Page 168 

It appears that there is due to Levi Todd Ass«« of John 
Napper the Sum of three pounds Nine Shillings & two pence for 
Beef as p Voucher Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to Jas. Masterson five pounds 
four Shillings & six pence for service as a Spy also to John Napper 
for Service as a Spy one pound four Shillings & six pence as p Vouch- 
ers Entered in Page 176 

It appears that there is due to the Estate of Tho' Stevenson 
Five pounds for a Rifle Gun lost at Colo. Todds defeat as p Voucher 

Entered in Page 168 

It appears that there is due to Van Sweringen Eighteen 
pounds Six Shillings for 2032 '^ of Beef as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 173 



Received Capt' Rob' Pattersons Pay Roll from the 2o"» of 
June untill the 26"" of July 1782 - See Bundle Fayette Militia, 
amount Entered in Page 168 

Received Capt. William McConnels Pay Roll for Baggage 
horses on an Expedition from the 23^ of October untill the 24'^ of 
Nov'' 1782 Entered and Bundled as above 

Rec** Lieutenant Francis McDonalds Pay Roll from the 13'' 
of Jan^ until the 24'* 1783 for Guarding the Commissioners also 
from the 9"" of March until the lo"" on the Same duty with Pay 
Rolls for Horses rations & forrage of the Same dates Entered & 
Bundled as above 

From the number of men on Lieutenant McDonald's Pay 
Rolls the Commis" are of opinion that he Should receive the Pay 
of a Sergeant 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to William 
McConnel, one pound twelve Shillings, for one Hundred pounds of 
dry Beef as p'' Voucher Entered in Page 

Adjourned untill Tomorrow morning 
Thursday March 13'^ 1783 Met according to adjournment Present 
as before Rec^ a List of appraisments of Horses, Guns &c lost at 
the Battle of the Blue Licks August 19'" 1782 containing the fol- 

11^ i^t.i.L' vviLii tiyiiia 

13111- uiiis iiuiii v^uiu. j^aiii^ 




Jacob Hunter 

a Black Mare appr''" 

to 30 

William Shott 

a Black Mare " 


Thos. Brooks 

a Rone Horse " 


Dan' Boone 

a Brown Horse " 



a Black mare " 


John Sucey 

a Bay Horse " 


Josepii Schola 

a Hay Mare " 




John Little, 

a Bay Horse appraised 


Pegg Stucker 

a White Horse " 


William Shannon deed, a Bay Mare Saddle bridle & Blanket- 
aprd. 21L 
Ephraim January a Sorrel Horse aprd. 8 

Matthew Patterson a Bay Horse " 13 



John Hambleton a Gray Mare 
James January a Black Horse 

Benj' Neatherland a Bay Horse " 
John Stevenson a Bay Mare 
Jane Wiley, wife of Matthew Wiley dec* 

a iiorsc appraised 

John Nutt, a Gray Horse appraisd. do 

Dan' Boone two guns 

Joseph Oldficld deed. One Gun 

Squire Boone Wounded one Gun 

John Morgan Killed 

Sam' Boone 

Dan' Boone One Saddle 

Jacob Hunter 

Chs. Hunter, one Saddle & Bridle 

John Morgan One Saddle 

A'lordccai Morgan One Saddle 

And' Rule 

Alexf Penlin one Saddle 

Josepii Oldfield one saddle 

Sam' Shortridge One Saddle 

Bertley Sucey one Blanket 

Sam' Boone two blankets 
























Alexf Penlin One Blanket 
Sam' Shortridge one Blanket 
John Morgan One Blanket 
Joseph ShoU one Blanket 

do . one Saddle > 

For the amount of the above See Page 264. 
Also a list of appraisments of horses etc lost at Capt. Constants 
Defeat on the 14th of August 1782 at the Upper Blue Licks. 

List continued. L 

James Buchanan, a Bay horse appraised 25 

ditto a Sorrel mare " 25 

John Douglas two Guns " 7 

Aquilla White one Bay Mare " 8 

S d 



William Stevenson a sorrel horse 
Emanuel Kelly one gun & saddle 
Elizabeth Clemons a Rone mare 
ditto a Bay Mare 

ditto one Saddle & Blanket 
John Long one Saddle 
Total Am* Enter^ in Page i68 — 




I ' 

- 5 


The Board having Carefully enquired into the propriety of the 
Claims contained in the foregoing List, find that the Horses &c, 
were ordered to be taken into the Service of the Militia of Fayette 
County by Colo Todd and Capt. Constant in Cases of Emergency 
that would not admit of appraisments being made & Certificates 
given in the usual way. Appraisments & Certificates have therefore 
been obtained Subsequent to the loss of the property, which the 
Board are enduced to receive as just and true; And as that County 
was then Invaded by a large Body of Enemy Indians, which required 
the utmost Exertions of the Militia, without a Strict attention to 

the forms prescribed by Law 

The Board are of opinion that the several Claimants should 
be paid agreeable to their appraism' Bills for the Horses Saddles 
Bridles & Guns lost in the above Named defeats. 

Received of Colo. Daniel Boone the Following certificates 

and appraisments 

Jolin Niblecks certificate for 7J bushels of corn 

i<^^ June 1 78 1 Fifteen Shillings 15 

Wm. Niblock i Saddle Aug" 20th 1780 £ i - 11 -4^ 
Benj' Neatherlands Cert, for a Horse in 
Service on an Expedition in 1782 under 
Gen' Clark £ I- 18-- 9 

James Masterson-ditto- ditto £ i— 18- - 9 

John Torrance " " 1- 18- - 9 

Sami Kelly " " I- 1 8-- 9 

Rich^ Wade Late Capt' Cert, for his 

pay as a Soldr. and his Gun Lost 68" 14 

Tho' Tuke ditto ditto 125 17 4 

Sam' Brooks ditto ditto 127 18 8 

William Brooks ditto ditto 90 148 



Colo. Boons pay ace' for the Expedition 

1782 18 12 o 

Colo. Pattersons pay ace' for ditto 15 10 O 

The Comm" have reduced Colo. Boones pay from Colo, to Lieu' 

Col'' and Lieu' Colo Pattersons pay to a Majors but have not 

determin'' whether they are entitled to Subsistanee 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to David 
Mitchel & William Mitchel Seventeen pounds twelve Shillings & 
two pence for Beef furnished for the use of the State as p Voucher 
Entered in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to John Clarke one pound Eigh- 
teen Shillings & four pence half penny for Service as a Spy as p 
Voucher Entered in Page 176 

It appears that there is due to Jn' Long One pound Six 
Shillings & Nine pence for Horse hire as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 163 

It appears that there is due to Rob' Johnson, David Hearn- 
don, John Ficklin, Wainwright Lay & Benj' Smith, Nine pounds 
and Seven Shillings and Six pence for horse hire as p Vouclier 
Entered in Page 163 — It .ilso appears that there is due to John 
Williams for Service as a Spy in April & June 1 78 1 four pounds 
four Shillings as p Vouclier Entered in Page 176 

Rcc^ of Capt. Rob' Todd his Pay Roll for a Comp^ of tlie 
Illinois Regiment from the 20"* of December 1778 untill the i" of 
June 1780 - Also a State of his account with the State of Virginia 

Rec^ of Colo. Levi Todd an Account against the State for 
building the Fort at Lexington, amount of the Ballance due to 
Sundries Ninety two pounds three Shillings and Six pence - Entered 
in Page 168 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to William 
Stafford two pounds two Shillings and Six pence for Bear meat &c 
as p Voucher Entered in Page 173 — Also to James McCullough 
three pounds twelve Shillings for a Beef Steer as p Vouch^ as above 
Likewise to Hugh McGary Sixteen Shillings for Eight Bushels of 
corn — Entered as above 

And to Tho' Smoot one pound for ten Bushels of Corn En- 
tered as above 


Received a Pay Roll for a Detachment of Capt Rob' Patter- 
sons Comp^ under the Command of Lieu' Jn» Morrison in the 
Months of May June & July 1781 — Amount entered in Page 

168 In this Pay Roll the Lieu' for the Month of May is 

to receive Ensigns pay, the Ens' Sergeant's & the Sergeant as a pri- 
vate, and in the month of June the Lieu' to receive Ensigns pay the 
other Lieu' to receive Sergeants pay 

Adjourned to Meet at Colo Bowman's in Lincoln County on 
Monday next 

Monday March i?'"" Met according to adjournment Present 
William Fleming Sam' M'Dowell & Caleb Wallace Esq"-^ Col' 
Marshall absent in Fayette County — 

The Commissi find that Col'' John Todd Escheator of Fay- 
ette County sold two Thousand acres of land — the property of 
British Subjects. Heirs of Lieu' Poison in two separate serveys of 
one Thousand Acres Each both being in Fayette County, One of 
which he sold to Col' Joseph Crockett lying on Jesamin Creek for 
six hundred pounds, the other Tract he sold to John McClure of 
Augusta County for Three hundred & Fifty six pounds for both 
which Tracts the Escheator took bonds for the payment on the pur- 
chasors after deducting three p Ct. his Fees as Escheator which brings 
Col' Crockets Bond to Five hundred & Eighty two pounds and John 
McClures to Three hundred & Forty five pounds six Shillings & 
six pence — Col' Crocketts bond is in Col' Jn°- Montgomery's pos- 
session who has a part of the purchase, but whether the Money 
is paid into the Treasury we cannot say but think it is not as Mont- 
gomery reports. Officers Certificates were offered in discharge, which 
were not received, How the Bond came into Jn' Montgomerys 
hands we cannot account for, McClure's Bond for L. 345.-6.-6 the 
E.\ecutor still has in his possession The Commis" have to observe 
that the Escheator did not act agreeable to Law, in taking bonds in 
lieu of Money, but that the land could not be sold for ready money, 
or greatly below the Vallue. Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning. 

Tuesday March i8th Met according to adjournment pres- 
ent as before 

Rec* Monsf Gratiotts Ace'" & Vouch' for consideration 
Adjourn'' till Tomorrow morning — 



Wednesday March ig^ Met according to adjournment 
Present as before 

The Commissioners were engaged in examining Sund* Ace'* 
in their possession which are not finally Settled — Adjourn^ till 
Tomorrow Morning. 

Thirsday March ao'*" Met according to adjournment, present 
as before 

Rec^ of Mr Jacob Payette Com^ the following Receipts & 
Certificates Viz 

A Certificate in favour of Sami Stroud for 36 days Service 
at Six pence p Day (when reduced by the Scale) amount thirteen 
Shillings & Six pence p Vouch"" Entered in Page 184 

A Certificate in favour of Geo. Puff for 212 Rations at 
Eight pence p Ration am' Seven Pounds one Shilling & four pence 
p Vouch^ Entered in Page 169 

One in favour of George Owens for 134 Rations am' four 
Pounds nine Shillings & four Pence Entered in Page 169 

Also a Receipt for Beef &c furnish^ by Jn'' Sanders am' two 
Pounds one Shilling & Six pence p Voucher Entered in Page 173 

It appears to the Commis" that there is due to M'' Jacob 
Pyeatte for service as issuing Comm^ at the Falls of Ohio Seventy 
three pounds twelve Siiillings as p Voucher Entered in Page 184 

It appears to the Comm" that there is due to Samuel Rice 
for diets to Soldiers on Com^ Three Pounds as p Voucher in Bundle 
A. Ent^' in Page 169 

It also appears tliat there is due to Sam' Rice for Horse hire 
Five Shilings p Voucher Entered in Page 163 

The Board Received of Col' Benj' Logan of Lincoln County 
the following Pay Rolls & Accounts of the Militia Viz: 

Capt John Boyles Pay roll from the 18*^ of July untill 1 3'*' 
Aug^ 1782- Also his Pay Roll from the 8^^ of October untill 15^^ 
1782 — See Bundle Lincoln Militia Am' Entered in Page 159 

From the number of men in Capt" Boyles Pay Roll the 
Comm" are of opinion that the Capt. should receive Lieut' Pay & 
the Lieu' Ensigns pay in his Roll for Aug'*; and the Capt' in the 
Roll for Oct!" to receive Sergeants Pay 


Capt Jn' Boyles Pay Roll from the 28'" of May untill the 
iS"* of June 1782 — Bundled and Entered as above 

Capt Jn° Boyles Pay Roll from the 18"' of August untill the 
27"" 1782, Bundled and Entered as above — In this Pay roll the 
Commr' are of opinion that the Capt should draw Lieu* Pay the 
Lieu' Ens'** pay, and the Ens" Sergeants. 

Capt W'P M'=Brides Pay Roll from the 20"" of April untill 
20"" of May 1782, Ent** and bundled as above 

Lieu' Jn" Souths Pay Roll from the 24'" of June untill the 
24"" of July 1782 — Also his Pay Roll from the i" of Octob'' untill 
i" of November 1782 Bundled & Entered as above 

From the Number of men in Lieu' Souths Pay Rolls the 
Commis." are of opinion that in the Roll for July he is to re- 
recie Sergeants Pay and Pay as Ensign for the Roll in November — ■ 

Adjourned untill Tomorrow morning 
Friday March 21'' 1783 Met according to adjournm' present as 

Received of Col' Benj" Logan the following Pay Rolls &c 
for the militia of Limcoln County. 

Captain Nath' Harts Pay Roll from the 24'" of RLiy untill 
24"" of June 1782 See Bundle Lincoln Militia am' Entered in 

From the Number of Men in Capt. Harts Pay Roll the Com- 
missioners are of opinion that the Captain is to receive Sergeants Pay. 

Capt. Joseph Kincades Pay Roll from the 17''' of August 
untill 26^^ 1782. Bundled and Entered as above 

Also in Capt. Kinkeads Pay Roll, the Capt' is to receive pay 
as Lieu' the Lieu', as Ensign & the Ensign as Sergeant 

Capt. George Adams Pay Roll from the 29''' of June untill 
the 25''' of July 1 782. Bundled and Entered as above 

From the Number of Men in Capt Adams Pay Roll the 
Comm" are of Opinion that the Capt. should receive Pay as Sergeant 
and the Ensign as Private 

Capt. John Snoddys Pay Roll from the 4''' May untill 4'' 
of June 1782 Bundled & entered as above 

The Comm"^ are of opinion that Capt" Snoddy is to receive 
pay as an Ensign 


Ensign Elisha Clarys Pay Roll from the ii"" of June until! 
1 2"" of July 1782 Entered and Bundled as above. 

Ensign Clarys Pay Roll from the 18"" of July untill the 
19'" of Aug" 1782, Entered & Bundled as above — The Commf" 
are of opinion that Ens' Clary in his pay Roll for Aug'' should re- 
ceive pay as a Sergeant 

Ensign W™ Caseys Pay Roll from the 1" of April untill the 
30'" 1782, Bundled & Entered as above 

Capt John Woods Pay Roll from the 3^ of April untill 17^ 
of October 1782 Bundled and Entered as before 

It appears to the Board that Captain Woods Pay roll is just 
and ought to be settled; as by the Information of Col". Logan the 
Capt. was on duty for the time Mentioned in his Roll and that the 
Men were changed every Month ; and an Ensigns Guard was ordered 
by Col' Logan from which circumstances, the Comm"^ are of opinion 
that Capt. Woods should receive Pay as Ensign 

Capt. Nathan Houstons Pay Roll from the 22'' of October 

untill the 24'" of November 1782. Entered & Bundled as before 

The Commis" are of opinion that Capt. Houston is to receive Lieu- 
tenants pay 

Capt. George Adams Pay Roll from the Ocf 22 untill the 
24"" of November 1782, Entered and bundled as above 

The Comm" are of opinion that Capt. Adams ought to re- 
ceive Ensigns pay the Lieut. Sergeants and the Sergeant pay as a 
private — 

Capt. John Siioddys Pay Roll from the 22'' of Ocf untill the 
25"" of November 1782 Entered and Bundled as before 

Capt. John Irvines Pay Roll from the 22* of October untill 
the 24"" of November 1782 — Ent^ and Bundled as before. The 
Comm"- are of opinion that Capt. Irving in his Pay Roll is to 
receive pay as Lieut, the Lieu' Ensigns pay. The Quarter Master 
acted for the Batallion, also the Quarter Masters Sergeant & Ser- 
geant Major, Serv'" for the Batallion 8l 

Capt" Sam' Kirkiiams Pay Roll from the 26'*' of June untill 
the 31" of July 1781. See Bundle Lincoln Militia Amount Enter'' 
in Page 160 — The Comm"^' are of opinion that Capt. Kirkham, by 
his pay Roll, is to receive Lieu'" pay the Lieu' Ensigns pay 


Capt. John Woods Pay Roll from the 24*'' of Ocf untill 
24'^ of Nov^ 1782 Enter^ & Bundled as before 

It appears to the Comm''' that Capt' Woods in his pay Roll 
is to receive pay as an Ensign. 

Capt. Sam' Kirkhams pay Roll from the 22^ of Sepf untill 
the 21=' of Ocf 1782 — Enter^ and Bundled as before 

Capt. Gab' Madisons Pay Roll from the 22'' of October untill 
the 3^ of Novf 1782, Enter* and Bundled as above 

It apears to the Commissioners that Capt. Madison in his 
Roll is to receive Lieut' Pay the Lieutenant Ens''^ and the Ens^ 
pay as a Sergeant one of the Sergeants to receive Privates pay 

Capt John Dohertys Pay Roll from the 22* of July untill 
the 22* of August 1782 Entered & Bundled as before — It appears 
that Captain Doherty in his Roll should receive Lieu'" Pay the Lieu' 
Ensigns and the Ensign Sergeants pay. 

Capt" Tho' Moores Pay Roll from the 4^ of Novf untill the 
23* 1782 Bundled & Entered as above 

It appears to the Comm" that Cap' Moore in his Pay Roll is 
entitled to Lieu" Pay the Lieu' Ensigns Pay, and the Ensign Pay as 
a Sergeant the youngest Sergeant as a Private Soldier. 

Capt. Samuel McAfees Pay Roll from the 22* of October 
untill the 23* of November 1782 Enter* & Bundled as before. It 
appears to the Comm^^ that Capt McAfee in his Roll is to receive 
Lieu'" pay the Lieu' Ensigns pay the Ensign pay as a Sergeant & 
two of the Serges as privates. 

Capt. Sam' Kirkhams Pay Roll from the 22* of October untill 
23* Nov^ 1782, Enter* and Bundled as before 

Capt". James Downeys Pay Roll from the 24'^ of Ocf untill 
24''' of November 1782. Am' Entered & Bundled as before. 

Capt' Sam'. Scotts Pay Roll from the 22* of Feby. untill the 
22* of March 1782 Entered & Bundled as before — From the 
Number of Men in Capt. Scotts pay Roll the Comm^' are of opinion 
that the Capt". Should receive Lieu". Pay. 

Capt. Simon Kentons Pay Roll from the 23'' of Ocf untill 
23* of November 1782 Enter* & Bundled as before 

It appears to the Comm""' that Capt Kenton is only entitled 



to Lieu" pay the Lieu', to pay as Ensign & the Ensign, Sergeants 

Ensign Tlio'. Montgoraerys Pay Roll from the 28'^ of Feb' 
untill the i"of April 1782, Enter* and Bundled as before 

Capt. William Hoys Pay Roll from the 24"' of Oct^ untill 
the 4"* of November 1782. Entered & Bundled as before — From 
the Number of Men in Captain Hoys Pay Roll the Comm'-' are of 
opinion that the Capt is only Entitled to receive Lieutenants Pay & 
the Lieu' Ensigns pay. 

Adjourn* till Tomorrow morning Saturday March 22'' 1783 
Met according to adjournment Present as before 

The Board proceeded to settle \l'. James Sherlocks Accounts 
as French & Indian Interpreter, rec*. at New Holland Station in 
Jefferson County, and find by Q Master Carney & Dodges accounts 
a number of articles of Cloathing &c. Charged to his Acct. which 
are Stated to be Credited to the State and Bundled with his account, 
And as the Comm''' are not furnish* with an Invoice of the prices 
of the Goods, they are Induced to defer the Settlement — See Bundle 
M N' 4 

It appears to the Comm''' that there is due to Elizabeth Swan 
Administratrix of John Swan deceas* the sum of Twelve pounds 
five Shillings & four pence for 578'" of Flour at 361 p. C & 149'° 
of Pork at 3* p. '•'' p. Vouch^ Enter* in Page 173 

It appears that there is due to John Templin Twelve Sliil- 
lings & three pence tliree farthings For Forrage furnish*, the State 
p. Vouch'' Enter* in Page 171 

An account of Capt Isaac Ruddles was laid before the Board 
for his Comp'' & Rations when the Illinois Country was taken by 
Col°. Clark the Money has been drawn by Col' Montgomery at 
the Treasury and carried by him to Kaskaskias from whence he sent 
it by Isaac Bowman on from thence to be deliver* to Isaac Ruddle, 
& on the passage Isaac Bowman being taken by Indians & his papers 
destroy*, yet saved the Money, and after he was set at liberty gave 
it to M^ Pollock, for this reason and as part of it seems to be a 

private Account. The Comm''' could not settle it 

'Tapers put into Bundle 5) 

The Commissioners Rec* a Pay Roll of Capt Isaac Ruddles 


Company of Militia on Duty at Licking Creek Station, from the 
lo"' of March untill the 24'" of June 1780 — See Bundle Fayette 
Militia Am< Enter*" in Page 168 

It appears to the Board by Col' Bowmans Certificate that 
Capt. Ruddles Com^ of Militia of Kentucky County was on duty 
from the 10'-" of March untill the 24'" of June 1780, When they 
were Captured by Capt. Bird from Detroit & a party of Indians; 
and the Fort at Licking destroyed — It is the opinion of the 
Comm" that the money remain in the Treasury till applied for 
by the pefsons concern'' or by their proper Representatives, Capt. 
Ruddle informs the Board that John Marshall whose Name is 
Cross^ had a Certificate from him, for his service, and that he under- 
stands he drew his pay after his return from Captivity, By Capt" 
Ruddles parole given at East Bay Sign* Isaac Man j^ he appears 
to have remain* in Captivity to the third of Nov'' 1782 as appears 
by a Copy of the Parole — Since the above mentioned Pay Roll was 
given in. Information was laid before the Board that Isaac Ruddle 
was inimical to the United States of America and Sundry Deposi- 
tions were taken in his Presence which accompanies the Pay Roll, 
dated March 29th 1783. which are Submitted to Government, It 
has also been Reported to the Commissioners that Several of the 
Men on his Pay Roll have Enlisted in the British Service since tlicy 
were taken to Detroit 

Received of Colo Benjamin Logan the following Pay Rolls 
&c for the Militia of Lincoln County 

Captain Lawrence Thompsons Pay Roll from the 5'* of Nov^ 
untill the 24'" 1782. See Bundle Lincoln Militia Amount Entered 
in Page 160 

From the Number of Men in Capt Thompsons Pay Roll the 
Comm" have reduced the Capt"' pay to Lieu" the Lieutenants to 
Ensigns pay, the Ens" to Sergeants & the Youngest Sergeant to 
Privates pay. 

Capt". Andrew Kinkeads Pay Roll from the 22* of October 
untill the 24''' of November 1782 Amount Enter* and Bundled as 
above — Capt. Kinkead in his pay Roll is to receive Pay as Lieu- 
tenant the Lieu' as Ensign, the Ensign the Pay of a Sergeant and 
one of the Serg^" as a private. 


f Capt" John Boyles Pay Roll from the 22* of October untill 
the 24 of Novr 1782 Ent'' & Bundled as above 

Capt. Sam' M''Afees pay Roll from the 26''' of August untill 
the 13'^ of December 1782 — Enter* & Bundled as above 

The Comm" have reduc* Capt McAfees Pay in his pay Roll 
to Ensigns & the Ensigns to Sergeants pay 

Capt. Jn' Doughertys Pay Roll from the 24''' of Ocf untill 
the 24'* of Novr 1782, Enter'' and Bundled as before 

Capt. Jn' Martins Pay Roll from the 21"' of April untill the 
27 of May 1781 — Entered and Bundled as before — The Comm" 
are of opinion that the pay of those men in Capt' Martins Pay Roll 
whose names are remark* kill* or removed, ought to remain in the 
Treasury untill applied for by them or their Heirs — or by orders 
properly attested 

Capt John Martins Pay Roll from the 22* of Ocf untill the 
26"' of Nov'' 1782 Enter'd and Bundled as above — The Comm"^ 
are of opinion that Capt. Martin ought to receive pay as an Ensign, 
the Lieu' and Ensign as Sergeants, & Sergeant M^Annally as a 
private, (in his pay Roll in Oct^ & Nov"" 1782) 

The Adjutant Q. Master & Sergeant Major Mentioned in 
the Roll were necessary for the First Battallion of the Militia of 
Lincoln on an expedition in 1782 and are allowed accordingly 

Capt Rob' Barnets Pay Roll from the 15'^ of March untill 
the 15'" of April 1782 — Entered and Bundled as before 

It appears that Capt Barnet in his Pay Roll ought to receive 
Lieut' Pay, the Lieu' Pay as Ensign the Ensign to be paid as a 
Sergeant and one of the Sergeants Privates Pay. The Q"" Masters 
Sergeant in Ca|)t Barnets Pay Roll serv*. as such for a Battallion 
of Lincoln Militia at the Falls of Oiiio in 1782 

Capt. Rob' Barnets Pay Roll from the 23* of Oct. untill the 
23* of November 1782 — Entered & Bundled as before — Capt. Bar- 
net in this Pay Roll is to receive pay as Lieu' the Lieut, as Ensign 
the Ensign Sergeants Pay and one of the Sergeants pay as a priv' 
It appears that tlie Q' Masters Sergeant in Capt Barnets Roll served 
on an Expedition in 1782 in the first Batallion of Lincoln Militia — 

Rec* by Major Walls, from Ann Elms an Account and 
Vouchers for Twelve pounds two Shillings which cannot be liqui- 


dated untill the Commerceal Agents Accounts are inspected 

Adjourn^ untill Monday Morning ' 

Monday March 24th Met according to adjournment Present as 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Edward 
Parker fifty one pounds two Shillings & Eleven pence half penny 
for Buffalo Beef &c furnish'' the State as p Vouchers Entered in 
Page 174 

It appears that there is due to Sergeant Elms Six pounds 
Eleven Shillings & Eight Pence for Buffalo Beef as p Vouch^ Enter** 
in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to William Thompson Eighteen 
pounds Twelve Shillings & Six pence for Buffalo Beef as p Vouchers 
Enter*" in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to Moses Lunceford Three pounds 
for Beef as p Voucher, Entered in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to Josiah Smith the sum of one 
pound three Shillings & two pence for Beef as p Voucher Entered 
in Page 271. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Henry 
Allen Eleven pounds fourteen Shillings, as Bounty for Inlisting as 
a Soldier at Fort Nelson July 25'^ 1782 as p Vouch'. No. 11 
Entered in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to John Morris, Eleven pounds 
fourteen Shillings, as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort 
Nelson the 5"* Jan^ 1783 p Vouch'. No. 12 Ent^ in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to Joseph Coubage Eleven pounds 
fourteen Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort Nel- 
son Feb'' 2' 1783, p Voucher No. 13 Enter" in Page 184 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 
Johnson Eleven pounds fourteen Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting 
as a Soldier at Fort Nelson Feby loth 1783 p Vouch'- No. 14 Entered 
in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to Jn". Joynes Eleven Pounds 
Eight Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort Nelson 
the 10"" of Feby 1783 p Voucher No. 15 Enter* in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to W"". Bush Eleven pounds 



fourteen Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort Nel- 
son the 4'^ of March. 1783 p. Vouch^ No. 16 Entered in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to John Armstrong Eleven pounds 
fourteen Shill^ as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort Nelson 
the 5!^ March 1783 p Vouch^ N' 17 Entered in Page 184 

Received of Maj^ George Walls the Following Ace'' Viz: — 

His Account against the State for Corn N» i- His Pay Ac- 
count as Q"' M. Gen' from y' as"* of June untill y« 24"" of March 
N' 2 His Pay Ace' as Maj^ in Col°. Croclcetts & the Illinois Regi- 
ment No. 3 — His recruiting Ace' No. 4 — David Moirs Claim as 
Assistant Qj M. Gen' and Conductor of Military Stores N' 5, and 
his Vouchers for 300 lb. of Buffalo Beef No. 6. 

Also his Q'' Masters Accounts & Vouchers from July 1781, 
and one receipt Book of Duplicates of the Vouchers, a Book of Store 
Issues & Vouch' and two Books of duplicates of Vouchers also a 
Book of Regimental Stores & Issues with the Vouchers- He likewise 
laid before the Board Returns of the receivals & Issues made by 
William Johnson Conductor General of Military & Quarter Mas- 
ters Stores on the Sale Expedition with proper Vouchers for the same. 

As M"^ Johnson has since been Captured by the Enemy In- 
dians, and it appears from his returns that there are sundry Guns 
& other Valuable property in the hands of the Militia not accounted 
for by the Quarter Masters for the several Batalions The Board 
thought proper to return the S^ papers to Maj''. Walls and requested 
him to use his Endeavours to recover the aforesaid property for the 
State — 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Scrg' 
Ab"* Frazer Six pounds fifteen Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting as 
a Soldier at Fort Nelson p Voucher Entered in Page 184 

It appears that there is due to Christopher Horn Eleven 
pounds five Shillings as Bounty for Inlisting as a Soldier at Fort 
Nelson p Voucher Entered in Page 184 pd. to Colo. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to William 
Barbour pd. W. Bradhead 
Puque, John Coldwater, Fredrick Rath, Christopher Keener & 

George Rupord Soldiers Enlisted at Fort Nelson Eleven Pounds 




five Shill" Each as Bounty for Inlisting p Vouc° Entered in Page 

Adjourned untill Tomorrow morning. 
Thursday March 25"" Met according to adjournment Present 
as before 

A Certificate from Zephaniah Blackford Conductor of Mili- 
tary Stores to Matthew Jones for L 8. 15. Dated ii"" April 1782 
was presented to the Board for settlement, which was not received, 
as Mr. Blackford has declined Laying his Ace'* before the Board 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to James 
Finn Ass'°. of W™ Bush the sum of Fifteen pounds ten Shillings & 
four pence Half penny for Beef &c furnished for the use of the 
Garris'p at Fort Nelson p Vouch"" rec"*. Entered in Page 174 

The Board of Commissioners find from the General Returns 
of the Strength of the Garrison at Fort Nelson, Made to them 
by the Commanding officer at that Post, and the State of the Garri- 
son laid before the Board that the number of Men are so reduced 
as to endanger tlie loss of the Place before recruiting instructions 
can be had from the Executive, They therefore are induced to ad- 
vise Maj'. George Walls without delay to endeavour to recruit as 
many men as will Supply the deficiency and to draw orders on the 
Executive for the Bounty Money of such Men so recruited allow- 
ing them the same Bounty which is given by the State to their own 

Received of M^ James Finn his Accounts & Vouch' Issuing 
Commissary from the 8'^ of Dec^ 1781 untill the 31" of Jan^ 1783 
which upon Examination the Commis"^ find to be just Also his 
Account of pay as Commissary from the 23* of March 1782 untill 
the 27th Feb^ 1783 at Eight Shillings p Day amounting to £134 
which is not closed untill his Accounts with the Quarter Master & 

Commercial Agent are Settled 

r It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to William 

Little Forty one pounds for a Waggon & Guns taken into the service 

[of the State as p appraism'. Bill rec^ Entered in Page 161 

The Commissioners Considering that the Garrison at the 
Falls is like to suffer for the want of Salt, Directed the Secretary 
to Give Majf George Walls an order to Mf Paul Froman, for all 


the Public Kettles & pans in his possession for the purpose of making 
Salt, And wrote to the Major on the Subject See Letter Book 
N». 1 8 

Rec*" Lieutenant William Clarks Account of Pay & Subsist- 
ance from the 6^* of June 1780 to the 31" of Jan'' 1783-Amount 
Three hundred and two Pounds Eight shillings & four pence Which 
is not finally Settled till the prices of the Goods he is charged with is 
Collected from the different Invoices of the Q"' Master & Commer- 
cial Agent. 

Also Capf. M'Cartys Pay Roll & Muster Roll from the 
30th of May 1779 to the second of June 1781, Capt". Geraults Pay 
& Muster Rolls from the 3d of June to the 30th of November 1 781, 
A Certificate of Capt". Geraults Services as Linguist for the French 
A Certificate for his services as Commissary his recruiting account, 
and an Account (of s"". Geraults) with Vouchers for Expenditures 
the Ballcnce due Capt" Kellar- Lieu' Peraults recruiting account, 
and a Certificate from Patt. Kennedy Commissay for rations due L' 
Perault Likewise a Certificate of John Moores services as Issuing 
Commissary on Board the Galley in the Ohio Countersign'' by Gen- 
eral Clark. It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to 
John Moore for the above service as Comm^ the sum of Two pounds 
thirteen Shillings, as p Voucher received Entered in Page 178 

adjourned till Tomorrow morning Wednesday.March 26th 
1783 Met according to adjournment Present as before 

Received of Col°. Benj' Logan of Lincoln County the follow- 
ing Pay Rolls and Accounts for the Militia of the County 

Capt. James Rays Pay Roll from the 23^ of Oct^ untill 22* 
Nov'' 1782. 

Sec Bundle Lincoln Militia Amount entered in Page 161 — 

Ensign John Smiths Pay Roll from the 4'" of Jan^^ untill 13'*' 
1783 Entered and Bundled as above 

Capt Robert Barnets Pay Roll from the 21" of aprii untill 
the 24"' of May 178'! Entered & Bundled as above — It appears to 
the Commis" that Capt Barnet in his Pay Roll is to receive Pay 
as Lieutenant the Lieu' as Ensign and the Ensign whose name is in 
the middle of the Collumn, the pay of a Sergeant. 




Ensign John Smiths Pay Roll from the 28'" of Dec' 1781 
untill 16"' of Jan^. 1782 Entered & Bundled as above. 

Ensign John Smiths Pay Roll from the nth of Sepf untill 
^ ■" 17*^ 1782 Entered & Bundled as above 

Capt. Andrew Kinkeads Pay Roll from the 22" of May untill 
the 21°' of June 1781 amount Entered and bundled as above. 

It appears to the Commissioners that Captain Kinkead in his 
Pay Roll is to receive pay as an Ensign 

Capt. John Cowans Pay Roll from the 22* of March untill 
the 22^ of April 1781 Entered and Bundled as above 

Lieu' Pettets Pay Roll from the 23^ of March untill 21" 
of April 1 78 1 Entered & bundled as above — It appears that Lieu' 
Pettet in his Pay Roll ought to receive pay as an Ensign 

Lieu' Benj" Pettots Pay Roll from the 22'' of May untill 
June 21°' 1781 Entered & Bundled as above — Lieu' Pettot in this 
Pay Roll is to receive pay as an Ensign & the Spies are allowed the 
pay anexcd to their names in the Roll 

Capt Samuel Kirkhams Pay Roll from the 17"' of August 
untill the 25^ 1782 Entered & Bundled as above- It appears that 
Capt. Kirkham in his Pay Roll ought to receive pay as a Capt" for 
Six days and the Pay of an Ensign for three days, The men in his 
Pay Roll returned for three days were Killed at the Battle of the 
Blue Licks But their Families of Friends are in Kentucky 

Capt". John Smiths Pay Roll from the 22<' of Ocf untill the 
23^ of November 1782 Entered & Bundled as before — 

It appears that Capt Smith in his Pay Roll is to receive pay 
as a Lieutenant the Lieut, as an Ensign the Ensign Sergeants pay 
& one of the Sergeants pay as a Private. 

Lieut. James Browns Pay Roll from the lo*^ of July untill 
2'' August 1782 See Bundle Lincoln Militia 

It appears that Lieu' Brown in his Pay Roll ought to receive 
pay as an Ensign 

Capt William M^Crackens Pay Roll for a Comp'' of Light 
Horse from 23^ of Ocf untill the 23^ of November 1782 Entered 
and bundled as before 

It appears to the Commissioners that the Capt in the above 
Roll is to receive pay as a Sergeant & the Lieutenant Ensign & 


Sergeants pay as Privates with the allowance of one Shilling and 
three pence p day for their Horses 

A pay Roll for Part of Capt. Kirkhams Company from the 
lO^ of Sepf untill the 31^' Entered and Bundled as before The 
men in this Pay Roll were ordered on Guard at Mf Triggs and the 
Board are of opinion it was requisite 

Capt. John Martins Pay Roll from the 18'- of August untill 
the 28'" 1782 Entered & Bundled as before - Capt. Martin in his 

Pay Roll is only entitled to Lieu" Pay & the Lieu' Ensigns pay ■ 

Likewise Capt. Martins Pay Roll from the 20"? of April untill May 
2^ 1782 — Entered in Page 162 Also his Pay Roll for Horses in 
Service During the above term Enter^ and Bundled as above — 

Received of Col°. Benj'' Logan a List of Sundry Accounts 
with Vouchers Inclosed for the Militia of Lincoln .County — ^Amount 
Six Hundred & Seventy Seven pounds Eighteen Shillings & ten pence 
p. Vouchers in Bundle Lincoln Militia Am' Entered in Page 162 

Also the Accounts of Pay for the Field officers of the County 
in Service on an Expedition under Gen' Clark in Nov'' 1782 & 
Sund. other services-Amount One hundred & Six pounds twelve 
Shillings & five pence as p Vouchers in Bundle Lincoln Militia, 
Ent^ in Page 162 

The Commissioners have not determined whether the officers 
above ment^" are entitled to Subsistance 

Received of Col°. Benj" Logan the following List of apprais- 
ments of Cattle for the Expedition in 1782 Viz: 
No. I One Cow & Calf the property of Dav^Gunst £, 5>.o„o 
No. 2 One Cow & Calf both Strays Described 6„o,,o 

3 One Red Bull a Stray ditto 2„5„o 

4 One Pied Steer a Stray do i„io„o 

5 One Black Bull stray do i„i5..o 

6 One do do do i>.5»o 

7 One Black & White Steer do do--- i„i5,.o 

8 One Large Red & white Steer do„o 

Amount Carried over 24„o„o 

Amount Brought forward L 24„o,,o 

9 One Black Steer the Property of Benj. Pettet 4.,io„0 


10 One Bridled Steer, a Stray Described 3„o„o 

11 One a Red & White Steer, Stray-- d^ " ' 3,,iO„0 

12 One Red Steer the property of Jn°. Bartley 3,,o,,o 

13 One Red Steer a Stray Described 3,iO,,o 

14 One a Red Steer do-- do-- 2,,io,,0 

£ 43>,io„o 
For the Amount of the above List See Page 162 Vouchers Filed in 
Bundle Lincoln Militia 

The Commissioners have to observe that the Stray Cattle 
marked in the Margin (of the Q"' Masters list received, to be the 
Property of any Person, are to be Paid to them respectively and 
those not marked the Money to remain in the Treasury, till the Own- 
ers prove their Property 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Isaac 
Hite Eighteen pounds Twelve Shillings & Six pence for Rations &c 
as p. Vouchers Entered in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to John Pringle Eight Pounds 
fourteen shillings for provisions furnish^ p Vouchers Entered in 
Page 169 

It appears that there is due to Jane Travis Five pounds 
fourteen Shillings for provisions furnished p Voucher rec'' Entered 
in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to William Wilcox for provisions 
furnished one pound Eleven shillings as p. Vouch^ Entered in Page 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Col' 
John Floyd Twenty seven pounds for Service on an Expedition in 
1782 as p. Voucher rec*. See Bundle Jefferson Militia amount 
Ent^ in Page 166 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Majr 
John Critenden One hundred and thirty nine pounds Eight Shillings 
& seven pence half penny for service as Brigade Maj'' p Vouch'' 
Ent* in Page 183 

It appears that there is due to Bartlet Searcy for Service 
as a Sergeant in Capt. Buchannans Comp/ and for Spying, Thirty 
five pounds twelve Shillings as p Voucher Entered in Page 176 


It appears that there is due to Pliilcmon Watters Thirty two 
Pounds for a horse lost in the Service as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 163 — On further Examination as Waters had not joined the 
Troop of Horse untill his horse Died, The Board therefore leave 
it undcrtermincd for the Auditors to Settle 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Doit'' 
George Hart the sum of Forty three pounds four Shillings for his 
Services as Surgeon p Voucher Entered in Page 

The Commissioners are of opinion that the charge against 
Bennum & Brown in the Doctf Harts was done during the time that 
the Claimant was paid as Surgeon to the troops under Gen' Clark 
then Col°. at the Falls and tlicrcforc reject it The Second Charge 
they think Just and ought to be settled at 8/p day Ninety Eight 
days Thirty nine pounds four shillings,— It appears to the Board 
that Domnic Flannagan did not belong to the Illinois Regiment 
when under Docf Harts care and therefore not chargeable to the 
State— It likewise appears that James Coburn was wounded at the 
Blue Licks and one of the Militia of Lincoln the Board do not 
think they have power to liquidate that Claim. A Certificate of 
Services for two Soldiers of Col' Montgomerys Regiment as p Cert, 
allow"*, four pounds 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Samuel 
Hinch for a mare lost in Service the Ballence of an Account Certi- 
fyed by Capt. Shannon for Going Express, and for Horse hire 
Twenty nine pounds & Eight pence as p Vouch' Entered in Page 

Adjourned till tomorrow morning 

Thursday March 27'" Met according to adjournment Present 
as before 

Rec^ M"" James McAfees Accounts of Receivings and Issues 
as Issuing Com^: ^t McAfees Station, The Vouchers for the Issues 
being less than the receivings he was qualified to the justness of the 
Issues before James Robertson a Majistrate as p his deposition an- 
nexed to his Issuing Account. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to James 
McAfee Twenty Three pounds for service as Issuing Commissary 
as p Vouchers rec'' Entered in Page 162 


It appears that there is due to James Laurence One pound 
five Shillings for Rations found the Greenbrier Militia p Voucher 
Entered in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to W" Crow Ass'°. of Alex' 
Mahan Eighteen Shillings for a Bag furnished the State p Voucher 
Entered in Page 183 

It appears that there is d\ic to William M°Whortcr Ten 
Shillings for Rations furnish* p Voucher Entered in Page 169 

It appears that there is due to the Estate of William Robert- 
son Dec*". Twelve Shillings & six pence for Rations furnished a 
party of Capt Rodgers Light Dragoons as p Voucher Entered in 
Page 169 

It appears that there is due to Mary Hinton the sum of two 
pounds one Shilling & six pence for 116"' of pork p Voucher Entered 
in Page 174 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to the p lOl 
loi Estate of James Right Deceased the sum of Twenty four pounds 
Eighteen Shillings & Eight pence for a horse lost in Service & sun- 
dries p Vouchers rec^ Entered in Page 163 

Rec^ of Mr James Trabue his Account with the State for his 
Service as Militia Commissary in Kentucky County from the 8th 
Day of December 1779 to the 24"" of June 1780, and of a Horse 
saddle Bridle & Gun taken with himself at the Capture of Ruddles 
and Martins Stations on the 24th & 26th of June 

Also Eight Lists of provisions received by him with receipts 
which he pass^ to the several Claimants for the same and a List 
of seven Cattle Impress"", for the use of the s"" militia with the ap- 
praisment Bills which the Commissioners are of opinion cannot be 
finally settled untill recourse is had to the Auditors Books-See Bundle 
Marked N. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 
Hinkston Seven pounds thirteen Shillings & ten pence for a Cow 
furnished the State p Voucher rec^ Entered in page 174 

It appears that there is due to Tho°. Harrison & Wife Three 
pounds Sixteen shillings & Eleven pence farthing for 206^ lb. Flour 
and the Balance of a small account p Vouch^ rec*. Entered in Page 


It appears to the Comm''' that there is due to Edward Hogan 
Five pounds Seven Shillings cSc two pence for 643 lb. of Buff". Beef 

p Vouchers rec*". Entered in Page 1 74 

It appears that there is due to Jacob Sodowslcy Twenty tlirce 
Pounds for a horse lost in the service of the State p Voucher Entered 

in Page 164 

Friday March 28th. Met according to adjournm'. Present as 
before • 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Edward 
Tyler Five Pounds Fourteen Shillings for Service as an Express p 
Vouch''- Entered in Page 176 

It appears that there is due to James Baxter Eleven pounds 
fourteen Shillings for Work done on the Row Galley p Vouchers 

Entered in Page 178 

It appears that there is due to William Smith Twenty two 
pounds ten shillings for work done at the Row Gaily p Vou^ entered 

in Page 178 

It appears that there is due to Jacob Myers Four pounds 
Thirteen Shillings & ten Pence for Carpenter Tools & Sund''^. p 

Vouch^ entered in Page 183 

It appears that there is due to Rachel Swan Thirty three 
pounds two Shillings & Seven pence half penny for a Mare lost on 
an Expedition also for the hire of a Mare of the same date as 

p Vouch'" entered in Page 164 

Received from Capt Abraham Chaplin his Pay Roll & Muster 
Roll from the First of Sept. 1782 untill the 31st of January 1783. 
Capt". Isaac Taylors Pay and Muster Roll from the First to the 
Thirty first of August 1782 Also Capt. Abraham Kellers Pay and 
Muster Roll from the Ninth of May 1779 untill the Ninth of 
November 178 1— Likewise Mr. Jarrat Williams Account against the 
State for service as a Lieutenant in the Illinois Reg' from the fifth 
day of June 1780 untill the first day of August 1782, and Pay as 
Ensign from the First day of Jany 1779 to the Fourth day of June 

Rec"". of Capt. John Dougherty John Pattersons Claim for a 
Mare lost on the Expedition in 1780- Settled by the Commissioners, 
at two Pounds Six shillings & one penny Three farthings — Also 


Sundry Claims for Horses 

in Service 

on the s"" Expedition 


Settled as Follows, Viz 

John Dougherty 

I Horse 

44 days 


Stephen Fisher 

I Horse 

44 days 


William Robertson 



Jn°. Doughtery 



Robert Carr 



Gasper Bops 


20 days 

I" 5..0 

For the amount of the above 


See Page 164 

Col". George Slaughter laid his Accounts before the Com- 
missioners - In examining which they find two obligations one from 
Sam' Wills & John Carr for four Hundred weight of Bear Meat 
the other from Carr & Escridge for Five Hundred & fifty five 
pounds w* of Bear meat which is due the State by them for Bills 
drawn by Col' Slaughter which were enclosed and Directed by the 
Commissioners to Maj^ Wills for the support of the Garrison at 
the Falls of Ohio 

Capt' Benj' Roberts laid before the Board £. 7662 of the 
late paper Currency of Virginia and a Writing therewith given 
upon Oath, Upon which the Board are of opinion that the S^ 
Money should be returned to Government and the S"" Roberts should 
receive Specie in Lieu thereof in Payment for Three Horses for 
which he stands bound with Phillip Dejein and purchased by them 
at the request of John Dodge for the use of the State Upon the S*" 
Roberts precisely ascertaining the date of the purchase — For the 
money &c mentioned above See Bundle marked with Letter O. 

It appears that there is due to Jane Travis Six pounds three 
Shillings Si. three pence half penny for sund«' as p Acc^ Received. 
Entered in Page 183 

It appears that there is due to Joseph Hunter Twenty two 
pounds Six Shillings for Beef Corn &c furnish*' at Fort Jefferson 
p Vouch' Entered in Page 182 

General Clark laid before the Board sundry accounts of 
Goods received & Issued by liim, with accounts against tlie Officers 
of the Illinois Regiment, without which the Commissioners could 
not Settle their Accounts. 


Capt. Rowland Madison laid his Accounts before the Board 
for examination. 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning Saturday March 29'* 
Met according to adjournment Present as before 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Plenry 
Hutton & Lou Brown Seventeen pounds Eight Shillings for Sundry 
services perform^ p Voucher Entered on Page 177 

It appears that there is due to Jacob Frowman Six pounds 
Seven Shillings & Six pence for Eighty five pounds of Iron used 
in Making the Row Gaily p Vouch^ Ent* in Page 178 

It appears that there is due to Col' Abraham Bowman Three 
pounds Eighteen shillings for fifty two pounds of Iron found for 
the Row Gaily p Vouclr' Entered in Page 178. 

It appears that there is due to John Burks Six pounds Seven 
Shillings & six pence for 365"' of Beef & 35'" of Venison furnish* 
at Fort Jefferson p Vouch™- Ent* in Page 182 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to James 
Harrod Eleven Shillings for a Yearling Bull p Vouch^ Ent* in Page 


It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 
Cowan One pound Seven Shillings and Nine pence for iii'^ of 
Pork as p Voucher rec* Entered in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to John Smith Eight Shillings 
& Eight pence as p Voucher in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to Hen''- French Eight pounds 
Ten Shillings & four pence for Beef & Plank as p Vouch' entered 
in page 1 74 

It appears that there is due to John Curd Nine pounds for 
50 Bushels of Corn p Vouch'' rec* Entered in page 171 

It appears that there is due to Capt. Benj' Roberts One 
pound Eight Shillings & Seven pence farthing for a Saddle lost in 
Service p Vouch' Ent* in page 183 

Rec* of Capt' Benj" Roberts a return of Sundry Cloaths, &c 
which is drawn from the State — also a Return of the Disbursement 
of £ 800 •• 10 which he rec* from the State by Col' Slaughter, and 
likewise the application of Sur-liy Horses and other Stores with 
Vouchers - See Bundle Letter P - 


It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Benj" 
Fields Thirty two pounds one Sliillings and four pence tliree fartli-' 
ings for service as Express his Expenses & Sund"^ as p Vouchers 
rec*" Entered in page 176 

It appears that there is due to Peter Demmery five Pounds 
Seven Shilh'ngs & Eight pence farthing for a Horse lost as p Vouch" 
Entered in page 164 

It appears that there is due to John May Seventeen Pounds 
thirteen Shillings and ten Pence for a Horse lost p Vouch' received 
Entered in page 164 

It appears that there is due to Samuel Hinch Three Pounds 
for service as a Deputy Purchasing Comm" p. Vouch'' received En- 
tered in page 183 

Received of Capt. Michael Humble his Pay Roll for a Comp' 
of Militia in Kentucky County from the 18'^ of July untill the 
21"' of August 1780 amount entered in Page 166 See Bundle 
Jefferson Militia 

It appears that there is due to John Hagan Eleven Pounds 
and Eight Pence for a Horse lost in Service and 196 ""■ of Beef 
p Vouch', rec* Entered in Page 164. It appears that there is due 
to Nathan Sellars Two pounds Seven shillings & Six pence for Horse 
Hire as p Voucher entered on page 164 

It appears that there is due to Samuel Shortridge Fourteen 
Shillings for seven Bushels of Corn p Vouch^ Entered in page 171 — 

It appears to the Comm"*- that there is due to Samuel Kirk- 
ham Two Pounds fourteen Shillings, for an an & hoe p Vouch"" 
Enter'' in page 162 

Rec^ of Col". John Montgomery. M^ James Buchanans 
Accounts and Vouchers as Commissary for his Regim' for the 1779 — 
See Bundle Q — 

Received of Capt. Rowland Madison his Accounts and Vouch- 
ers as Quarter Master in 1780 and 1781. which were not Settled as 
the Commissioners had appointed to Leave Kentucky. 

Received of Major James Francis Moore his Book of Pur- 
chases (with Vouchers) which were made from 1780 to 1782 which 
have been viewed and are to be finally Settled at a future Day as the 
Deliveries are not yet returned 


Received from Col°. George Slaughter a list of Bills and 
expenditures, with Vouchers while Command'- at the Falls of Ohio — 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Tho' 
Moore Twelve pounds for Express Duty p'. Vouchf entered in page 

It appears that there is due to The' Morton Twenty six 
pounds fourteen Shillings, the Ballance of his Account for work 
done at the Row Galley p. Voucher entered in page 178 

Received and settled the following Accounts presented by 
Col". John Bowman, viz: 

Col°. Bowmans appraisement Bill for two horses 

& Saddles £. 54.0.0 

Edw* Quirk 2 certificates for Express & Spy 


Col" Bowmans Voucher for Salt 

Thomas Clarks Voucher for Beef - - 

Rob' Flemings appraisement Bill for a Cow 

An account of Sundry persons for Potts 

etc. lost making Salt 

Jesse Tomblcston for Beef 

£ 169.7.6. 

For the amount of the above accounts see page 162 Bundle 
Lincoln Militia. 

The Commiss"^ observe that Col°. Bowmans appraisement Bill for 
fifty four Pounds is to be paid if it has not been already paid to Mr. 
John Dodge Agent etc. 

Rec* of Mr. James Sullivan his Cash account of Ten Thou- 
sand Nine hundred & fifty pounds a Bill drawn by Capt William 
Shannon Dated lOth of October 1781 for £ 17,902.4.0 and Sun- 
dry other papers, with a General Return of Horses taken from 
Jefferson County on the Expedition in 1782. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Francis 
Adams, Thirty Six pounds for work done at the Row Gaily as p 
Voucher entered in page 178 

It appears that there is due to Rob' Witt Four pounds ten 














shillings for work done at the Row Galley as pr. Voucher entered 
in page 178 

It appears that there is due to John Pulfer Thirty four 
pounds Sixteen Shillings for work done at the Row Galley, as p 
Voucher entered in page 178. 

It appears that there is due to John Johnston Twenty Seven 
Pounds for work done at the Row Galley as p Vouclier Enf in page 

It appears that there is due to William Rice Four pounds 
Sixteen Shillings for Service as Armourer at the Row Galley p 
Vouchers Entered in page 183 

It appears that there is due to Mr. Lawrance Meredith Four 
Pounds Ten Shillings for a Cow taken for the Troops at Fort 
Jefferson p Voucher entered in page 182 

It appears that there is due to Benj' Fields, One Hundred 
& Sixteen pounds Fourteen Shillings for his pay and Subsistance 
as Ensign in the Service of the State as p Voucher entered in page 


Received of Mr. Bland Ballard Commissary and Quarter 
Master his Book and Abstract with Vouchers whilst he served under 
Col' George Slaughter in 1780 & 1781, also his Book and abstracts 
with Vouchers for the time he served as Quarter Master & Com- 
missary under General Clark in 1781 & 1782, and Sundry other 
Papers, Books, Abstracts &c with Vouchers, which the Commission- 
ers have not settled. 

Adjourned to meet at Col' Benj' Logans on Wednesday the 
9th of April 1783 

Wednesday April 9th, 1783. 
Met at Col' Benj' Logans according to adjournment. Present 

William Fleming Tho» Marshall, 

Samuel m'Dowell & Caleb Wallace Esq" 

Mr John. Marshall laid a Claim before the Board for a Horse taken 
on an Expedition in 1780, which was returned & Sold by order of 
Gen' Clarke, to Alex' McClure, as a publick Horse. The Board 
think proper to direct said McClure to pay the price, he was to 
have paid, to the State to John Marshall. 


It appears to the Commissioners that there is due John Berry, 
Two pounds Sixteen Shillings for Rations furnished the Militia on 
duty as p Voucher entered in page 169 

Col°. Legras, Major Williams, and Several Gent' from the 
Illinois Country waited on the Board with their Accounts, and the 
Accounts of Sundry other claimants of that country were received 
by the Commissioners. 

Rec* of Majf Williams, a Letter from the Rev*. W. Gibault 
of Kaskaskias, with 284 5/6 Dollars paper Currency four Certificates 
with receipts on them for 238 4/5 Dollars, Two Bons for three 
dollars & one Bon for 4 Busiicls Corn, Which the Commissioners 
refer to the Executive. See Bundle Marked 2 

adjourned till tomorrow morning. 
Thursday April loth. Met according to adjournment Present as 

The Commissioners received & Settled the following Pay 
Rolls for the Militia of Kentucky Viz. Capt. John Allisons Pay 
Roll from 26th February untill the Last of March 1780 Amount 
entered in page 162 See Bundle Lincoln Militia 

Capt. Briscos Pay Roll from the 20th July untill the 21st 
August 1780 Entered & Bundled as above 

Capt' Henry Prathers pay Roll from the 8th July untill the 
21'' of August 1780 — Entered and Bundled as above — In Capt" 
Prathers pay Roll the two youngest Sergeants can only receive pay 
as Privates. 

Capt. John Allisons Pay Roll from 8th July untill 28th 
August 1780 Entered and Bundled as above 

The Commissioners are of oppinion that Captain Allison in 
his Pay Roll ought to receive Lieutenants Pay, the Lieut. Ensigns 
pay the Ensign Sergeants Pay, and the youngest Sergeant the pay 
of a Private 

Capt' James Estills Pay Roll from 15'" of March untill the 
5'* of April 1782. Entered and Bundled as above — From the num- 
ber of men on Captain Estills Pay Roll the Commissioners are of 
opinion that the Capt' should only receive the pay of a Lieutenant, 
the first Lieutenant the pay of an Ensign, & the Second Lieutenant 
the pay of a Sergeant, for the first nine Days untill his Superior 


Officers were killed, for the Remaining Thirteen Days he ought to 
receive Lieutenants Pay 

Capt. John Gordons Pay Roll from the 15'^ March untill the 
15"' of April 1782 See Bundle Lincoln Militia- from the number 
of men in Capt Gordons Pay Roll the Capt' ought only to receive 
the Pay of a Lieutenant, the Lieutenant the pay of an Ensign, the 
Ensign the pay of a Sergeant, & the youngest Sergeant Privates pay. 

It appears to the Board that there is due to Sam' Brigs Tvi^o 
pounds Eighteen Shillings for 1 16 Rations furnish'd Militia on duty 
as p Voucher entered in page 169 

The Board received from Maj"" John Williams Capt' John 
Dodges Books, and accounts of Goods Delivered the Officers and 
Soldiers of the Illenois Regiment, Likevt^ise his Invoices of Goods 
Delivered him & vouchers for Expenditures against the State 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning. 
Friday ii'" April Met according to adjournment Present as be- 

Received from Capt Edward Worthington, his Pay Roll for 
the year 1779, and his pay Roll for 1781 likewise his recruiting 
account and Vouchers for Ditto likewise a Certificate for hire 
of Horses 290 Days, a Certificate for a Boat lost in Service, value 
Three Hundred Dollars — also a Certificate for a Cow kill'd Three 
pounds Seven shillings & Six pence 

Received from Frederick Guyon several claims of Icabod 
Camps as follows Viz: for making four Shirts 18/ work of Two 
Negroes £.2.-3-0, Medicines etc £.1.4.0 Accounts of Henry Wills 
£11.5.0. Amount of the whole £.15.10.0- Four pounds Four Shill'. 
to be deducted — This Account is not Finally settled till the Agents 
Books are Examined. 

Received from Capt. Henry Smith by the hands of Frederick 
Guyon, the following claims, viz : A certificate for Dry'd Beef 
3600 lb. a 6^. p. pound, amounting to £.90.0.0 A Certificate for 
125 Bushels Corn L. 15.0.0 amounting in the whole to One Hun- 
dred & five pounds, out of which a deduction of Ten pounds Eigh- 
teen shillings to be made for sundries furnished him the Balance 
remaining is ninety four pounds two shill' also took in a Receipt for 
Rations 3/9. 


Received from William Bladsoe an appraisement Bill of a 
Mare lost on the late Expedition against the Indians, under the 
Command of General Clark Vallued to £.20 entered in Page 164 
This claim & two others presented by Col' Logan for Joseph Craig 
& Green Clay, Stand upon the same footing with the Horses lost 
at the Battle of the Blue Licks, which are specially reported upon 
and ought to be paid, if the Assembly allow the Claims for those 
lost at the Battle of the Blue Licks as the whole are referred to their 

Received of Col' Benjamin Logan of Lincoln County the 
following Pay Rolls and Acct' Viz: Ensign David Cookes pay Roll 
from nth March untill 10'" of April 1782. See Bundle Lincoln 
Militia Am' Entered in page 162. 

William Steels Vouch'' for thirty Shill' allowed for Half a 
Bushel salt; entered in page 171 

John Sellers Voucher for Thirty Sliillings allowed for half 
a Bushel of Salt entered in Page 171 

Henry Babman's Voucher for Rations furnish'' the Militia on 
duty amount £.3-10-6 Ent^ in page 169 

William Morrows Voucher for 14 Days Horse Hire at one 
Shilling & three pence p. Day. Seventeen Shillings and Six pence. 
Entered in page 164 

Joseph Love's Voucher for 15 days Horse hire at one shilling 
& three pence p Day. Eighteen Shillings and nine pence, entered 
in page 164 

George Farbush appraisement Bill for a Gun lost at Estills 
Defeat, apraised to L.7.IO.O-- also Jesse Farbusli's appraisement 
Bill for a Saddle & Bridle appraised to L.2 entered in page 164 

The Commissioners are of oppinion that the Claims for ar- 
ticles lost at Estills defeat are of the same Nature with the Blue 
Lick Defeat, which are Specially reported upon Adjourned till 
Tomorrow morning. 

Saturday April 1 2th 1783 Met according to adjournment. 
Present as before 

It appears to the Commissioners the following accounts are 
due to Moses Henry of St. Vincents Viz: 


For an order drawn by Col' John Todd on the Governor of 
Virginia, for 704 Dollars currency to be paid at I for 5— 

140 4/5 Dollars £ .42.4. lOj^ 

For articles furnished the Indians p Ace'. 12. 1 8.0 

For Services performed as Indian Agent & for 

horse hire as p Acct. 120. 2.0 

£ 175.4.101^ 
For the Vouchers See Bundle G. 

Amount entered in page 177 Note the Bill or order given by Colo. 
Todd is returned to Henry 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due Andrew 
Clark L.35.2.0. for work done at the Row Gaily p Voucher enter'd 
in page 178 

The Commissioners rec'-' of M'' Zephaniah Blackford, liis Book 
as Conductor of Military Stores at Fort Nelson with the Correspond- 
ing Vouchers, and an Abstract containing a General State of the 
whole. It appears that this Book was kept by David Moore from 
July 26tli to October 13th 1781. and by Martin Carney from tlie 
14th October to the 10^ of December in the same year, and after- 
wards by said Blackford untill March 31°* 1783 

Also Received of the S*" Blackford Sundry certificates for 
pay due from the State and other Accounts amounting to 
£.385.6.6 2/5 from which his Accounts with the State are to be de- 
ducted, entered in page 183 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Matthew 
Jones £.6.2.6 for Services as Armourer, as p Voucher Entered in 
page 183 

It appears that there is due to Benjamin Pope Eight Pounds 
thirteen Shillings & Six pence for Beef Furnished at Fort Nelson 
as p Voucher. Entered in Page 174 

It appears that there is due to Col°. William Pope £.7.5.0 
for attending the Board as a Sheriff in Jefferson County as p Voucher 
Entered in page 261 

Settled a Bill of Exchange drawn by Col' George Slaughter 
in favour of Richard Chinoweth for £2962.10.0 Dated April 29th 
1 78 1 when reduced by the Scale of Depreciation amounts to 


£.29.12.6 — Likewise a Certificate from M^ William Shannon for 
£.7111.10.0 Dated the first Day of June 1781. When reduced 

by the Scale amounts to £28.8.10 Entered in page 183 

It appears that there is due to Peter Young L.2.10.0 for 
a Beef Cow taken for the use of the State, as p Voucher Entered 
in page 174 

Rec*" of Col°. William Pope Administrator of Col. Lynn Dec*", 
Sundry certificates for said Lynn's services as a field Officer, also 
for Flour Iron &c furnished by said Lynn for the use of the State, 
which Accounts the Commissioners cannot Settle untill his Accounts 
with the State are adjusted See Bundle marked R. 

The Commissioners being informed that Maj'' John Williams 
was a principal Evidence relative to the Conduct of the Officers 
of the Illinois Regiment, took his Deposition- See Bundle Depos- 
itions Illinois Department General Clarks Ace"* No. 36 

Adjourned till Monday morning 
Monday April 14th. Met according to adjournment Present Wil- 
liam Fleming Sam' M'Dowell and Caleb Wallace, Esq". 
No. I. The Commissioners can by no means depart from the prin- 
cioal. That the State is not obliged to Honour Bills drawn by per- 
sons unauthorized, but where the State has been furnished with 
Articklcs to the amount which articles have been really applyed to 
the Support of the Troops, Such Bills they are of opinion ought to 
be taken in at the real value of the Articles when furnished. 
No. 2. That the Bills drawn on the Treasury of Virginia ought 
to be paid off agreeable to the Illinois Scale of Depreciation, after 
depreciation took place in tliat country. 

No. 3- but as it appears by Mr. Shannons Books, that he drew Bills 
countersigned by General Clark for Articles of a mix'd 
nature. Some appearing to be Purchased by Depreciated 
Currency, whilst others arc not & many of his Vouchers 
being lodged with the Auditors, the Commissioners can not 
in Justice fix the payment of those Bills, either by the Scale 
or any other way in their Power. 
No. 4. It appears to the Commissioners that many Bills are drawn 
by those authorized by Government for which they can 
produce no Vouchers for Articles for which theSe Bills were 


drawn, and of course the Bills become chargable to the 
drawers, but the Commissioners cannot undertake to say 
whether the State ought to take up those Bills or not, as it 
is of great consequence, they think it worthy the attention 

of the Legislature 

Capt. Trotier presented to the Board a Bill marked 
No. I which seems to be drawn for Specie from the Amount 
of the Bill 615 Dollars, accompanied with the Articles, the 
Commissioners are of opinion that 45 2/5 Dollars should be 
deducted from the Articles of Flour & an Ax lost charged 
two high, which reduces the Bill to 569 3/5 Dollars, this 
Bill comes under the General Remark No. i 

No. 2. An Account of Sundries comes under the Remark No. I in 
this Account 16 Dollars to be deducted from the article 

of Flour, reduces the Account to 39l>4 Dollars. 

No. 3. A Bill of W"". Shannons countersigned G. R Clark for 60 
Dollars comes under Remark N' 3 

No. 4. A Specie Bill of General Clark's on Oliver Pollock for 220 
1/5 Dollars, the first of tin's Tenor & Date sent to New 

No. 5. This Bill falls under the 2nd General remark and is 4 3/5 

No. 6 A Certificate for subsistance of two Soldiers at 2J/2 Liv' 
this appears high, but is the Vallue settled by the Court 
in that Country 

No. 7. An account of Sundries furnished Indians 

Mons^ La Chance's papers presented by M'' Trotier. 

No. I A first of Exchange for 1400 Dollars, reduced by the 
Scale of Depreciation in that Country is 46 2/3 Dollars. 
comes under the i"^ General Remark, & is protested by 
Governor Jefferson- Col°. Montgomery imforms the Board 
this was given in part purchase of a tract of land for private 

No. 3 Contains two Bills both of the same tenor & date and 
drawn by Col° Montgomery they are both first sets and 
not in the list of Bills drawn by him & come under the 
first general remark 


No. 4. A Bill Drawn by Pat** Kennedy countersipned G R 
for 234 Livers 10 Sols or 46 9/10 Dollars - the Board is 
informed was for Smiths Work, there is no ace' rendered 
with this Bill. By the Illinois Scale of Depreciation is 
9 2/5 Dollars 

No. 5-A first Bill of Montgomery's for 1200 Dollars on the Treas- 
urer of Virginia, this Bill is not in his list of Bills, and falls 
under the first General remark. 

No. 6 A Bill by Col°. Montgomery, is supposed to be given for 
private purposes, and falls under the first general Remark. 

No. 7 A Second Bill for 170 Dollars by Col°. Montgomery, the 
Vouchers for this amongst Col". Montgomerys papers are 

No. 8 A Bill for Cash on Recruiting Service reduced by the Scale 
of Depreciation is 62 2/5 Dollars Specie 

No. 9 A Bill This is not in Col". Montgomerys List and is sup- 
posed to be Counterfeit. 
Sundry Papers presented by Capf Trotier. 

No. I A Bill by Gen' Clark on the Treasury of Virginia for Scj 
Dollars. This falls under the second Gen'. Remark 

No. 3 A Bill of General Clarks appears payable, as by the endorse- 
ment with 37 1/5 Dollars 

No. 4 A Bill Protested by Gov' Jefferson & afterwards Counter- 
signed by Gen' Clark for 543 1/5 Dollars, out of which 2 
Dollars to be deducted, over charge in Flour, which reduces 
it to 541 1/5 Dollars and falls under the Second General 

No. 5 A Bill of Col". Montgomery's for 332 Dollars protested 
by Gov'' Jefferson & comes under the first General Remark, 
but as it was for Cash advanc^ on the Recruiting Service 
reduced to Specie by the Common Table of Depreciation 
is 5 1/10 Dollars. This Bill is not in Montgomerys list — 

No. 6 A Bill of Col". Montgomerys for 260 Dollars is not in his 
List, falls under the first General Remark & is protested 
by Gov"" Jefferson 

No. 9 A Bill of Col". Montgomerys for 174 2/5 Dollars (a Second 
Bill) the Ace- for 804 Livers not produced the Article of 


Flour IS over charged 4 Dollars. This Bill falls under 
the first & Second General Remarks. 

No. 7 A Bill of Col°. Montgomery's to Ant. Harmond for 1560 
Dollars, this is not in his List of Bills & protested by Gov' 

No. 8 A Bill of Col°. Montgomery's a first of Exchange for 300 
Dollars, advanced for recruiting, this Bill is Paid is Settled 
by the Virginia Scale of Depreciation at 5 Dollars, This 
Bill falls under the first General Remark, is protested by 
Gov'' Jefferson, and not in Col' Montgomery's List — Papers 
presented by Capt. Trotier. 

No. I A Bill of Col. Montgomery's for 411 4/5 Dollars, with 
Account anexed presented for Payment & Protested by Gov' 
Jefferson after which it was countersigned by General Clark. 
This Bill is passed as Specie to Montgomery's List. 

No. 2 A Bill of Col' Montgomery's for 17 14 dollars advanced for 
recruiting Service. This Bill falls under the first General 
Remark is protested by Gov' Jefferson, if paid the Commis- 
sioners settled it by the Virginia Scale of Depreciation, at 
28^ Dollars Specie 

No. 3 A Bill of Shannons for 220 Dollars, countersigned George 
R. Clark, falls under the third Gen' Remark 

No. 4. A Bill of Shannons countersigned by Gen' Clark for 340 4/5 
Dollars. This Bill comes under the Second and third Gen- 
eral Remarks 

No. 5 A Bill of Col» Montgomerys looo Dollars Advanced for 
recruiting Service falls under the first General Remark. If 
paid the Commissioners, Liquidate it by the Virginia Scale 
of Depreciation, making it 13 5/7 Dollars. 

No. 6 A Certificate for work & Iron L.2.12.0 Specie 

No. 7 Ditto Do. 3.15 

No. 8 Ditto Do. Settled by the Scale. 15 

7. 2. o 
The following Bills of Exchange were laid before the Board 
of Commissioners by Col. Legras on which they made the 
following Remarks, anexed 



No. 1 A Bill for 1143 1/5 Dollars drawn by General Clark, on 
the Treasurer of Virginia Supposed to be for Currency the 
second of this set is said to be in the Hands of Mf Nathan of 

No. 2 A Bill for 1752 Dollars drawn by General Clark on Oliver. 
Pollock Esq'' of New Orleans Supposed to be for Specie 
This Bill is not found in the Generals Books, but one of the 
same tenor and date is charged to Charles Charleville which 
may probably he the same. The first of this set is said to 
be in the hands of Mr. Nathan 

No. 3,4,5,6,7,8 Were drawn by William Shannon, Conductor Gen- 
eral & counter-signed G R. Clark referred to the third 

Article of the General Remarks before Mentioned 

The following bills belonging to Nicholas Perrot were laid 
before the Board by Col. Legras 

No. 1 A Bill for 500 Dollars drawn on the Governor of Virginia 
by Col' Jn» Todd supposed to be for paper Currency, re- 
duced by the Illinoise Scale is 125 Dollars Specie 

{A Bill of Exchange of W. Shannons in favour of Mr. 
Langtot countersigned Geo. R. Clarke dated June 14th 
1779. 360 Dollars. 

No. 2 & 3 Bills 250 Dollars drawn by William Shannon, referred to 
Article third in the General Remark settled by the Illinois 
scale at 155 i/io Dollars. Also the following receipts be- 
longing to and sent by Mons''. Fontain 

No. I A Receipt drawn by Patt Kennedy in favour of Joseph 
Fontain for 24 Dollars Specie 

No. 2 A Receipt drawn in favour of Mons. Quicket by Patrick 
Kennady for 10 Dollars Specie. 

No. 3 A Receipt drawn by Henry Croucher in favour of John 
Deveneia for 51 1/5 Dollars. 

No. 4 A Receipt drawn by Frederick S. Guion in favour of Rosa 
Fortune for 28 4/5 Dollars. 

No. 5 In favour of Joseph Fontain, a Billet for Rations 10 Dollars 

No. 6 Ditto Ditto 2 Do. 

No. 7 Ditto signed James Finn 6 Do. 

No. 8 Ditto sign'd Henry Croucher. 3 Do. 


Also the following Bills & receipts etc belonging to & sent 

by Mons'. John B. Vilot 

No. I A Bill of Exchange drawn by Valentine Thomas Dalton, in 
favour of John B. Vilot 80 Dollars Peltrie 160 Dollars 
Specie referred to the first Article of the General Remark 
settled at 120 Dollars. 
No. 2 A Receipt drawn by John Wilson, One Dollar Specie 
No. 3 A Receipt for making one Coffin settled nt 3 Dollars 
No. 4 A Billet for Rations 3J Dollars. 
No. 5 A promissory Note from Leonard Helm. One dollar. 
No. A I. B. Vandrys Commission Certificate &c for 1507 days as 
Indian Interpreter 1339^ Dollars. — Major Francis Boseron 
presented to the Board several Bills of Exchange, certificates 
& Accounts, the adjusting of which is defered for the want 
of time at present, and the Board directed the papers to be 
returned to Major Boseron. 
Col' Legrass represented to the Board that reports had been 
industriously spread at S' Vincents that the State of Virginia was 
determined to cut off the Inhabitants of that Village, whicli had 
occationed several Families to remove, requested the Board to write 
to the Inhabitants to quiet their minds by assuring them the report 
was without foundation The Board directed the following Letter 
to be Sent them Viz : 

Gentlemen Col°. Logans, April 14th 1783. 

We have with pleasure adjusted your Accounts 
presented to us, we are sincerely sorry to understand by Col". Legras 
that any false reports have created uneasiness in your minds, We 
take this opportunity to assure you that the State of Virginia is 
highly impressed with the sense of your good Intentions and firm 
attachment to the Americans in general, & to the State of Virginia 
in particular. Sensible of the great loss you must have sustained by 
lying so long out of the Money chearfully advanced by you for the 
support of the Troops whilst in your Country As soon as our Enemies 
were humbled and brought to reason. Attentive to your Interests a 
Board of Commissioners were appointed, to take in and adjust the 
Accounts due in your Country. We are likewise to assure you tiiat 




his Excellency our Governor has wrote particularly to the Board of 
Commissioners requiring us to acquaint you of the good oppinion 
he entertains of your Fidelity & attachment to the State. We are 
therefore surprised to hear that any influence by groundledd Jealous- 
ies, Should be removed and beg you to lay aside these needless fears 
& rest assured that you are esteemed by every worthy Citizen of 
America. Peace will soon be Established, Preliminaries being al- 
ready settled at Paris ; Trade will then revive & an intimate friendly 
intercourse take place Between St. Vincents and this country. 
With Sincere regard we are Gentlemen 
Your fellow Citizens 

William Fleming 

Sam"-. M'Dowell 

Caleb Wallace 
The Inhabitants of 
St. Vincents. 

Mr. Gratiott waiting the return of the Commissioners at 
New River. 

The Board adjourned to meet in Bottetourt County 

Belle Mont Bottetourt County May 6th & 7tli 1783 
The Commissioners met according to Adjournment 

Present William Fleming, Tho^ Marshall and Caleb Wallace 


Major Boseron presented several Bills of Exchange and 
Accounts to the Commissioners, the Settlement of which was deferred 
in Kentucky, which are Settled & Remarked as follows. Viz: 
No. I A Bill of Exchange drawn by Val T. Dalton, in favour of 
Pierre Pruits for 180 Livers in Peltry, dated Fort Patrick Henry 
May lOth 1780, on the Treasurer of Virginia- This Bill falls under 

the first general Remark in Page 117 

(The Comm". are of opinion that this Bill should be 

/paid with 24 Dolls. 

— .■H No. 2 A Bill of Exchange of William Shannons Countersigned G 

a« ^ «. R Clark, in favor of Francis Boseron for 3803 1/5 Dollars No. 155 

E J"^ n dated Fort Patrick Henry August I2th 1779. This Bill appears to 

'--'^ - " be in part payment of an Account certified & comes under the third 

V c 

•c ,ti 

5 M 


J5 2 

o w 

General Remark page 117 


No. 3 A first of Exchange of W. Shannons in favour of Leonard 
Helm countersigned Geo R. Clark dated Fort Patrick Henry Oc- 
tober lo'^ 1779. No. 166 for 1500 Dollars endorsed Leo. Helm, 
this Bill falls under the Second General Remark, page 117. We 
observe this Bill is in W". Shannons List of Bills, and think it should 
be paid with 880 Dollars. 

No. 4 A First of Exchange of William Shannons, countersigned 
G R Clark, in favour of Francis Boseron No. 153, dated Fort Pat- 
rick Henry 12th August 1779. for 400 Dollars this Bill appears to 
be in part payment of a certified account and comes under the 3rd 
General Remark in page 117. (The Commissioners think this Bill 

) should be paid with 400 D. 

S.'? No. 5 A first of Exchange of William Shannons Countersigned 

E ^ 1. G R Clark, in favour of Francis Boseron for 2863 2/^ Dollars dated 

Mrs ■2'= . . . 

<" d.nQ *^^ ^^^^ °^ September 1779 is in part payment of a certified account 
y^ and comes under the 3rd General Remark — in page 117 

No. 6 A first of Exchange of William Shannons countersigned G 
R Clark dated March 8th 1782. in favour of W"^ Antulep for Sun- 
dries furnished the Troops to the amount of 88 2/5 Dollars, this Bill 
falls under the 3rd General Remark. Page 117 (to be paid with 
88 3/5 Dol.) 

No. 7 A first of Exchange of William Shannons, countersigned 
G. R. Clark in favour of Antoin Marie, for 210 Dollars dated I2p 
25th June 1779 this Bill falls under the second general Remark — 
in page 1 17 

No. 8 A Certificate for L.437.16 Specie of William Shannons 
"S CTj 2 countersigned G. R. Clark in favour of Francis Bosserom. By 
V " = observing the Articles charged in M"" Shannons Books, altho the 
o -S P certificate mentions Specie, yet the Commissioners are of opinion 

that it falls under the 3d General remark in page 117 

No. 9 A bill of Exchange first set, drawn by Leonard Helm in 
favour of Francis Bosseron 1067 Dollars, dated Nov. 19th 1779- 
on the pay Master General of the State of Virginia, This Bill comes 
under the first general Remark in page 117 and the Commissioners 
think it ought not to be charged to the State. 


t £'n!l ^°- '°- -^ second of Exchange of William Shannons not Counter- 

V o. 


■~ o u Q signed Dated 1 8th September 1779 in favour of Francis Bosseron 
S.__ ^ 8 No 160 for 4000 Dollars is in part payment of a Certified Account, 
.2^2-= '^^ ^^^^ °^ "-^'^ Tenor & Date is in Mr. Nathans hands, this Bill 
h 2<4) & f^Us under the first & third General Remarks in page 177 &c 
Accounts Presented by Major Boseron. 
.■£ No. I. A certified Account countersigned by G. R. Clark for Sun- 
^ dries advanced in the Indian department and for services done, the 
25 Commissioners not having the Vouchers produced to them, and un- 
^N.o acquainted with the allowance from the State to persons acting in 
(2 « that Department they cannot pass an Opinion on this, but think Maj'' 
Bosseron justly deserves what the state allows in such cases- the 
Amount of the above certificate is 828 2/5 Dollars. 
No. 2 A certified Ace' of 940 Dollars to a Company of Men under 
Major Boseron when Govern'' Hamiltons Boats were taken, which 
appears to have been paid by Major Bosseron & is due to him 
No. 3 An Account signed by General Clark for L.510 Some of 
the articles charged. Stolen by the guard in the House during the 
seige of the fort, the Commissioners refer it to the Executive whether 
the State is to pay for these articles (The Commissioners are of opin- 
ion it should be paid with 122 & i/io Dollars.) 
No. 4. A certificate of John Dodge, that there is due to Major 
Bosseron 272 Livers in peltry on a Settlement the Secretary having 
M'Dodges Books, this is deferred till these Books are taken to Rich- 
mond ( This Certificate is to be paid with 108 4/5 Dollars) 
No. 5. A Receipt of Captain Baileys for Rum, inlisting men, The 
Commissioners think this is chargable to Captain Bailey & not to 
the State. 

No. 6 A Certificate from the Commissary for a Hogg i2o"'- at 2 
Livres p. lb comes to 240 livres or 48 Dollars, 2 Livers p^ lb for 
pork is the usual charge in that Country. 

No. 7 & 8- Two Certificates for services of Madam Marea as In- 
dian Interpreter. As the Commissioners have little or no light 
thrown on these services, they are of opinion that £.20 May be a 
Sufficient recompence, but refer it to the Executive. 
N0.1-2-&3- Are pay Rolls for Major Bosseron and his Company 
but as they are not countersigned by the Commanding Officer, the 


Commissioners refer them to General Clark — A Certificate for 
Frederick Guion as Issuing Commissary 189 days — £. 14.3.6. A 
Certificate for a Horse Lost in the service the property of Edward 
Worthington assigned to Guion 

Adjourned to Meet at Botetourt Court House 9"" Inst. 
Botetourt Court House May 9th 1783. Met according to ad- 
journment Present William Fleming Tho' Marshall and Caleb Wal- 
lace Esq''' 

M'. Gratiot laid before the Board Copies of his accounts 
& Bills of Exchange as follows viz 

No. I— A Bill of Exchange drawn by Leonard Helm and Counter- 
signed G.R. Clark dated January 14"' 1779. at Fort Patrick Henry, 
^^ in Favour of Francis Bosseron, drawn on General Clark endorsed 
(on the Back) Francis Bosseron & Company- The Commissioners 
have no amount laid before them for which this Bill was drawn & 
therefore cannot Judge of the reasonableness of the Demand, but 
observe a Bill of the same Tenor & date in the List of Bills trans- 
mitted them by the Executive in M^ Nathan possession. 
No. 2- A Bill of Exchange of William Shannons on Col°- G.R. 
Clark in favour of Captain Linctot for 3836 2/5 Dollars dated 5th 
June 1779 Accepted by G.R. Clark & endorsed Linetot, this Bill is 
marked private, & in the body of the Bill it appears the peltries 
were delivered to M'' Barkley. The Commissioners observe M"" 
Barkley was not in the service. It is rumoured M^ Barkley took a 
quantity of Peltries from that country & sold them on private Ac- 
count. By Mr. Shannons Books it seems as if the peltries for which 
this Bill was given, were delivered to Patrick Kennedy, which Sal- 
iences Kennady's Account for Beef &c there is a remark in Shan- 
nons List of Bills, in which he observes he had omitted to settle this 
Bill with the Auditors in 1780 — From circumstances, the Com- 
missioners are of opinion it is not chargable to the State this Bill 
is in the List of Bills in Mi" Nathans hands 

No. 3- A Bill of Exchange of Shannons, on G R Clark endorsed 
Linetot, accepted G.R.Clark drawn in favour of Linetot for 1539 
3/5 Dollars said to be for peltries given to Le Croix for provi- 
sions dated June 5th 1779- In Shannons List of Bills, and refers to 
Le Croix's Ace- but there is no such Articles in the Ace' nor does 


such a Bill appear to be charged to the State in Linetots Ace' and 

is in Mr. Nathans List transmited to us 

No. 4- A Bill first set of William Shannon Countersigned G R 
Clark drawn on the Treasurer of Virginia in favour of Linetot, for 
3000 Dollars for six Hogsheads of Taffia & dated at Fort Clark June 
14th 1779. It appears that it is charged at 500 Dollars P Hogshead, 
which W. Gratiot acknowledges to be higli, & reduces it in his Ace' 
Current to 148 Dollars p'' Hogshead. The Commissioners think 
this reasonable & observe that this Bill is likewise in Mr. Nathans 

No. 5 A first of Exchange of William Shannons, on the Treasurer 
of Virginia, countersigned G.R. Clark October 14th 1780. in favour 
of Carbouneaux for 9280 Dollars, the second set of these Bills was 
settled with Carbouneaux at 127 J Dols. 

No. 5 A first of Exchange of William Sliannons, on tlic Treasurer 
of Virginia countersigned G R Clark Ocf 14th 1780. in favour of 
Carbouneaux, for 1600 Dollars the Second set settled with Car- 

No. 7- A Second of Exchange Countersigned G R Clark, from Mr. 
Shannon in favour of Janist for 721 Dollars dated 25"' June 1779- 
at Fort Clark, on the Treasurer of Virginia, for Sundry Provisions 
furnished the Troops stationed at the Illinois, this Bill is in Shan- 
nons list of Bills, but no Ace' appears for what the Bill was drawn — 
No. 8- A first of Exchange of Shannons in favour of Joseph Ander- 
son for going Express from Kaskaskias to the Falls of Ohio &c On 
the Treasurer of Virginia for 405 2/3 Dollars Dated 11'" August 
1779 Kaskaskias. This Bill falls under the first & second general 
remark in Page 117. But as the Scale of Depreciation would reduce 
it too much the Commissioners are of opinion this Bill should be 
paid with £. 20. 

Maj'' Linetots Account of Sundries furnished the Indians as 
Superintendant of Indian affairs as p^ Certificates &c. 
No. I- A certificate of Cliarles Dumay for 8i Gallons Taffia at 
100 Livers p Galon & i lb. Vermillion, 12 Livres Total 837 
No. 2- A Certificate of Ambrouse Dumay for 24^ Pots Taffia at 
70 Livres p Pott. Amount 1715 Livers. 
No. 3- A Certificate of Dominique Bogar for Sundries 755 Livers 


The following Certificates fall under our tlu'rd General Re- 
mark in page 117 Viz 

No. I.- In this Certificate the Taffia is high the Vermillion may 

be right 167 2/5 Dollars. 

No. 2 This Certificate is high. 343 Dollars. 

No. 3 We can form no oppinion of this certificate as the time of 

Boarding &c, quantity of articles furnished are not particularized 

755 Livres. 

No. 4- A Certificate Pierre Cournoyer for 2405 Livres the Tobacco 

5: corn may be right, the Taffia high. 

No. 5- A Certificate of Pierre Cournoyer for 400 Livers the 

Commissioners have some doubts whether this certificate may not 

be included in No. 4 

No. 6- A Certificate of Lemoureux for work done 40 2/5 Dollars, 
The Commissioners are not acquainted with the value of Work in 
that country but suppose it is as charged in this account. 
No. 7- An Account of Major Lanctots for Sundries to Indians, 
The Commissioners think the first Article of a Gun at 500 Livres 
very high, the Taffia high, the other Guns unless of the best Quality 
are Likewise high. 349 2/5 Dols. 

No. 8- A Certificate of M"" Papins for Sundries furnished Mr. 
Langtot to the amount of 7650 Livres 10 Sous- These articles were 
furnished at St. Louis, where considering there was no expence of 
Land carriage, the Commissioners think the articles charged exceed- 
ing high, they think the Taffia might be sold there in small quanti- 
ties at 8 Dollars p Gallon, The linen the Canoes appear high, like- 
wise 3 Horses, but as the Commissioners do not know the qualities 
of these and some other Articles charged, the cannot determine on 
them, - 3 Barrels of Taffia of 18 potts making 54 potts or 27 Gallons 
in all, charged 3780 livers taken by Capt" Bailey from Dumai the 
property of Major Lanetot at St. Vincents, the Comm" are of 
opinion that this Taffia might be reasonable at 10 Dollars p. Gallon 
as a Quantity was taken at ortce. They also think the Taffia fur- 
nished at St. Vincents in the preceeding Certificates might be afforded 
at 12 Dollars p^ Gallon or 6 Dollars the pott in smalls. By the 
Vouchers it appears Major Lanetot has paid or satisfied the different 


persons by whom he was furnished (Except the first certificate- 
1530 9/10 Dels. 

Mf Gratiot also laid before the Board certified copies of 
Certificates Numbered as follows: viz: 

No. I- A Certificate of Patrick Kennady's to Pierre Douan, 
Countersigned, John Montgomery Lt. Col°. for 920 Dollars as 

p'. Vouchers produced to him at Kaskaskias, September 30'" 1780 

No. 2 A Certificate of Patrick Kennady's at Fort Clark 28th 
August 1780 to W"". Jerrards for 149 3/5 Dollars as pf Vouchers 
produced to him, as no Vouchers for these two Certificates are laid 

before the Commissioners they can form no opinion on them 

No. 3. .An order of Val Tho'. Dalton at Fort Patrick Henry 
April 4th 1780. in favour of Pierre Mallet for a hogshead of Taf^ia, 
This Bill comes under the first general Remark in Page 117 600 

No. 4.- A Certificate of Val T. Daltons to Joseph Andre for Sun- 
dries furnished Indians amount 280 Dollars, The Commissioners 
thiok the Taffia may be paid at I2 Dollars p Gallon, the Corn at 
3 Dollars p Bushcll, and as the weight of the Hog is not mentioned, 
they cannot fix it — 

No. 5- A Certified Acc» of Joseph Andre for Boarding four Dela- 
ware Chiefs 4 days at two Dollars each 32 Dol". April 5th 1780, 

St. Vincents The Commissioners are of opinion 48 livers or 

9 3/5 Dollars is sufficient 

No. 6 & 7-Certificates to Ontwine & Bellas ( ?) for wood, half 
Dollar Each The Comm" think these claims reasonable 

Saturday May loth The Commissioners met, finished the 
Settlement of M^ Gratiots Accounts, and adjourned to meet at 
M". Breckinridges on Monday next. 

Monday May 12th 1783 Met according to adjournment. Present 
William Fleming, Sam'. M'Dowell -&- Caleb Wallace. 

The Board proceeded to settle Capt» Rowland Madisons Ac- 
counts, which were received in Kentucky but not finally Settled & 
not having time to go through the same. Adjourned till Tomorrow 

Tuesday May 13th 1783. Met according to Adjournment Were 
farther engaged in the Settlement of Capt' Madisons Accounts. 



Adjourned till Tomorrow morning. 

Wednesday May 14th Met according to adjournment Were 

employed .as on the preceeding Day, adjourned till tomorrow morn- 

Thursday May 15th. Met according to adjournment 

The Commf' continued to examine Capt. Madisons Accounts and 
Adjourned till Tomorrow morning. 

Friday May 16th. Met according to adjournment — Took in Capt. 
Rowland Madisons Accounts & Vouchers as Quarter Master & Com- 
missary for the Western country in the year 1781 there not being 

a full Board they could not be finally liquidated 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning. 
Saturday May 17th 1783 Met according to adjournment. 

Received of Col. William Preston, Maj^ Tho' Quirks re- 
ceipt for L. 1080 & Capt. Isaac Taylors receipt for L.2420 in Dis- 
charge of the Commonwealth ace' of £.3500 against him 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to James 
Hoglan for 18 days service as a Spy £.3.3 " ' for a Mare lost in ser- 
vice £.30. for a Horse, Mare and Saddle lost £.40 in all £.73.3.0 
as p'- Vouchers No. 37. Entered in page 164. Bundle D. 

It appears that there is due to Henry Hoglan for two Canoes 
taken for the use of the state £.6.16.0 also for one Rifle Gun and 
Shot pouch £.6.10 & for one Horse £.17.10 in all £.30.16 

To Richard Hoglan for 18 days Service as a Spy £.3.3 P^ 
Voucher No. 26 Bundle F. Ent* in Page 176 

To John Pryor Same £.3.3p. See page 176. 
To Boston Deemwood for 85 days work done on the Galley 
85 days a 6/ p Day is is £.25.10 Voucher No. 16 Page 178 

A-Iartin Carney is Charged with two Publick Horses £.12.10 
to be deducted from the Balance due him entered 22 February last 
Page 53 

Adjourned till Monday next. 
Monday 19th May 1783. Met according to Adjournment. 
It appears to the Com" (on examining Capt. Rowland Madi- 
sons accounts) that he stands chargable with L. 977,284 for Cash 
Received from the Treasury and by the Sales of Horses &c. 33 yards 
Oznabrigs at p'. yard and for 84 Horses not accounted for aver- 



aged at L.1654.14.2 p Horse comes to £.138.995.10. Out of which 
he has credit by his General account of Cash advanced for Horses 
purchased, Services performed &c. L.861.485. And by service as 
Quarter Master and Commissary from December 23'' 1780. to July 
13th 1 78 1, in all 203 Days at p Day. 

On M^ Madisons General Account the Commissioners make 
the following remarks — viz. In voucher No. I the Corn is high 
charged it is at £.20 p Bushel, the selling price on Roanoke was 
£.12 or L.15 the highest -- 200 Bushels of Corn charged by M' 
Trigg and for his own Services, he is not qualified to; he charges 
about 13/6 Specie p day. 

In Voucher No. 2. of the General Account. 
No. 21. Pork is charged when reduced by the Scale at 9''. p'' lb. 
in No. 10 of the same Voucher, Bacon is i Specie p lb. 

23 A Receipt for 400.10 in the amount it is carried out £.399 
28 The Articles charged are high. 
46 For Shoeing horses, high. 

31. Pork is charged (as reduced by the Scale) at 9i p. lb. 
In Voucher No. 3. 
No. I. Price of a Horse, in the account above the receipt L.1530 — 
in the body of the receipt £.1535. in Bledsocs account it 
is only £.1 130. 
9. A mare charged £.900. the receipt not signed. 
12. A receipt for a Horse £.800 in the account £.1150. 
14. A receipt for £.700 in the Account £.800. 
16. A receipt for a Horse in the account above the receipt 
£.750. in the body of the receipt £.850, and in the Acct. 
31. A receipt for a Horse L. 1700 in the account charg'd £1750. 
34 A receipt for £.21 in the Account £.31. 
38 A receipt for £.3700 in the Account charged £.3500. 
40 A receipt for a Horse £.1300 in the Account £.1350. 
41. Two receipts for the amount of £.2900 in the Account 

61. A receipt for L.15 in the Account L.45. 
65. An account no receipt for L.433.12.8 
75. An account for Corn L.225. The Receipt for L.200. 


80. An account, no receipt nor proof. 

M' ? Bledsoe charges L.30. p^ Day for his Services 249 Days- he 

charges cash paid Thomas Madison L.4120, no receipt nor Voucher. 

Voucher No. i 

No. I- Is an agreement with Gabriel Madison and Bond for tlie 
delivery of 162 Horses at L. 1843 each, the Country to 
pay all charges and risk, this was certainly too high and 
made this purchase of Gabriel Madison much higher than 
any of the others, we leave it to the Executive to Judge. 

No. 2- Gabriel Madisons account of Sundries No. from I to 20. 
in which is No. I an account no receipt. 

No. 2 An Account for feeding Horses, the time not specified. 
No. 9. no articles specified. 

No. 1 1 An Account for L329 not mentioned for whom. 

No. 16 A receipt from Matthew Arbuckle for L. 5644 no voucher 
how applied No. 18 L. 855 Advanced William Arbuckle 
no voucher how applied. Voucher No. 3 wanting. No. 4 
Gabriel Madisons Account for Pack Saddles not proven, 
no Voucher. No. 5 Voucher wanting. Voucher No. 5 in 
M'. Madisons General Account. 

Abraham Penn's Account 

No. I. A Horse £.1400 no Receipt. 

8. A Horse £.1050 no voucher- A receipt £.4810. In the 

Account charged £.16,900. 
12. A receipt for L.2900 in the account L. 1 500. 

19. A charge for a Horse £.1200. no voucher. 

20. A receipt for £.1250 in his account £.1300. 

27. Two horses £.3200 No voucher- No vouchers for the fol- 
lowing Numbers 28,29,30,3 1,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,&39. 
No voucher for his Expenses to Fort Chiswell. 
With these Vouchers there is a receipt from an officer for 
a Gray Horse at L/1500. which we think is a Continental 

No. 32- In the General Account, for a waggonage of Twelve Bolts 
of Oznabrigs from Richmond to Fort Chizwell. 

No. 45- An account for Shoeing 121 Horses at L. 36 each. 

Amount L. 4356. The work was so slightly done that that 



the shoes came off directly-by consequence the Horses got 
lame and unable to perform the Journey to Kentucky. 
No. 105 Voucher for a Horse at L. 500. 
No. 106 A Horse at L. 4500. 

No. no L. 5CX) for damage done 18 acres of Wheat, Rye & flax. 
No. 127 Gabriel Madisons Services at L. 50. pr. Day. When No. 
I is considered and his Expenses are seemingly chargcii ii> 
certificates, this article is scarce allowable, or if allowed, 
certificates of the prices of the Horses he purchased should 
be produced & the State charged with no more than they 
cost him. 

In tlie Account raised for M^ Madison he is charged 

with the Horses he does not account for at the average 


It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Col°- Benjamin 

Logan L. 18.9.6. for Corn as p^ Account & Vouchers received No. 

14 Bund'. C. Entered in Page 171 

Received of Col" Benj. Logan an Account & Vouchers for 
Horses &c belonging to Sundry Persons, Lost at the Battle of the 
Blue Lick amounting to L. 852.16. No. 72 Bundle Lincoln Militia. 
Ent''. in Page 162 

Note - - Tlie Horses &c Lost at the Blue Lick are Specially reported 
upon in Page 74 

The following allowances are made by the Commissioners 
for the hire of Horses & Horses lost on the Expedition under the 
command of Gen'. Clark in 1782 as p'' List & Vouchers received 
from Colo. Logan, Entered in Page 162 L. 273.2.6. See No. 73 
Bundle Lincoln Militia. 

The Commissioners observe that the strays in the above List 
that are returned or Lost, their prices & wages are settled respectively 
and are of Opinion, that if the Owners appear and prove their prop- 
erty in said Horses respectively, they should be paid for them-On the 
A'largin of the list is marked the number of Days the Horses were 
in Service, also those lost. 

A List of Horses & Horse hire allowed to Sundry persons, 
amounting to L. 185.6- on the Expedition in 1782. See Vouchers 
in Bundle Lincoln Militia No. 74. Entered in Page 162 


Received and settled Capt. John Swans pay Roll of Jefferson 
Militia, from i8th July until 2ist August 1780. amount L. 50.12. 
See Voucher No. 33. JeflFerson Militia Entered in Page 166 

Adjourned till tomorrow morning. 

Tuesday May 20'" 1783. 
Met according to adjournment. 

Sundry claims for diets Rations &c for the use of 
tlie Greenbrier Militia when on duty in Kentucky, were laid before 
the Commissioners by Capt. Rowland Madison, and Settled, amount- 
ing to L. 5.1 1.6 as p\ Vouchers No. 25 Entered in Page 170 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 
Stepleton L. 3.12. for Looking after Publick Horses 30 days at 100 
dollars p'' Day settled by the scale as p. Account and Voucher 

It appears that there is due to John King and Thomas Mont- 
gomery (to be equally divided between them)L. 9. 1 1.4. for looking 
after Publick Horses 41 days each at 2/4. 

A pay Roll of Capt. Hyne's Company of Jefferson Militia 
from 2ist Octo'' to 25th Novf 1782. Settled amount L. 78.10.6 2/5. 
See No. 35 Bundle Jefferson Militia Enf" in page 166 

adjourned till Tomorrow Morning. 

Thursday May 22nd 1783. 
Met according to adjournment 

Settled Sundry claims of the Militia of Jefferson County re- 
ceived of Col. John Floyd — Amount L. 219.3.0J p. Voucher No. 
36 Bundle Jefferson Militia Entered in Page 166 

A Return of Horses lost and Horse hire on the Expedition 
in 1780 was laid before the Board in Kentucky by James Sullivan 
Horse Master, which is this day examined, and the sums due to the 
several persons anexed to their names. Amount L.240.5.9i p'' Vouch- 
er No. 37. Bund. Jefferson Militia. Ent*" in Page 170 

A return of Horses lost and for horse service on the Expedi- 
tion in 1782, was laid before the Board by Bland Ballard Horse 
Master for the Militia of Jefferson County, which is examined and 
the sums due to the several persons anexed to their names, amount 
L. 177.6 .9. p Voucher No. 38 Bund' Jefferson Militia Ent^ in Page 

The Commissioners observe that there is three horses en- 


tered by Capt. Hinds in the above list & five by Capt. Potinger, are 
supposed to be returned to the Owners, the hire of each L. 2.5. seems 
due. Several of the Horses returned lost in the above mentioned 
Return have no appraisement Bills, so that their value cannot be 
fixed, where appraisement bills appear the value of the Horses aie 
noted on the Bills. 

Accounts of Sundry persons for Guns, Horses &c lost attempt- 
ing to cover the retreat from Boons Station, were presented to the 
Commissioners and Settled, amount L. 66.14, See No. 39- Bundle 
Jelierson Militia — Entered in page 170 

Accounts of Sundry Persons for Flour, Horse hire &c were 
presented to the Commissioners & Settled amount £.11.16.0 See No. 
40 Bundle Jefferson Militia Ent^ in Page 170 
Adjourned till tomorrow 
Friday May 23d. 1783. 

No. 41. Bundle Jefferson Militia- A pay Abstract of Capt. George 
Oins's Company of Militia from the first of May to 21st December 
1780. is Settled by the Commissioners, amounting to L.578.17.0 
Ent* in Page 1 70 

No. 42 William Shannons Bill in favour of James Sullivan & the 
Account anexed for Sundry articles amounting to £.17.902.4 is Set- 
tled and allowed by tlie Commissioners at L.85.0.2 Specie See Bun- 
dle Jefiferson Militia, Entered in Page 170 

No. 43.- A Pay Roll of the Field and StafiE officers of Jefferson 
County on an Expedition against tlie Indians in 1782. under tlic 
Command of General Clark is Settled by the Commissioners and 
allowed as follows, viz 

To Isaac Cox Col. for 36 days Service at 12/- - - £.21.12 
To Wm. Pope L'. Col". 36 days Ditto-- 12/ 21.12 

To James F. Moore Maj'. 36 days-- ditto- -60/ 18. o 
To Wm. Oldham adjutant 36 days ditto 4/ 7- 4 

To Thomas McCarty Q"' Master 36 ditto 4/ 7- 4 

To Bland Ballard Horse Master 36 ditto 4/ 7- 4 

See Bundle Jefferson Militia Ent. in Page 170 82.16 
No. 34- Allowed to Major Silas Harlan the p^ Certificates &c 
No. I- A Balance due Capt. Oins for Beef 42.15.10 


2- for 80 lb. Tallow — @- - 6 * 2. o. o 

3- 275 lb. Wild Meat 16/8 2. 5.10 

4- 13.864 lb. Wild Meat® 16/8 L.i 15. 10.8 I 

169 lb. Bear meat do I. 8.2. M 17. 17. 2 

55 lb. Tallow 4""--- 18.4 J £164.18.10 

See Bundle E. Entered in Page 271. 

5. Major Harlans account for Pay &c was presented, and 

the Commissioners find that he had not more than 36 

Men to command at Clarksville, and there was one Capt. 

Oins of them whose pay has been Settled, Therefore 

the Commissioners are of Opinion that the State ought 

not to pay Major Harlan, as he was not necessary & 

ought not to have been appointed. 

No. 76. Lincoln Militia — The following claims for Horses &c 

lost at Estills defeat are allowed by the Commissioners, 


No. I- To Page Polwood for i Horse &c L 18.- 

2- To David Crews for i Ditto 16.10 

Carried forward 

34-IO • 
Brought forward £34.10 
No. 3. To Benjamin Martin for i Horse 16.10 

4. To John Moore- - for i Ditto 21.10 

5. To John Berry for i Ditto — 23.10 

6. To Robert Harris for i Ditto 10. o 

7. To Stephen Handcock for i Ditto 27.10 

Amount entered in Page 162 £ 133.10 

The Board having considered the above Claims find that a party 
of Indians had come in, taken some prisoners and committed murders. 
Capt. Estill mounted a party of his Militia, overtook the Indians, 
fought them, fell in the action & his party was defeated and the 
liorses lost, the Commissioners have to observe that Indian parties 
cannot be overtaken in that Country but by persons on horseback, 
that if they come to an engagement they must dismount and if de- 
feated it of course occations the loss of several horses &c. 
Adjourned till tomorrow. 


Saturday May 24th, 1783. 
\ Settled Major Joseph Bowmans Pay Roll Amounting to L. 164.3 

as p'. Vouclicr No. g of Colo. Bowmans Papers, Bundle Lincoln 
Militia No. 64. Entered in Page 172 

Received from Capt. Rowland Madison, Major Thomas 
Quirk's certificate for 12 Horses lost & James Davis's certificate for 
I ditto lost, which are to be placed to Mr. Madisons Credit at 
L.I 654. 1 4.2 each. 

Adjourned till Monday next. 

Monday 26th May 1783. 
No. 28- Bundle Fayette Militia. A Pay Roll of Capt. Charles 
Getliffs Company of Kentucky Militia from 17th March to 26th 
June 1780 is Settled by the Commissioners amounting to L.236 .3.7 
3/5 Entered in Page 168 

Note the Captain in this Pay Roll is to receive Lieutenants Pay, 
the Lieutenant Ensigns Pay, the Ensign Sergeants Pay, and One of 
the Sergeants the pay of a private. 

The Men whose names are marked x inlisted with the British 
at Detroit, Several of the Men are returned- The opinion of the 
Commissioners is, that the Money remain in the Treasury, til! call'd 
for by the Claimants or their order properly attested. 
Adjourned till tomorrow — 
Tuesday 27th May 1783. 

An order on the Treasurer of Valentine T. Dalton 
in favour of George Calhoon assigned to John Dickinson for 504 
Dollars; as it is Countersigned by General Clark the Commissioners 
cannot Proceed upon it without either of full Board or General 
Clarke being present. 

It appears that there is due to James Gilmer for 

5960 lb. Beef at 2"p' lb. £.49.13.4 

509 lb. Bear meat at - - 2'' 4. 4.10 

106 lb. Tallow at 4'* 1.15.4 

See Bundle Lincoln Militia No. 77 Ent. £. 55-I3-6 
in Page 172 

The following Bills & certificates were presented to the 
Commissioners by James Gilmer & Settled as follows, viz. 


No. I A first of Exchange by Colo. John Montgomery in favour 
of James M'Afee dated 8th August 1781. for L.20.000 falls under 
our first General remark Page 117. 

No. 2 A first of Exchange drawn by John Montgomery in 
favour of James McAfee dated 8th August 1781 for 
£7.715.' this Bill falls under our first General remark 
Page 117 
No. 3 A first of Exchange dravi^n by Jas. T. Moore in favour of 
Samuel Wells assigned to James McAfee dated July 9th 
1780 for L.iooo. This Bill falls under our first general 
remark Page 1 1 7 
No. 4 A Bill drawn by Gen' Clark in favour of Andrew Johns- 
ton assigned to James M°Afee for 750 Dollars dated i6th 
February 1780. Settled by the scale at 16 2/3 Dollars. 
No. 5 A Bill drawn by General Clark in favour of James Hays 
for 750 Dollars, dated March 1st 1780. Settled by the 
Scale at 14 i Dollars L. 4.7. 
No. 6 A Bill drawn by General Clark in favour of William 
Thompson for 750 Dollars dated i March 1780. Settled 
by the Scale at 14 ^ Dollars L. 4. 7. 
No. 7 A certificate by Col. Geo. Slaugliter in favour of James 
McAfee for 3350 Dollars and countersigned G R Clark. 
Dated aug. 8th 1781. The Commissioners are of opinion 
that James McAfee did not come express but might bring some 
Letters Returning from Post St. Vincents in the corse of his private 

The Commissioners present having gone through all the 
Business that can be Settled without a Board have directed the Secre- 
tary to make out a list of all the Claims against the State & raise 
as many of the Accounts as possible before the Papers are trans- 
mitted to the Executive, which he will take care to do by the lOth 

day of June ensuing 

William Fleming 
Saml. M'Dowell. 
It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to John 

' The figure in the original manuscript journal appears as it is here 
given; in the copy it appears as £7715. 


M'Dowell the sum of Eighteen pounds for a mare which died in 
service, carrying the Publick papers from Kentucky, 
adj* till tomorrow. 

Saturday June 14th 1783. 

The Commissioners Met at Richmond, and proceeded to make 
out a general State of the Claims settled by them to lay before the 

Adjourned till Monday morning 

Monday June 1 6th. Met according to adjournment — Set 
tied the following Pay Rolls of the Illinois Regiment, Viz 

Capt. Jacob Payettes Pay Roll from the 9th of March untill 
the 9th of Sept. 1782, Amount L.346.14.8. Entered in Page 

See Bundle Illinois Regiment. 
Capt. Gcraults Pay Rolls one for the month of December 1781. 
amount L.69.19.4, also his pay Roll from the 1st of January untill 
the 31st of August 1782. amount L.522.6.0 likewise his Pay Roll 
from the 3d of June to the 30th of November 178 1 amount L.452.15.4 

The Commissioners observe that Capt' Gerault in his Pay 
Roll ending in November 1782. ought to receive pay for i68 days 
instead of the time charged in his Roll — 

And then the Board adjourned till Tomorrow morning nine 

Tuesday 17th June 1783. 
The board received from Martin Carney Capt. Jepe Evans' Pay 
Roll from 29th December 1778 untill the mens time was expired, 
Amounting to L. I57<j.2.5 3/5 which is settled — Sec Bundle Illcnoise 
Regiment Enf^ in Page 185- Also Capt. Jepe Evans's pay Account 
from 13th July 1780 untill the 20th November 1781 16 months 
& seven Days at 50 Dollars pr. month L. 243.10 — See No. 6 
Bundle M. Entered in page - - 

Adjourned till Tomorrow 9 o'clock. 

Wednesday 1 8th June 1783. 
Liquidated John Gibson's account and it appears to the Comm" 
that there is due to him L. 1 1 35. 1 7.5 Virginia Currency in lieu of 
L.1419.16.9 Pensilvania Currency, as p^ General Clarks Account. 

The following Pay Rolls are Settled by the Commissioncrs- 
viz. Illinois Regiment. 


No. 7-- Capt. Mark Thomas Company from the time of their 
enlistment in November & December 1779 till 30th 
November 1781, amounting to L.2657,4.7. (See Bundle 
M. Entered in Page 185.) 

No. 8-- A Pay abstract of Capt. Robert George's Company of 
Artillery commencing 4th June 1779 & Ending 3rd 
December 1781 Inclusive, amounting to L.5301.19.9. 
Entered in Page 185. 

No. 9-- A Pay Roll of Captain Abraham Kellars Company of 
the Illinois Regiment commencing 9th May 1779 & 
ending 9th November 1781, Amounting to £1702.5.4. 
See Bundle M. Entered in page 185 

No. 10 A pay Roll of Captain Abraham Chaplains Company 

from 1st September 1782 till ist January 1783. Amount 
L.516.10.7^ (See Bundle M. Entered in page 185) 

No. II A pay Roll of Capt. Robert Todds Company from 

December 20th 1778 till June ist 1780. Amounting to 
L.608.2.1 3/5 (See Bundle M. Ent". in Page 185) 

No. 12 A Pay Roll of Capt. Mark Thomas's Company from 

the first till the 21st of December 178 1. Amount 
L.64.2.0 4/5 (See Bundle M. Entered in page 185) 

No. 13 A pay Roll of Captain Isaac Taylors Company from 

their inlistment till 22nd August 1780. Amount 
L.873.4.1 3/5 (See Bundle M.- Entered in page 185) 

No. 14 A Pay Roll of Captain Edward Worthington's Com- 

pany from 1st June 1779. till i June 1780 Amount 
L.679.12.6 2/5 (See Bundle M.- Entered in page 185) 

No. 15 A Pay Roll of Captain Richard Brashears Company 

from the 30th Day of May 1780 till the 30th day of 
November 1781 amounting to L.1016.6.4 (See Bundle 
M.- Entered in Page 185) 

No. 16 A Pay Roll of Captain John William's Company from 

29th May 1779 till 28th May 1780, Amounting to 
L. 1452.15.8 (See Bundle M. Entered in page ) 

No. 17 A Pay Roll of Capt. Robert George's Company of Ar- 

tillery in tiie Illinois Department from 3rd December 


1781 till 31st July 1782. Amount L. 772.i2.4.(See 
Bundle M. entered in Page 185) 

No. 18 Another Pay Roll of Captain Robert George's Com- 

pany of Artillery for the month of August 1782 
Amounting to L.8o.i8.8(See Bundle M.- Entered in 
page 185) 

No. 19 A Pay Roll of Capt. Robert George's Company from 

1st Sept. 1782 till 1st January 1783 Amounting to L. 
235.2. Entered & Bundled as above. 

Adjourned till tomorrow morning 9 o'clock. 
Thursday 19th June — 1783- 

Tlie following pay rolls of the Illinois Regiment were settled by 

the Commissioners viz 

No. 20. A pay Roll of Capt Thomas Quirk's Company from 

17th December 1778 till 28th May 1780. Amounting 
to L. 1 505. 1 2. 10. (See Bundle M. Entered in Page 

No. 21. A Pay Roll of Capt. Richard McCartys Company from 

30th May 1779. till 2nd June 1781. Inclusive Amount- 
ing to L. 1530.3.5. (See Bundle M. Entered In Page 

No. 22. A Pay Roll of Capt. John Baileys Company from the 

time of their inlistment till 30th November 178 1 

amounting to L. 1859.19.6 (See Bundle M. Entered 

in Page 185.) 
No. 23. Another pay Roll of Captain Baileys Company for 

the month of December 1781 L.63.6-0 (Entered & 

Bundled as above.) 
No. 24. Another Pay Roll of Captain Baileys Company from 

the first of January till 31st July 1782. Amounting 

to L.437.12.8. Entered & Bundled as above. 
No. 25. Another Pay Roll of Captain Baileys Company for the 

month of August 1782. Amount L. 114. 1 6.8. Entered 

& Bundled as above.) 
No. 26. Another Pay Roll of Captain Baileys Company from 

the first September 1782 till 31st January 1783 Amount 

L. 534.17.8 (Entered & Bundled as above.) 


Adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 o'clock. 

Friday 20th June 1783. 
The Following Pay Rolls of the Illinois Regiment are settled 
by the Commissioners, viz- 
No. 27. A Pay Roll of Captain Isaac Taylors Company for the 

month of August 1782 Amounting to L. 113. 12 — (See 

Bundle M. Entered in Page ) 
No. 28. A Pay Roll of Capt. Edward Worthingtons Company 

from dates of their inlistments till 30th November 1781 

Amounting to L.i 350.1 7.1 (See Bundle M. enf". 

Page ) 
It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to David Duncan 
Three hundred and Sixty Pound Specie Specie Virginia Currency 
in lieu of £ 450 Pennsylvania Currency by a Bill of Exchange drawn 
by George Walls I.M.G.&C. countersigned by G R Clark Dated 
Pittsburg July 28 1 78 1 

It appears that there is due to Capt. Isaac Craig the sum of 
£29.7. 2^ Virginia Currency in lieu of £ 36.14 Pens Currency. By 
a Bill of Exchange drawn by General Clark, dated Falls of Ohio 13"" 
October 1781. It appears that there is due to David Duncan £ 8 
Verg» Currency in lieu of Ten Pounds Pensylvania Currency for 
Pasturage &c. taken for the use of the army under the Command 
of General Clark, as p^ Certificate. 

The Commissioners having examined Doctor Connard's ac- 
counts find that his Bills N0. are for Medecines & Ser- 
vices & ought to be Protested. 

That N"'. 4 & 5 are for paper Money advanced to Col' 
Montgomery, and ought to be paid according to the Scale of De- 
preciation for the State, as the Scale for that Country did not Con- 
tinue till the date of the Bills — The Bill of 4000 Dollars General 
Clark informs the Board was not for Medicines charged the State, 
but for Paper Currency advanced. 

That the No. 7.9.1 1.& 12 are Bills by Connard taken up 
which he wishes to return. 

Tiic Commissioners are of opinion that Docf Connard Ought 
to be Allowed for one Years Service as Surgeon to the Troops in 
the Illinois Country commanded by Col». Montgomery the Sum of 


Two Hundred & Seventy Pounds, also the sum of Fifty Pounds for 
Medicins furnished, and Seventy five Pounds two Shillings for Flour, 
Taffia, Sugar &c furnished — Account as follows viz, 

One year's pay as Surgeon- - (Pay & Rations)- - L 270.O- 

Sundry Medecins furnished 50. 

Flour, Sugar, Taffia &c furnished 75.2. — 

I Bill of Exchange date March 3rd 1780 for Paper 
Money advanced 4000 Dollars- -reduced is 24. — 

1 Ditto, date Oct. 3, 1780 for 2258 Dollars 9-5-7 

L 428.7.7 
The Medecins said to be furnished Col. Montgomery the board 
cannot judge of, as no Prices are fixed; but are of opinion the ar- 
ticklcs marked were necessary, the quantity of many of tiiem too 
great for the number of men, but that the whole might have been 
furnished for perhaps less than One Thousand Dollars. 

Frederick Sov' Guion laid before the Com''" a list for service 
as an Issuing Commissary, by wliich it appears that there is due to 
him L.I 1. 18 for that Service, also it appears that there is due to s* 
Guion Ten pounds for a Horse lost in Service p'' Certificate assigned 
to him by Edward Worthington, See Bundle M. 

Adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 O'clock 
Saturday 2ist June 1783. 
The Commissioners proceeded to Examine Col. Montgomerys 
Accounts, but not having time to go through the same. 
Adjourned till Monday 9 o'clock. 
Monday 23rd June 1783. 
The Commissioners Examined several Bills of Exchange pre- 
sented by M'' William Murray, and made the following remarks. 

The Commissioners Examined the following Bills of Ex- 
change drawn by Colo. John Montgomery on the Treasurer of Vir- 
ginia in favour of Daniel Murray — viz (See Page 285) 
No. 1. A first of Exchange for 544 2/3 Dollars dated 5tli 

October 1780 — drawn by Col' Montgomery on the 
Treasurer of Virginia in favour of Dan' Murray — the 
Commissioners are of opinion, should be settled by tiie 
Illenois Scale of Depreciation at L. 10.18.0 


No 2. for 2478 Dollars dated 14th October 1780. This Bill 

th Commissioners settle by the Scale of Depreciation for 
the State, which reduces it to L 10.3.8. as Col' Mont- 
gomery asserts that all the Bills drawn by him on the 
Treasurer were for Paper Currency unless otherwise ex- 
pressed in the Bill. 
3 — Exchange for 1026 Dollars Currency dated i8th October 
1780. which is reduced by the State Scale to L.4.4.4. 
4. Exchange for 200 Dollars dated 14th October 1780. 

It appears to the Commissioners by a note among Col°. 
Montgomerys papers is to be paid with Three Dollars 
Specie 18/- 

No. 5-- Exchange for 1590 Dollars dated 8th July 1780, which 
is reduced by the State Scale to L. 7.6.10. 

No. 6-- Exchange for 2236 Dollars dated 2 1st July 1780 re- 
duced by the State scale to L.10.6 . 4 
Adjourned till tomorrow 9 o'clock. 

Tuesday 24th June 1783- 

The following accounts are allowed by the Commissioners as 

per vouchers in Bundle D. — viz:- 

No. 42 To Robert Ravenscraft for 2 Mares L.37.15 

for I Gun L.6. L.43.15 

No. 43 To Robert M^Ano for i Horse , Saddle &c- - 18.15 

No. 44 To Thomas Ravenscraft for i Ditto 35-- 

No. 45-- To John Dyal- - for i ditto 21.15 

No. 46-- To Edmund Rice-- for 1 Horse 25.-- 

( Entered in Page 258) £ 144-5 

The following pay Rolls &c are settled by the Commissioners 
(See Bundle M.) 
No. 30- An account of pay for Thomas Ravenscraft, from nth 

July 1 78 1 till 20th January 1783. as a Lieutenant, 

amounting to L.252.1.8 
No. 31-- A pay Roll of Infantry Volunteers under the Command 

of Capt. Francis Boseron from 27th October till 17th 

December 1778. Amounting to L. 140.12.9-- See 

Bundle M No 30.) 


No. 32 A Pay Roll of a party of Volunteers under the Com- 

and of Major Francis Boseron on an Expedition from 
22nd August till 13th September 1779. amt. L.23.6.1 
2/5 See Bundle M 

No. 33 Allowed to Major Francis Boseron for 8 months and 

4 days Service as a Captain p account L.i 13.1 7.4 
also for 23 Days Service as a Major p Do. 13.16. 

Sec liiiiullc 

The Commissioners are of opinion that there was no necessity 
for a Contractor at post St. Vincents, as there was but a small 
number of Men there and a Deputy Commissary present, Tliercforc 
that part of Major Boserons account is rejected. 

Allowed to Joseph Lindsay tiie Following sums as p^ account 
& Vouchers in Bundle 

for Pay as Contractor for General Claries Expedition ag' 
Detroit from 20th Novem. 1780 till loth April 1781- 142 

Days at 10/ L. 71 .0.0. 

for pay as Commissary & Contractor for the Militia of 
Lincoln Fayette & Jefferson from ist October 
1781 till 15th August 1782. 252 days at 10/ 
For 13429 lb. Beef at 16/8 p ct 
For 353 lb. Pork at 25 / p. ct 
For 165 i lb. Tallow at 6" pr. lb. 

(Entd. in page 290) L 317. 9. 2 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to Col"- 
John Dickinson assignee of John Carr who is assignee of George 
Calhoon 480 2/5 Dollars upon an Account & receipt drawn by 
Val T. Dalton & Counter signed G. R. Clarke for 564 Dollars. 
Adjourned till to-morrow morning 9 o'clock. 
Wednesday 25'" June 1783. 
No. 34 Mr. Isaac Bowman presented an account of his Service as Horse 

Master to the Illinois Regiment from 12th May till 17th November 
1779. 200 days for which the Commissioners are of opinion he 
ought to be allowed Equal to Quarter masters pay 6/4 p. day which 
amounts to L. 63. 6. 8. They are farther of opinion that he was 












out of the service of the State at the time he was captured & 
consequently has no legal claim for the time he was in Captivity, 
but beg leave to refer it to the Honl. The Executive. 
Page 290) 

L.64.9.2. (It also appears to the Com", that L.i.2.6 is due to the 
said Isaac Bowman for Cash paid on behalf of the State, 
when he was in Service as pr. Vouchers See Bundle. M. 
No. 35 - Allowed to Moses Bonnets L.2.13.4 for a Cannoe, taken for 

the use of the State (See Voucher No. 35 Bundl. M. 
No. 36. Allowed to Daniel Murray for his service as a Commis- 
sary in the Illinois department from 17th July 1778 till 
17th July 1780- 730 days at 6/4 P. Day — L. 231.3.4 — 
also for his services as a Quarter Master from 15th August 
1778 till first March 1779- 198 days at 3/2 is L.31.7 
(See Bundle M.) 

Adjourned till Tomorrow 9 o'clock. 
Thursday 26th June 1783. 
Delivered to M^ Nathan a certificate for articles received by Mr. 
Shannon, for which Bills were drawn for the amount of 25.224 3/5 

Adjourned till To morrow 9 o'clock. 
Friday 27th June 1783. 
It appears to the Commissioners that L. 163.18.10 2/5 the 
amount of two pay rolls No. 31 & 32 settled 24th instant is due 
to Major Francis Boseron, he having produced satisfactory proof 
to the Board that all the men contained in said pay rolls were paid 
by him. ^ , 

Adjourned till tomorrow g o'clock. 'i 

Saturday 28th June 1783. | 

Mons'. Carbeneaux presented an account of the articles for 7^,, 

wliich the Bill No. 4 reported on in page 57 was drawn, on Examin- •' 

ing the same the board are of opinion that it should be discharged ^ 

with 125 dollars Specie- y' ife ' 

The Bill No. 12 reported on in page 59th ought to be pro- '.; 

tested till proper vouchers are produced for the articles for which !rj, 

this Bill were drawn. I« 


No. I- A Certificate drawn by Blackford for 373 lb. Beef al- 
lowed 280 Livres & 6 lb. Iron allowed 15 Livres in all 
295 Livres or 59 Dollars Specie. 
No. 2- A Certificate drawn by Blackford rejected. 
No. 3- A certificate drawn by Blackford for 4 2/8 Gallons oil 
@ 10 Livres is 41 Livres allowed 8 2/5 Dollars Specie. 
A Bill of Exchange drawn by Col". John Todd in 
favour of Francis Boscron for 4646 Dollars dated June 26th 1779 
at St. Vincents. The Com'" are of opinion that this Bill ought to 
be discharged by the Payment of 925 % Dollars Specie. 

It appears to the Commissioners that there is due to General 
George Rogers Clark, for flour &c furnished the garrison at Fort 
Nelson L.I 204.6.5 ^ Specie, as p. account & vouchers, for his pay &c 
as colonel from 2nd January 1778 till 22 January 1781. L. IJOI — 
for his pay &c as Brigadier General from 22 January 1781 till 26th 
June 1783 L. 1092.10- in all L. 3397.16.5. as p'. account Bundle 
M. No. 37 

The Commissioners have Examined a Bill drawn by Col". 
John Todd in favour of Mons''. Beauregard for 30,000 Dollars dated 
13th December 1779- and find it was for Peltries, applyed to the 
support of the troops in the Illinois— That the purchas was higher 
than usual as appears by Col". Montgomerys certificate and Infor- 
mation No. 2 — The reasons of which will appear by Col". Todds 
Letter, The Commissioners are of opinion that this Bill should be 
honoured — (See Bundle T. — 

The Bill of 12,000 Dollars drawn by M^ Montgomery in 
favour of Mons^ Beauregard, appears to have been for ten Hogs- 
heads oi Taffia, which the Commissioners are of Opinion that it 
ought to be settled at one for eight by the best information they can 

The Commissioners having Liquidated as far as in their 
power all accounts presented to them, prepared the following report 
to be laid before the Honl. The Executive, viz) 

Richmond 28th June 1783. 

The Commissioners having proceeded in the Liquidation of the 
western accounts as far as in their power refer to their Journals 


for a State of the same, an Index of which will be found there- 
with ; they have also stated accounts against several officers &c 
to which the Auditors may have recourse 

Accompanying these is a general state of the amount of 
all accounts by them settled, also the best State the Commis- 
sioners could collect of all Bills drawn by the officers & others 
in the Illinois department on Oliver Pollock, the Governour 
Treasurer &c, but have to observe that this state of Bills is 
imperfect as the Commissioners had to collect colonel Montgom- 
erys list from detached papers. 

They farther observe that serveral Officers &c have not 
settled their accounts viz. Col°. Montgomery, William Shannon, 
Capt. Robert George, John Donne Commissary, John Dodge, 
James F. Moore &c. Mr. Shannons papers are only part of 
them here, as by an unlucky actident he was prevented from 
attending at this place. 

The Commissioners thought it unnecessary to enter up the 
credit of officers & others, the amount of Pay recruiting ac- 
counts &c, as that will fall of course to the Auditors, or those 
to whom the final settlement of these accounts may be referred. 

The Bundles of vouchers are marked & referred to in the 
Journals, the sums due the Different claimants, are entered in 
the latter part of the book of Journals from page 256th under 
different titles, refering to the Journal entry. The Bundles 
from A. to L. are filed in one Bundle and mark** accordingly — 
The pay rolls &c of the different counties, are in separate bundles 
and marked with the names of the Counties respectively. We 
have the honour to be with the greatest respect your Excellencys 
Most obedient 

H'. Servants 
His Excellency Benj. Harrison 
Esq"^ Governour &c. T. Marshall 

In Council ist July 1783. 
The Commissioners appointed to settle and adjust the Ac- 
counts in the Western Department against the State having returned 
their Proceedings therein. The Board advise that the same be 




delivered to the Auditors of Public Accompts, and that Certificates 
be granted for the several Balances due by the State according to the 
Acts and Resolutions of the Gen. Assembly respecting the same. 

Benj. Harrison. 

The State of Virginia Dr. 

To Sundry Persons for Horses tc Horse Hire 


See Bundle D. 





No. I 

To W"". Morrow for a Horse lost pr. 

Vouchf. in Bundle D — 






To— ditto — for Horse hire — ditto 




To Robt. Bowmer for a Horse lost 







To JaB. Hogan— for ditto — ditto 




To Martha Boone for Horse hire do 






To Mordecai Morgan — ditto — ditto 






To Reubin Camp for 61 days service 

as a Waggoner P. Voucher 






To Robt. Hamilton for a Horse lost 




To Jeane Grant for Horse Hire do 






To Josiah Phelps for 2 Horses lost 
To W™. Cummins for a Mare lost do 





To Nicolas Brabston, the hire of a 



J 1 




To Robt. Sanders for Horse hire &c 




To John Long for — ditto ditto 






To Robt. Johnson and others for horse 

hire p. Voucher in Bundle D 






Samuel Rice for 4 days horsehire 





To Philemon Walters for a Horse 

lost, same 




To Samuel Hinch for a mare & 

Sund. same. 





To the estate of James Right Deed. 

for a horse & Sund. furnished same 














Brought forward. . . 




No. 19 

To Jacob Sodowsky for a Horse lost 

as p Vouch, in Bundle — D. — 




To Rachel Swan for a mare lost &c 







To John Patterson for a mare lost 













To John Dougherty for Horse hire 







To Stephen Fisher for do 





To John Dougherty for do 





To Robert Karr— do — 





To William Robertson— do — 





To Gasper Bopes — do — 





To Peter Demmory for a horse lost 

as p. Voucher in Bundle D. 






To John May same — ditto 






To John Haggan ditto 





To Nathan Sellers for horse hire- 







To William Bladsoe for a horse lost 





To William Morrow for horse hire 






To Joseph Love for do 





To George Farbish for a Gun lost — 






To Jesse Farbish for a Saddle & 

Bridle p. Vouch in Bundle — D — 




To James Hoglan for Horses 





To Henry Hoglan for ditto 





To John Stapleton for feeding horses 

&c do 





To King & Montgomery for Ditto 






To Thomas McCarty for Sundries — 










To Sundry persons p. Ace* & Vouch- 

Bundle D. 




The State of Virginia Dr. 

To Sundries for JerrERSON Militia 

Vouchers See Bundle Jefferson Militia 




No. I 


To Capt. Boone, the amount of his 
Pay Roll in Aug. 1780 — 
To Capt. William Oldham, the 
amount of his Pay Roll in Aug. 1780 
To Capt. Oldham for rations furnish'' 














To Robt. Hamilton ditto 





To Capl. Ja8. Davis the amount ol 

his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782 






To Capt. James Samuel the amt. of 

his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782— 






To Capt. Ja». Rodgers the amount of 

his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782 






To Capt. Jacob Vanmater the amount 

of his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782. 






To Capt. John Varbrus the amount oi 

his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782 






To Capt. Charles Polk the amount of 

his Pay Roll Novr 1782 






To Capt. Jas. Rodgers the amount of 

his Pay Roll in July 1782 






To — ditto — in May 1782 

Carried forward' 








Brought forward 




No. 12 

To Lieut. George Wilson the amount 

of his Pay Roll in Novr lygj. 






'I'o Capt. Uaniel Hall the amount of 

his Pay Roll in August 1780 






To Capt. Hardy Hill the amount of 

his Pay Roll in August 17S0 





Also his ration Roll of the same date 





To Capt. Cha? Polke the amount of 

his Pay Roll in Augs' 1780 — 





Also his Ration Roll of the same date 




To Capt. RichJ. Chinowith the amount 

of his Pay Roll in Novr 1782. 






To Capt. Danl. Hall the amount of 
his Pay Roll for Rations in August 






To Capt. Jas. Davis the amount of his 

Pay Roll in July 1782— 






To Capt. Peter Asturgus the amount 

of his Pay Roll in August 1780 





Also his Ration Roll of the same date 





To Capt. Aquilla Whitaker the 

amount of his Pay Roll in June 1782 






To Capt. James Patten the amount of 

his Pay Roll in May 1782 






To Capt. John Vartrees the amount 

of his Pay Roll in April- 





'The figures are reproduced as they appear in the original, but the 
total of the items as given should be £662, 10 s, 354 d. 









To Capt. James Asturgus the amount 

of his pay roll in Nov. 1782 — 






To Capt. James Patten the amount of 

his pay Roll in July tc Aug. 1780 





To Capt. Lewis Hickman the amt of 

his pay roll in Aug. 1780 




I 'A 

Vouch" See Bundle Jefferson Militia 


Also a pay Roll for Rations of the 

same date 



No. 26 

To Capt. Aquilla Vt'hitaker the am* 
of his Pay Roll in Novf 1782 (see 

page 80) 





Also his Pay Roll in June 1782 



To Sergeant Richd Lee the amount of 

his pay roll in June 1781 






To part of Capt. Chinovriths CompT 

the amount of a Pay Roll in May 1782 






To George Wilson for 36 day service 
as Commissary, p. Vouch'. Bund', as 





To Col". John Floyd for service as p. 

Vouchers in Bundle as above 




To Capt. MichL Humble for the 

amount of his Pay Roll in Aug. 1780 






To Col" William Pope for service as 

a Sheriff p. Vouch^ Bund' as above. 





To Capt. John Swans pay Roll — do — 





To Sundry persons for Horses &c lost 

— do— 





To Capt. Andrew Hind's pay roll — do 
Carried forward' 









'The total should be £2418, 13s, s^d.. 
Account of Jefferson Militia — Continued.- 


Brought forward Page 





No. 36 

To Sundry persons as pr list Bundle 

Jefferson Militia 






To Sundries for Horses Ic hire p. 
















To Ditto — for ditto — 

To Ditto for Guns Horses &c Lost 

To Ditto for Flour — Horse hire 

To Capt. George Oins' Pay Abstract 

— do — 

To James Sullivan for Sundries 

To Field k staff officers of Jefferson 

do — 

Total > 

I So 















This total, based on the items as here given, should be £ 3880, 12 s, 

The State of Virginia Dr. 

To THE Militia of Fayette County 






No. I 

To Capt. William Hogan for the amt. 
of his Pay Roll in Aug. 1780, see 

Bund'. Fay. Mil. 






To Capt. W". Hogan, the am*, of his 
Pay Roll in Dec. 1780, see Bundle 

Fayette Militia 






To Capt. Hazeltrigg, the amount of 
his Pay Roll in Nov. 1782 Bundle F. 







To Capt. Wm. M^Connel for the 

amount of his Pay Roll in Novr 1782 






To Capt. Robt. Johnson for the 
amount of his Pay Roll in April 

1781 — 





To Capt. John Constant the amount 

of his Pay Roll in Novr 1782 






To Capt. Robt. Johnson for the 

amount of his Pay Roll in Novr 1782. 






To Capt. Wm. McConnel of Mc- 
Connels Station the amount of his 

Pay Roll in Novr 1782 






To Spies for Services performed as 

p Voucher in Bundle as above 





To Wm. Marshall & Barnebas BoyI 
for spying p. Vouch. In Bundle as 












No. 14 









To Daniel McClain for service as 

Commy. p. Voucher Bundled as above 

To — ditto — ditto 

To Ens". John Pleak the amount of 

his Pay Roll in June 1781 Bundled as 



Brought forward 
To Robt. Thompson for sun. services 
perform") p. Voucher in Bundle Fay- 
ette Militia 

To James McConnel for making three 
Canoes p. Vouch^ In Bundle as above. 
To Lieut. Thos. Stevenson the amount 
of his Pay Roll in July 1782. 
To Mich. Warnick for building a 
store House p. Vouch Bundled as 

To Thos. Feeklin for a Gun lost in 
service p. Voucher Bundled as above. 
To And*. Steel for services as Q. 
Master & Commissary p. Vouch Bun- 
dled as above. 
To the Estate of Thos. Stevenson for 
a Gun lost in service p. Vouch, as 

To Capt. Robt. Patterson the amount 
of his Pay Roll in July 1782 Bund' 
as before. 

To Capt. Wm. McConnel the amount 
of his Pay Roll in Jan. & March 1783. 
Lieut. Francis McDonnald the amount 
of his Pay Roll in Jan. & March 1783. 
To Sundries for building the Fort 
at Lexington Bundled as above 
To Sundries lost at Colo. Todd's de 
feat as pr. Vouchr. in Bundle as above 
To— ditto — at Capt. Constants defeat 
To Sundries as p. Cert". Rec<'. of Colo. 

To Lieut. John Morrison the amount 
of his Pay Roll in July 1781 See 
Bundle Fayette Militia. 
To Capt. Isaac Ruddle the amount of 
his pay Roll in June 1780 — 
















































To Capt. Charles Gatliffs Pay Roll 
To amount brought over 

Fayette County — Total — 









' This fraction should be 9^0 

The State of Virginia Dr 

To Sundries for the Greenbrier & other Militia on Com. 178 i 


Page L. 


No. I 








No. 23 


To Francis Donally 46 Ration @ 6* 
P. Ration P. Voucher Bundl. A 
To Sarah Donnally 70 Ration — do — 
To Daniel McClain 63 ditto 
To Robt. Thompson 35 — ditto 
To Lucy VVimer 246 ditto — 
To Samuel Johnson 236 ditto 
To Hugh Cunningham 147 ditto 
To Jas. Asturgus a Bill for rations, 

To George Grundy for 60 ditto 
To William Martin for 45 ditto 

To Saml. Kelly for Rations 

To George Owens for Rations 

To George Puff for do 

To Samuel Rice for diets 

To Isaac Hite for Provisions do 

To John Pringle — ditto — 

To Jane Travis — ditto 

To William Wilcox — ditto — 

To James Lawrence for rations do 

To William McWhorter do 

To William Robertson do 

To John Berry — do — 

To Samuel Brigs — do — do 

To Henry Baffman — do — 

To Sundry persons for Diets — Rations 

&c — See Bundle Greenbrier Militia A. 

To amount Brought over 





























The State of Virginia Dr. 

To Sundries for Salt 4 Corn &c 






No. I 

To Evan Hinton for a Kittle lost at 
the salt works, Oct. 30, 1777 p Vouch- 

er in Bundle C. — 





To Robt. Johnson for Plank p. acct 

and Voucher, Bundle C. — 






To W"". Grant for Corn as p Voucher 

in Bundle C— 






To Israel Grant — ditto 




To Edw. Hammon ditto 



To Joseph Phelps— ditto — 




To Morris Hansbrough ditto 





To Robt. Johnson & Sund. ditto 





To John Templin for forrage 





To John Curd for 50 Bushels corn 




To Saml. Shortridge for 7 ditto 




To William Steel for Yi Bushels salt 





To John Sellers for ditto 




To Col. Benjamin Logan for Corn 
(Warrants issued for the above) 









The State of Virginia 

To Sundries for Beef, Flour, &c. 



Pa Re 




No. I 

To. Wm. Hays for a Steer as p 

Voucher In Bundle E. — 




6 '4 


To Col" Daniel Boone for 582 lb. of 

Beef p. Vouchr Bundl.— E— 




To John Ray for 278 lb. of flour p. 

Voucher Bundle E. — 






To Gravis Wapshott for 23 lb. flour & 

a Hunting Shirt P. Vouch. Bund. E.— 






To Hugh Martin for Beef &c as pr. 

Voucher Bundle — E. — 






To Henry McDonald for Beef fur- 

nish'l pr Voucher — Bundle E. — 





To Robt. Patterson for — ditto — 










To James Lindsay — ditto 



To James Wason — ditto 





To John McDonald — ditto 




To Mich!. Warnick— do 






To Levi Todd assee. of Jn" Napper 






To Van Swerengen for 2032 lb. Beef 





To W">. M^Connel for— 100 lb— Beef 




To David & Wm. Mitchels for Beef 
Carried over to Page 271 









To William Stafford & others for 

provisions as pr. Vouch. Bundle E. 






To John Saunders for Beef & Sund. 

as pr. Voucher in Bundle E. 





No. 18 

To M™. Svpan for Flour — ditto — 






To Edw. Parker for Beef &c 




1 1 '/a 


To Sergeant Elms — ditto — 





To William Thompson — ditto — 





To Moses Lunceford — ditto- 



To Josiah Smith — ditto — 





To Jas. Finn ass^e. of Wm. Bush 






To Mary Hinton for 166 lb. Pork 






To John Henkston for a covf — do — 





To Edw. Hogan for 643 lb. of Beef 






To Jas. Ilarrod for a yearling Bull 




To Jn". Cowan for 11 1 lb. of pork 





To John Smith for 55 lb. of Beef 




To Henry French for Beef &c 





To Benjamin Pope for Beef 






To Peter Young for a Beef cow — do- 




To Silas Harlan for Sundries 








The State of Virginia 

The Sundries for Express & Spy Duty. 
























To Sergeant Crurap for going Ex- 
press as pr. Voucher in Bundle F. — 
To Edw. Doherty for going Express 
as pr. Voucher in Bundle — F — 
To Ditto — ditto— ditto — 
To John Phips — ditto — 
To Edward Parker & Wm. Boush for 
going Express to the Illinois 
To Edw. Parker ditto Bundle F. 
To Capt. Jn". Sullivan — do — 









To Sam. Eakin for ditto 






To John McGarr — ditto — 





To John McGarr for Balance of his 
account with the State — Bundle F. 



To James Asturgus Sc James Welsh 
for services as spies p. Vouch Bundle 






To Peter Coleman & Dav** Glenn for 

service as Express p. Vouch Bundle F. 




To Daniel Sullivan — ditto 




To Robt. Floyd 




To David Glenn — ditto 





To Alex. McClain for service as a 

Spy p. Voucher in Bundle F. 




To Samuel Johnson for services as 

Express p. Vouch Bundle F. 

Continued in page 274. 






Account Kaskaskias from Page 281 




To Acct. Fort Jefferson 



[llinois Regiment &c added to Page 





As pr. Ace'. Lincoln Militia No. 78 




Genl. Clarke & others in Illinois Acct 








Commission Organized, February i, 1783 at Fort Nelson — Lands Located 
Opposite Louisville — William Clark Appointed Principal Surveyor 
— Those Entitled to Receive Lands, August 3, 1783 — Clark Em- 
powered TO Erect a Mill in Clarksville, August 7, 1783 — Sale of 
Lots, May 9, 1786 — Clark Present at Meeting of the Board, Feb- 
ruary I, 1813. 

"Records of the Proceedings of the Illinois Officers 


[Draper MSS., 61J.— D. S.] 

Proceedings of the Commissioners on the Grant of Lands to Illinois 
Officers, February I, 1783 

'Governor Patrick Henry submitted Clark's plan for the conquest of 
the Northwest to Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, and George Wythe. 
They advised that it should be carried out and promised to use their 
influence in securing from the Virginia Assembly three hundred acres of 
conquered land for each common soldier enlisting in the expedition and 
the officers in the usual proportion. See Clark Papers, 37"38_. 

In the resolution providing for the cession by Virginia of her lands 
north of the Ohio River (January 2, 1781), it was stipulated that a quantity 
of land, not to exceed 150,000 acres, should be granted to the officers and 
soldiers of the Illinois Regiment. Hening's Statutes at Large, 10:565. 

During the October, 1783, session of the legislature, a supplementary 
act was passed which provided for locating and surveying these lands 
and naming a Board of Commissioners, composed of William Fleming, 
John Edwards, John Campbell, Walker Daniel, George Rogers Clark, John 
Montgomery, Abraham Chapline, John Bailey, Robert Todd and William 
Clark. This board was to consider all claims to land under the resolution 
and appoint a principal surveyor who was to assist them in locating and sur- 
veying the remainder of the 150,000 acres on the northwest side of the 
Ohio, after first laying out 1000 acres for a town. The land selected was 
opposite Louisville, and constitutes a portion of Clark, Floyd and Scott 
counties, Indiana, but the greater part of the "Illinois Grant" was in the 
first named countv. 

William Clark, the cousin of George Rogers Clark, was appoinled a 
commissioner and the surveyor for the Indiana land grant to Clark's 
regiment. He was commissioned a lieutenant before he came to Kentucky, 
probably in the company of Captain John Rogers, and was first stationed 
at Fort Jefferson, then at Fort Nelson. He served in the Wabash campaign. 
Kellogg, Frontier Retreat, 230, note i. 

For Colonel William Fleming, see ante, 32, note i. 

For Colonel John Campbell, see ante, 145, note i. 

For Walter Daniel, see ante, 192, note i. 

For John Montgomery, see ante, 21, note i. 

For Captain Abraham Chapline, see Clark Papers, 23, note i. 

For Captain John Bailey, ibid., index. 

For General Robert Todd, see ante, 14, note i. 


Agreable to advertisement for the Officers of the Illinois 
Regiment, to meet and adopt some mode of having the Land promised 
them in the lUinois Country ascertained and laid off 
Brigadier General Geo. Rogers Clark, 

Col" Montgomery, Majf Quirk (by Col' Montgomery his Atto.) 
Cap' George, Cap' Bailey, Cap' Brashear, (by Cap' Bailey his Atto) 
Cap' Chapline, Cap' Girault (by M^ William Clark his Atto.) Cap' 
L' Harrison, (by Cap^ Barbour his Atto.) Lieu' Calvit, (by his 
ditto) Lieu' Montgomery, (by his ditto) Lieu' Rich* Clark, Lieu' 
William Clark, and Lieu' Perrault (by his ditto) met at the Falls 
of Ohio, Fort Nelson February i" 1783. 

There being a Majority of the Officers belonging to the said 
Regiment, they proceeded to the Election of a president when Gen- 
eral Clark was unanimously Voted in to the Chair. — And after 
mature debate and consideration upon the Resolution of the second 
of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty one, relative to 
a Grant of one hundred and fifty thousand Acres to the said Illinois 
Regiment, they came to the following Resolutions. 

That an Agent be appointed to transact the business of the 
Regiment who shall be considered as having the Rank of Major, 
and be intitled to the same Quoto of Land as a Major belonging 
to the said Regiment.- 

That five Deputies from the Regiment, three of whom to do 
business, be appointed to represent the Officers during their absence, 
as in all probability a general meeting cannot be again had with con- 

The Deputies are invested with all the powers and Author- 
ity which the Officers of the Regiment have, but these powers are to 
cease whenever a Majority of the Officers shall Personally meet. 
The Agent is to receive instructions from the Deputies in the recess 

'This board continued to hold meetings for sixty-three years, but 
during the years 1790, 1793, 1794, 1795, 1796, 1800, 1807, 1812, and 1814 
no meetings are indicated. The last meeting at which George Rogers 
Clark was present was in February, 1813. In all, there were some eighty 
meetings of the Board while he was a member and Clark was present in 
forty-seven sessions. He served thirty-three times as chairman. 

For the official plat of Clark's Grant, see William H. English, Con- 
guest of the Northiuest, 2:852-853. 

The proceedings of the Board are printed, in part, in Conquest of the 
Northiuest, 2:1068-1116. 


of the Board of Officers.- - -From tlie Agents representation of the 
necessity of a meeting of the Deputies, the President shall forthwith 
call them together for a Consultation.- The Agent is to make report 
of the progress of the Business from time to time to the President 
of the Deputies. The Deputies shall have power to hire Men to 
Explore what Tract of Country they may find necessary, and to de- 
fray their Charges in Land out of the said Grant: And also to 
direct the Agent to Petition the Assembly to establish a Town on 
such place and plan as they shall approve of. 

The Board proceeded to nominate an Agent, when M' 
Walker Daniel was unanimously elected. 

They then made Choice of Gen' Clark Col' Montgomery, 
Cap* Shannon William Clark and Cap' Bailey to act as Deputies 
to the Regiment. 

Ordered that these proceedings be recorded in the District 

Signed by order of the Officers of the Regiment 
G R Clark 
At a meeting of the Board of Deputies for the Illinois Regi- 
ment at New Holland on Monday the 10''' of feb!' 1783 

Brig'' Gen' Geo. Rogers Clark 
Cap' Shannon 
Mr W° Clark 
Cap' Bailey. 
The Board proceeds to the appointment of proper Persons 
to Explore that Tract of Country opposite to the Falls of Ohio, 
and accordingly made Choice of Col' Montgomery, Cap' Bailey, 
Cap' Barbour & Mf W" Clark for that purpose, who are recom- 
mended to proceed as soon as possible, make memorandums of the 
Quality and extent of the Lands and report them forthwith to the 
Board that further proceedings may be had thereupon. 

G R Clark 

March 25th.i783. At a meeting of the Deputies for the 
Illinois Regiment. 


General Clark 

Col' Montgomery Four of the 
Cap' Shannon [five Deputies 

Lieu' Clark 
The Board taking into Consideration the difficulties and 
danger of further exploring the Country North West of the Ohio, 
and the information they have received both from hunters and others, 
and the report of the Party sent to examine that Tract of Land 
which lies opposite to Louisville, came to the following Resolution. 
Resolved that the Lands opposite to the Town of Louisville 
on the Indian side of the River Ohio, beginning where the Silver 
Hills bind close on the River below the mouth of Silver Creek, Run- 
ning thence up the River and back for the quantity which the Regi- 
ment may be intitled to; be made choice of, and tliat the Agent draw 
a Petition to tlic Assembly praying an Explination of tlie resolution 
of January the 2* 1 78 1 relative to the Lands designed for the Illinois 
Regiment and that the Land so described may be granted to the 
Officers and Soldiers belonging thereto. 

Resolved that the Agent be directed to draw a Plan for a 
Town & Petition the Assembly to have it established in such Con- 
venient place within the Grant as the Trustees shall choose, who 
ought to be impowered to perpetuate their Succession in case of 
Vacancies, and also to reserve some Convenient place proper for a 
Landing above the great Point to have Ware-Houses erected for 
the reception of Hemp, Tobacco, and other Purposes. 

Resolved that some Tribunal ought to be established by law 
to discriminate between those who are, and who are not entitled to 
Lands under the Law, and that the Agent petition the Assembly to 
declare what office and what service intitled any Claimant to a Share 
in the said grant, and what proportion each Clamant shall have 

Resolved that a Surveyor to run the lines including the Quan- 
tity the Regiment are intitled to ought to be appointed by the As- 
sembly, but that the Trustees for laying ofT the Town should be 
impowered to procure one or more Surveyors on the best terms they 
can to divide the lands among the different Claimants, and when the 
Situation and Value of the Lands is better known that the Trustees 



should fall on sudi Plan for the equally dividing the Lands as they 
shall find most expedient and Equitable. 

Resolved tliat as the Assembly in several Acts which they 
have passed relative to the Bounty of Lands given the Officers and 
Soldiers of their Regiments, shew a willingness that they should all 
have Valuable Lands; That the Agent petition the Assembly not 
to include Mountains Knobs or Hills which shall be unfit for Culti- 
vation, & which may fall within the Limits of the Tract they have 
petitioned for, in the Quantity the Assembly may think proper to 
allow them, as in that case no division could be made but that Lands 
of No Value would fall to the Share of some Officer or Soldier. 

Resolved that the Agent use all diligence to have the busi- 
ness expedited, the Grant confirmed, and that when the Lands shall 
be divided among the Claimants that the Trustees be impowered 
to Convey Titles to them. 


G. R. Clark 
Jn» Montgomery 
W" Shannon 
W. Clark 

Louisville Ap' 22* 1784. — 

Board of Commissioners met agreable to Act of Assembly, 
intitled "An Act for Surveying & apportioning the Lands granted 
to the Illinois Regiment, & establishing a Town within the said 

Grant" - 

Present, Gen' George R. Clark, John Montgomery Abraham Chap- 
line, John Bailey William Clark & Walker Daniel Gen' Commis- 

Ordered that Public notice be given by advertising at the 
different Court Houses in the District, That the Claimants of the 
Illinois Regiment bring in their Claims and lay them before the 
next Board, and that Robert Todd Gen< be appointed to receive 
tiiose for Fayette, Walker Daniel for Lincoln & Col' Campbell, 
Col' Montgomery, & Cap* Bailey or either of them for Jefferson; 
to whom the Claimants are desired to give in their respective Claims, 
& the Deputies are requested to advertise their appointments & Office, 
and make report to the next meeting. 

Ordered that a Board meet on the first Monday in August 



next or sooner if it shall be judged necessary by a Majority of the 
Commissioners, & if it shall be so adjudged, a meeting shall be ad- 
vertised by the Senior Commissioner Present - 

Ordered that William Clark be appointed Principal Surveyor, 
& be intitled to the same Fees as are by Law given to the Surveyors 
of the Continental & State lines, deducting however the sixth that 
is there paid to the College. The said Surveyor is hereby directed 
to proceed forthwith to run the inclusive lines, & to employ one 
or more Hunters to explore the Country before him & to find the 
Men in provisions &c. The Surveyor is directed to Survey the 
Lands on the Northwest Side of the Ohio opposite to the Falls, run- 
ning up the River & back for Quantity, so as to take in the best 
Land that the Conditions of the Grant will admit of. 

Walker Daniel 
Geo. R Clark 
John Montgomery 
John Baileys 
Abraham Chapline 
W. Clark 
Copy of the proceedings of the Comm^ for adjusting the 
claims of the Officers & Soldiers of the Illinois Regiment to the 
Lands given them under a resolution of Jan? 2^ 1781 agreable to Act 
of Assembly passed October Session 1783. 

Louisville August 2* 1784. Commr' 
met according to adjournment; Present, Walker Daniel, Geo. R. 
Clark, John Montgomery, John Bailey, Robert Todd & William 
Clark, Gen'" Comm"^ 

Ordered that the Board adjourn 'till tomorrow morning. 

Sign'd W. Daniel Ch' 
August 3* The Board met according to adjournment ; Present 
the same Members as yestarday, & also Abraham Chapline Gen" 

On motion, the Board came to the following Resolution; 
That all Officers & Soldiers who marched and continued in service 
till the Reduction of the British Posts on the North West side of y* 
Ohio, that all who engaged, & enlisted in the Illinois Regiment after- 
wards & served during the War, or three Years, are intitled to a 
share of the Grant under the Resolution & Act of Assembly. But 


41 '; 

that those soldiers who have enlisted in the said Regm' since the 
2* day of January 1781. either for three Years or during the War 
are not entitled, as there seems to be no provision made under tiie 
Resolution for those who should thereafter be incorporated in the 
said Regiment. That the Officers of the Regm* are intitled to a 
Share of the Land in proportion to the Commissions they respectively 
held on tiie s^ 2* day of January 1781, & not in proportion to the 
Commissions tiiey have since held in consequence of Promotions; 
and that therefore, Officers Commissioned since that Period are not 
intitled at all; And that those Soldiers who inlisted to serve 12 
Months after their arrival at Kaskaskias agreeable to an Act of 
Assembly of the fall Session 1778 for the protection & defence of 
the Illinois Country who did not reinlist in the Regiment are not in- 
cluded in said Resolution. That those Officers who were Commis- 
sioned under s^ act & Resigned before the expiration of the 12 Months 
are not intitled, but that those who continued during the year, & then 
retired not having a Command, are intitled. 
August. 4th; The same Members as Yesterday. The 
following claims were taken up & allowed, & disallow'd as they 
are marked, To wit, 

Geo. R. Clark, Brig. Gen' 
John Montgomery, L* Col. 
Joseph Bowman Maj'' 
Tho' Quirke Majr 
Walker Daniel Majr 
Jesse Evans (not allow'd) 
Ja' Shelby, Cap* 
John Bailey, Cap' 
Rich^' Brashear, Cap* 
Robert George Cap* 
Rich^ MCarty Cap* 
Abraham Kcllar Cap* 
Edw*" Worthington Cap* 
W-P Harrod Cap* 
W^ Lynn, (not all*) 

allowed on reconsidering July 

17 1785 

Joim Williams Cap* 
Geo. Walls, not allow'd, 
Robert Todd Cap* 
Leon* Helm Cap* 
Isaac Taylor, same 
Lewis Gagnia, Soldier 
John Lemon D' 
(Tho' Gaskins D' 
Moses Lunsford D' 
W" Smith - D' 
Mich. Millar (not all-") 
Robert Witt, Sold"- 
Nich. Burk D' 
W-P Bush D' 
Micajah Mafield D» 



Isaac Ruddle (not all*') 
Levi Todd, Lieutenant 
James Davies L^ 
John Swan L' 
Henry Floyd L* 
Rich'' Harrison L< 
Ja' Robertson L' 
Abraham Chapline L' 
John Girault U 
Michael Perrault L' 
Joseph Calvit L' 
J a' Montgomery L' 
Isaac Bowman L' 
Jarret Williams L' 
Rich'' Clark L' 
VV" Clark Lt 
Tho» Wilson U 
Valentine T. Dalton, L« 
Jacob Vanmeter Ens' 
Laurence Slaughter Ens' 
Isaac Kellar, Serj' 
John Rogers Cap' 
Ja" Meriwether L* 
John Thruston, Cornet 
John Joines, Soldier 
Ja' Baxter SoW 
John Johnston D' 
W^ Bell D" 
Rich« Lovell D' 
Sam. Watkins D' 
Edw^ Mauray Sold^ 
Ja' Jarratt (not all^) 
Francis Hardin, same 
Larkin Balenger D' 
WP Kerr D» 
Henry Dewitt Serj' 
W^ Crump D9 

Tho' Hooper D' 

John Montgomery D' 

Francis M^Dermit D' 

Edw. Parker Serj' 

Peter Shepperd, Soldier 

W" Thompson D' 

George Shepperd D' 

Randall White D' 

Geo. Lunsford D' 

Mason Lunsford D' 

Andrew Clark D' 

Wm Whitehead D' 

Rob' Whitehead D' 

Boston Damewood (notallow'd) 

W™ Crossley, (same) 
Peter Newton Soldf 
Nich. Tuttle (not all") 
Jn' Grimes Sold'' 
Francis Grolet (not all^) 
Francis Grolet jr. same 
Hugh Logan, same 
John Dodge, same 
Israel Dodge, same 
John Vaughan, Serj' 
Bev. Trent - D» 
John Tewell (not all'') 
Levi Theel, Soldier 
Francis Godfrey D' 
Mat. Brock (not all^) 
Val. T. Dalton not all"^ 
as an adjutant C 

Ja' Sherlock, not all* 
Jn' Doherty, same 
Cha' M^Locklin D' 
Jesse Finer, Soldier 
Ja' Brown Serj' 



John Moore U» 
Edw'' Johnston Sold'' 
Cha' Evans D' 
Isaac Yeates D' 
George Livingston D' 
Reuben Camp D' 
John Pulford D' 
Ja' Bryant D' 
Page Sartine D' 
John Nelson (not all") 
Enoch Nelson Sold^ 
Jonathan Swordon D' 
W^ Ruleson D' 
Chrisf Hatten D' 
Ja' Dean, not all^ 
George Gilmore Soldr 
Lewis Brown, not all^ 
Joseph Thornton, Sold^ 
Dan. Williams D' 
David Allen D' 
Moses Nelson, not all^ 

Aug< 5th 
Dennis Cochran Sold'' 
David Jones, D' substitute) 
for Jn' Nelson C 

(^Commissaries of Military 

Stores, & Provision, not 


ALnrtiii Carney, not all^ as a L' 

nor as a Qi" ALister 
[Allowed grant of Lieutenant, 
August 7, 1784.] 
Geo. Hart, not all^ 
And. Ray, same 

W^ Elms D» 
Joseph Ross Sold'' 
Cha' Ownsley D' 
Ja» Hillebrant)D' 

or Dawson C 
Ja' Elms D" 
Dan' Tigart D» 
Rich* Bredin, not all* 
John Cowan Sold'' 
W-P Pritchard Serjt 
W" Pursley Sold^ 
Peter Priest D' 
Geo. Venshioner D' 
And. Canore D^> 
Josiah Prewit D' 
Buckner Pitman Serj' 
Ab. Miller Sold^ 
Mat. Jones D' 
Christo'' Coontes, not all* 
Isham Floyd Sold^ 
John M«Garr D» 
John Oakley D» 
John Hacker D' 
Ja' Ramsay D' 
Jn' Leveridge, not all* 
Arm* Dudley Sold"" 
Edw* Mathews, not all* 

Cha. Morgan, same 
Wi> Freeman Sold'' 
Joiin Ash D» 

Those Continentals who came 
up with Cap' George, and never 
reinlisted in the Illinois Regi- 
ment are not allowed - 



Dan. Durst, not allow'd 
W-P Rubey, Serj' 
Pat. Doran, Sold'' 
W^ Greathouse D' 
Cha' Bitterbaclc D» 
Rob* Patterson Serj' 
Ja' January Sold'' 
Ja» M^Nut D' 
Geo. Grey D' 
Elisha Bethey D» 
Rich^ Rue, not all* 
Arthur Lindsay Sold"" 
Sam. M'Mullin D' 
EdW Wilson D» 
Sam Stroud Serj' 
Barney Waters Sold^ 
Henry Funk D' 
Jacob Coger D' 
Peter Coger D» 
Ja' Bentlcy D" 
John Bently D' 
Edm* Fear d» 
W^ Slack d» 
Asael Davies d' 
John Boyles d' 
Jos: Ramsay d' 
Tho' Clifton d' 
Rich* Lutterell d» 
W"P Crosbey d" 
Ja' Wood d» 
Ja' Holmes d' 
Joseph Anderson d' 
Moses Camper d' 
Tilman Camper d' 
Ja' Monrow d' 
Charles Jones d' 
Benj Kendall d" 

John Williams Serj< 

Tho' Moore Sold' 

John Moore D» 

WP Tyler D' 

Jos. Lynes D» 

John Green D' 

Wp Myres D» 

John Paul D' 

John Hughes D» 
Isaac Vanmeter D' 

Andrew House D' 
Ebenezer Osbourne D' 
Tho' Batten D' 
Stephen Frost D' 
Van: Swearingen D' 
John Linen D' 
Sam Blackford D' 
Laten White D' 
Abraham Luzader D» 
WP Ray D' 
Ja' Harris D» 
Herman Consuly D' 
John Duff D' 
Ja' Curry D" ' 
Steph : Stephens D' 
Ebenf Bowen, not all* 
Wp Swann Sold^ 
Simon Kenton W 
John Saunders D' 
Geo Clark D' 
WP Whitley D» 
David Glenn D» 
Silas Harlin D' 
John Severns D' 




Ebenezer Severns D' 
W-P Oreer D» 
Ja' Irby Scrj' 
Jesse Oreer Soldr 
Sam Humphries d' 
Eben'' Mead, not all^ 
Dom: Flanagan Sold'' 
Jonas Manifee d' 
John Tally d' 
Dan. Tally, not all" 
W-P Zecklege Sold"" 
Jas. Kincade not al* 
John Sartine Soldf 
Henry French, not al" 
Peter Locklin, same 
John M"=Guire, same 
John Lesley same 
Lough Brown same 
Hugh Logan, same 
David Bailey Sold^ 
Sam Butcher not aK 
Isaac Henry SoW 
Henry Hatton Not al* 
John Isaacs Sold"" 
Isaac Farris Sold'' 
John Henry d' 
Hugh Henry d' 
David Henry d' 
EdW Bulger d' 
Abraham James d' 
Henry Prather d' 
Jacob Spears d' 
Abi' Taylor d' 
Sam Bell, A" 
Moses Nelson, not al" 
Edw*" Taylor same 
Ja' Whitecotton Sold"" 

Rob' Garrett d» 

John Oreer Serj' 

Dan. Oreer Sold'' 

John Reed not all* 

Cha' Morgan, same 

W-" Rubey jr Sold^ 

Corn: Ruddle d" 

Pleas* Lockert d' 

Josiali Phelps d' 

W"- Beckley d' 

W-P B. Smith, not all" 

Ja' Finn Sold'^ 

W-P Chapman d» 

David Rogers, not al* 

Sam. Byrd same 

Ja' Biggar Soldf 

Ja' M'Kinn, not al" 

Gasper Butcher, same 

Steph : Ray same 

Turner Oliver, same 

Dan Whitten same 

Cap< Rogers has the list of his"] 

Serj" & Sold'^ & will give aj 


^Soldiers, during the War, not 
^ intitled to a double share 

Aug' the 6th - 

Jos: Hunter's pet' rejected 

Cornelius Copland Soldier 

W™ Shannon's pet' 

Benj Lynn, not all" 
Sam Moore same 
Henry Honaker Soldf 


Christo : Horn, not al^ P. Honaker - d' 

Rich'' Sennett same Handley Vance d' 

Noah Craize Sold' 

Geo: Campbell, not al*" 
Sam Pickens Sold'' 
John Peartree d' 

The comm''' direct Certificates 
to Issue, in the following 

To wit: To a Brig: Gen' 7500 to a L' Col' 4500, to a Maj^ 4000, 
To a Cap' 3000, to a Subaltern 2000, to a Serjeant 200 & to a 
Private 1 00 Acres of Land which on a calculation is supposed to leave 
19500 Acres as a residium subject to be granted to future Claimants 
that shall appear intitled & to have laboured under legal disability 
to have bro' in their Claims, & to the further directions of the 
Comm'''; & in case of a future division among the Claimants, the 
Lands are to be apportioned according to the preceding Regulation: 

The Agent is ordered to make out Certificates &c, to be 
Signed by the Chairman, delivered to the Surveyor; who is to adver- 
tise & distribute them among those intitled, taking a rec' therefor 
& receiving a Dollar T' hundred Acres. 

Aug' 7th — 

The Surveyor is directed to deliver the Cert' of Claims to 
the Persons intitled, but if a purchaser produces an Assignment or 
obligation for the conveyance he is directed to deliver the Cert, to 
such purchaser taking his rec' therefor. 

Ordered that John Campbell, Geo. R. Clark & John Bailey 
or any two with the Surveyor, fix on the most convenient place in the 
Grant for the Town, & lay off the looo Acres apportioned for that 
purpose, & also draw up and report a Plan for the Town. 

Leave is given Gen' Clark to erect the Mill he is now Build- 
ing on a Branch above the Lots already laid off in Clarksville, & if 
compleated & of public utility, the right of the Soil to so much Land 
sliali he deemed sufHcient for the Works shall be confirmed to him. 

The 12 Lots already occupied shall be confirmed to the Claim- 
ants upon their Building Houses, actually residing themselves on tiie 
Lots for 12 Months or settlcing others thereon & complying with 
the directions of the Act for saving the Lots in Clarksville agreeable 
to a promise of a Majority of the Comm''' heretofore made. And 


12 other Lots to be laid off adjoining & Back of tliosc already laid 
off shall be appropriated in the same manner; provided they arc 
Settled in 2 Months from this date. 

On reconsidering Martin Carneys Claim, it is the opinion 
of the Board that he is intitled to a Lieutenant's Quota in the Illi- 
nois Grant. 

Pat: Kennedy's Pet' rejected. 

Adj* to the first monday in October Next. 

Signed by order of the Board. 

Walker Daniel Ch :man. 
Louisville Aug' 7th 1784. 

A Copy, but not examined 

Test VV : Daniel 
Louisville Aug' i6th 1784. At a meeting of the Comm"' in con.-i- 
quence of the death of AP Walker Daniel Gen', present John Camp- 
bell, Geo R. Clark, John Montgomery, John Bailey, Abraham Chap- 
line & William Clark Gen' Comm "■' 

Ordered, that whereas the original Proceedings of the Board 
being lost when M'' W Daniel was killed, the foregoing Copy be 
ratified & confirmed ; but if the originals should be obtain'd then 
they are to be in force. 

Ordered that Gen' Clark make out & sign Certificates & 
deliver them to the surveyor, who is to distribute them according to 
the former resolution. 

The Board proceeded to the Election of an other Commis- 
sioner in the room of RP Walker Daniel ; When William Croghan 
Gen' was elected. 

Resolved that Gen' Clark take into his care the proceedings 
and other Papers belonging to the Commissioners, & them safely 
keep, for tiie use of the Parties concerned. 

Adj'' 'till the first Monday in Ocf next unless the Cli:maii 
shall find it necessary to call a meeting sooner. 

Signed John Campbell Ch:man 

At a meeting of a Board of Comm''' for apportioning the 
Lands granted to the Illinois Regiment &c. at Louisville, July 6th, 
1785. Present, John Edwards John Campbell, Abraham Chapline; 
John Bailey Robert Todd and William Clark Comm'"' 


Cap' Rogers produced a list of his Company, which had be- 
fore been allowed their Claims by a Board that sat in August last 
but their names had been lost or misslaid ; which said Claims are 
Confirmed by the present Board ; to wit, William Meriwether Serj* 
The' Key d' George Key, George Snow, David Pagan, Henry 
Blankenship, Dominique Welch, Gasper Gayler, Robert Barnet, 
Frank Spelman, James Spelman, Travis Booton, William Booton, 
William Leare, 

William Kendall, William Frogget, William Givin, William Good- 
win, John Campbell, Charles Martin, Barney Higgans, Frederick 
Doherty, Nathaniel Mershon, David M'^Donald, James Hammit, 
John Jones, John Murphy Michael Glass, Michael Oharow, Rice 
Curtis, & George Smith, Soldiers. 

On motion made in behalf of Thomas Hays, the Board think 
him intitled to a Soldiers part of Land in the Illinois Grant, also 
Francis Hardin; also Patrick Marr; also Charles Morgan as a. 
Serjeant; also John Setzer & Michael Setzer as Soldiers 

Adj*" till tomorrow morning. — 

(Signed) John Edwards Ch' 

July 17th, 1785. 

The Board met according to adjournment. Members 
the same as yestarday. 

The Board entered into the following resolution. That a ma- 
jority of the Surviving Commissioners mentioned in the Act, sliould, 
at any time compose a Board & do Business. 

On motion made in behalf of Michael Miles, are of opinion 
that he is intitled to a Serjeants Quota of Land in the Illinois Grant. 

On motion made the Board came to the following resolution 

That the Lots be drawn in the name of the Assignee, as far as they 
can be known and made appear ; but where doubt arises they may 
be classed according to the request of those who claim by Assignment, 
and drawn in the name of the original proprietor. 

On motion made in behalf of the Heirs of Maj'' William 
Lynn Dec*" who marched to the Illinois under Col' Geo. R. Clark, 
and acted as a Major at the Reduction of the Posts therein. Resolved 
that the Heirs of the s^ William Lynn Dec'' be intitled to receive a 


Major's Quota of Land in the Illinois Grant. 

Adj* 'till tommorrow morning 

(Signed) John Edwards Ch" 

July 8th 1785. 

The Board met according to adjournment, Members the same 
as yestarday. 

On motion made the Board came to the following resolution, 
That they have no power to decide in any matter of controversy 
between Claimants, claiming as Heirs at Law. 

Resolved, this Board have a right to judge & determine to 
whom they shall Grant a Deed, when two or more Persons Claim 
the same by assignment or conveyance - from the original proprietor. 

Resolved that this Board will not proceed in such Judgment 
& determination in the absence of the Parties, unless it is proved, 
to them, they have been summoned & do not appear. 

Resolved that when any dispute between Claimants shoud lie 
before the Board, unfit for Issue for want of Necessary Vouchers; 
That the preference in classing the said disputed claim should be 
Determined by lot 

Resolved that Tho' Walker be allowed a Soldiers Claim 
in the Illinois Grant. 

Resolved that the Commissioner's Certificates now produced 
to the Board by Assignees be returned to them, but first marked in 
whose name they were classed ; and in case the Assignment, or 
Assignments are on the back of the Certificates, then to be retained 
by the Board, and another given to the last Assignee, Expressing 
therein the original owner, and every Assignee named, and tiuanlity 
of Land. 

Adjourned 'till tomorrow. 

(Signed) John Edwards, Ch' 
July 9th. 1785. 

The Board met according to Adjournment, Members present 
the same as yestarday. 

A Memorial of John Rogers Cap' of Cavalry, representing 
a grant made to Walker Daniel by a former Board as a Major 
to the Illinois Regiment, to which he objects, & affirms, he the said 


Daniel had no right or pretentions having never served in that Regi- 

Resolved the consideration of the said memorial be postponed 
till the next meeting of this Board & that a Summon issue citing 
Rob' Daniel, Heir at Law, to the said Walker to appear at that time. 

Resolved that the Plat of the 1 49000 Acres of Land granted 
to the Illinois Regiment be proved by the Oath of M'' William 
Clark the Surveyor, and that it be transmitted to the Registers Office 
in Richmond by Col' Rich'' C. Anderson. 

A draught of a petition to the Assembly from tlu's Board 
agreed upon and ordered to be signed by the Chairman. 

Adjourned 'till the first Wednesday in August. — 

(Signed) John Edwards Ch" 

At a meeting of the Board of Comm" for apportioning the 
Lands granted to the Illinois Regiment at Louisville the 9th Dec' 


Present, G. R. Clark Ab: Chapline, Robert Todd, John Bailey 

& William Clark Comm"^ 

Resolved that the further consideration of Cap' Rogers's me- 
morial respecting the Claim of Walker Daniel Dec* be postponed 
'till the next siting of this Board - and that the Board now proceed 
to draw the Lottery for all claims that appear reasonable and are 

Adj* till tomorrow morning. 
Decf 10th 1785 

The Board met according to adjournment. Members same 
as yestarday. 

A number of Assignments and Conveyances being produced, 
the Board proceeded to class them in the name of the Assignees; 
and direct that title papers be kept with the Board. 

Adj* 'till monday next. 
Dec"" the 1 2th. 

The Board met according to adjournment; Members same 
as yestarday. 

The Surveyor produced a general plat of the Surveys con- 
tained in the Illinois Grant which was approved of by the Commis- 
sioners. Cap' Abraham Hite & M' E. Rogers at the request of the 





At a 

present Gen' 



Board attended and drew the Classes & Numbers; and Mess'* 
Walter Davies & W" Croghan acted as Clerks in taking down the 
names of the respective Claimants & Numbers they drew. 

Resolved that the Surveyor be directed to Issue plats & Cer- 
tificates of Surveys to the different Claimants on their paying the 
fees & Expence due thereon; as also the Dollar p'' hundred Acres 
directed to be paid by Law, to be appropriated towards defraying the 
Expence of adjusting the Claims, Surveying, & apportioning the 

till the first Wednesday in march next. 

(Signed) G. R. Clark 
13th Deer i73^_ 

meeting of the Trustees for the Town of Clarksville, 
Clark, Cap* Chapline, Cap^ Bailey, Cap' Todd & VV"" 

Resolved that the Surveyor be directed to lay off forty Lots 
in the Town of Clarksville above Mill-Creek & adjacent to those 
already laid off below, to be sold the first Wednesday in march next, 
and that they be advertised in the Adjacent Counties as directed 
by Law. 

Resolved that all the Lots now occupied be confirmed to the 
Claimants, on their complying with the terms proposed by the Trus- 
tees to those who took possession of & settled on the first Lots. 

Resolved that the Lots to be laid off be sold for Cash, & 
that W^ Clark G. R. Clark, & Cap' Chapline, or any two of them 
be appointed to superintend the Sales, and that the money arising 
from such sales be lodged in the Hands of W™ Clark who shall be 
liable for the same when called for by the Board. 

The Board proceeded to the Election of Trustees in the room 
of Walker Daniel Dec'' & John Montgomery removed — When 
William Croghan and Richard Terrell Gen' were elected 

Adj^ 'till tile first Wednesday in march next. 
(Signed) G. R. Clark 

At a meeting of the Trustees for the Town of Clarksville, on 
tuesday the 9th of May 1786. Present George R. Clark, Ab. Chap- 
line, William Clark, W"" Croghan & Richard Terrell Gen' 


Resolved that a further sale of Lots in the Town of Clarks- 
ville be held in the said Town, the first tuesday in August next for 
Cash; and that tlie Sale be immediately advertised in the Adjacent 
Counties by the Chairman. 

Adjourned 'till the first tuesday in August next. 

(Signed) G. R. Clark 

At a meeting of the Comm"^ for apportioning the Lands grant- 
ed to the Illinois Regiment &c. at Louisville the 5th day of Septem- 
ber 1787. Present John Campbell, George Rogers Clark, Richard 
Taylor, Alexander Breckenridge, W^ Croghan, Andrew Heth & 
William Clark Gen' Comm"^ 

Resolved that two meetings of the Board be held at this place, 
for the purpose of receiving & determineing on such claims as have 
not yet been given in ; agreable to the directions of an Act of last 
Session of Assembly: The first of said meetings to be the second 
Monday in Ocf next & the other the 31" day of december follow- 
ing, being the last day fixt by Law for receiving claims; & that a 
Copy of this resolution be advertised in the Kentucky Gazette for 
three weeks successively. 

Adj'' 'till the 2" Monday in Ocf next. 

(Signed) John Campbell, Chairm" 

Monday 8th of October 1787. The following members of 
the Comm"^ met according to adjournment. Viz- Geo. R. Clark, W" 
Clark, & W™ Croghan, and Adjourned till tomorrow morning. 

(Signed) G. R. Clark. 
Louisville 9th Ocf 1787. The following members of the 
Comm"^ met according to adjournment: Viz' John Campbell, W"" 
Clark, Rich^ Taylor & W" Croghan and Adjourned 'till tomorow 
12 OClock 

(signed) John Campbell 

Wednesday Oct' loth, The Board met according to adjourn- 
ment, present John Campbell, George R. Clark, Richard Taylor, 
James F. Moore, Alexander Breckenridge, William Croghan, Robert 
Breckenridge, & W"^ Clark Gen' Comm"' 

Resolved that the Officer & Soldiers who were left at the 
Falls, by order of Col' Clark when the detachment were going against 
the Illinois, be allow'd Quotas of Land in the Grant. 


James Sherlock's claim disallow'd. Alexander M^ntire allow'd 
as a private. Isaac RuddcU allowed as a Captain. William Foster 
& Samuel Finley allow'd as privates; also James Patten, Richard 
Chenoweth & Neal Doherty & Isaac IM'Bride. 

Adjourned 'till the 31" of December next 

(Signed) John Campbiill. 

At a meeting of the Board of Comm^' for apportionin}; the 
Lands granted to the Illinois Regiment &c at Louisville the 31'' of 
Deer ,787. Present Geo. R. Clark, Ab: Chapline, Ricli^ Taylor, 
W" Croghan, Rich" Terrell, Alexi" Breckenridge & W^ Clark Gen' 

Resolved that Florence Maliony & Eben. Bowen, priv'» John 
Brand Serj', Angus Cameron private, (absent R. Taylor, present 
J. F. Moore) & W™ Guthrie d^ also Samuel Harris jr & John 
Peters be allowed Quotas of Land. Present John Campbell Gen* 
Sam. Harris Senf all^" as a priv. 

Resolved that such claims as may be offered to any of the 
members of the Board this evening be received, and determined on 
at a future meeting. 

Adj" 'till 9 oClock tomorrow. 

(Signed) John Campbell 

Jans' i^t 1788. The Board met according to Adjournment. 
Present Geo. R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Alex'' Breckenridge, Rich* 
Terrell, W" Croghan, Rich* Taylor & W'^' Clark. 

The following claims given in yesterday were taken up and 
determined on as follows. 

George M^^Maness, John M'Maness jr & John M'Maiiess 
Sen'' allow'd as privates also James Jarrald, Sam. Stephenson, John 
Mahue Harris, W™ Cofer, W™ Asher, & Richard Cox, privates, John 
Walker Serj' (absent A. Breckenridge, present J. F. Moore Gen') 
Thomas Simpson allow'd as a Soldier.-also John Elms & Robert 
Davie as Soldiers - William Shannon Not allowed. 

Resolved unanimously, that all claims heretofore adjusted and 
allowed by a former Board, be confirmed as they stand drawn in tlie 
Lottery; except the Claim of Walker Daniel which is rejected, and 
the claim of Martin Carney, which is to be reconsidered. 

Adj* 'till tomorrow 9 oClock 

(Signed) G. R. Clark 


Wednesday 2" Jan^ The following members met: Viz' Geo: 
R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Rich* Terrell, W^ Croghan, & W"' Clark 
Comm" and Adjourned 'till tomorrow 9 oClock. 

(Signed) G. R. Clark. 

Friday 4th Jan? At a meeting of the Board of Comm"' at 
Louisville - present; Jn» Campbell, G. R. Clark, Ab: Chapline, 
Ricli* Terrell, Alex"" Breckenridge And^ Heth, W" Croghan & W" 
Clark Gen' Comm" 

The Board proceeded to reconsider the Claim of Martin 
Carney, & determined that the said claim be confirmed (absent John 

The Board then proceeded, & drew the Lottery for such 
claims as have been lately allowed, & were not in the Lottery drawn 
by a former Board. 

Resolved, whereas there appears to be a residium of 10,900 
Acres of Lands, that a future division take place, & the s* residiuni 
be apportioned agreable to the former regulation of the Board. 

Resolved that the Dollar pf 100 Acres paid for Certificates, 
be appropriated, towards defraying the Expence of the original Sur- 
vey, provisions, paying Chain Carriers Choppers Hunters &c &c, the 
balance, if any, applied as part of the Surveyors fee. 

Resolved that three meetings of the Board be held at this 
place for the purpose of Executing Deeds: the first meeting to be the 
20th of Feb!' next, the second, the first tuesday in April ; & the third 
meeting, the 17th of July. And that public notice be given of those 
meetings, in order that the Claimants may take out their plats, & 
apply for Deeds. 

Adjourned 'till the 20th of Feb" next 

(Signed) G. R. Clark 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees for the Town of 
Clarksville, at Louisville the 5th of Jan? 1788 present Geo R. Clark 
Ab: Chapline, Richard Terrell, W^ Croghan & W^ Clark. 

Resolved that a number of Lots in Clarksville, be sold at 
public Auction, at this place on the first tuesday in March next, 
being Jefferson Court Day; & that the time & place of sale be adver- 
tised at the Court Houses of the adjacent Counties. 


(Signed) G. R. Clark 


At a meeting of the Comm'^ for apportioning the Lands 
granted to the Illinois Regiment, at Louisville the 20th of Feb' 
1788: Present G. R. Clark, Ja' F. Moore, Richard Taylor, W» 
Croghan, Alexander Breckenridge, And^ Heth & W™ Clark Gen' 

Resolved, whereas satisfactory proof is made to this Board, 
of Jacob Bowman's being Heir at Law to Joseph Bowman Dec^ 
that Deeds for the Lands allow'd said Joseph, be Issued in the name 
of said Jacob. 

Resolved that Claimants of choices of Lots in the Illinois 
Grant, be notified by advertisement, to apply & make their respective 
choices in rotation, on or before the 17th of July next: & in case of 
failure the Comm''' will proceed to ballot for them, in order that the 
Subsequent choices may be made by such as are intitled & apply. 

Adj^ (Signed) G. R. Clarri 

At a meeting of the Comm"^' for apportioning the Lands 
granted to tiie Illinois Regiment &c at Louisville 4"" April 1788 - 
present W" Clark, Alexander Breckenridge Rob' Breckenridge, Rich? 
Taylor, W''' Croghan, James F. Moore, & Rich* Terrell Gentlemen 

Adjourned untill Tuesday next 9 oClock 

W. Clark Ch' 

Louisville, Tuesday the 8"" April 1788 The Board of Com- 
miss''' met according to adjournment, present Geo. R. Clark Wil- 
liam Clark Rich? Taylor Alexander Breckenridge Rob' Breckenridge, 
William Croghan & Richard Terrell, Gentlemen 

Resolved that William Clark be appointed to receive the 
money payable to the Registers of the Land Office, as may arrise 
from the Execution of Deeds. 

The following Deeds were present to the Board and Exe- 
cuted, Viz' To John Mayland, Adam Hoops, and Abiier Martin 
Dunn N9 27. 132. 151. 217. 218. 105. 253. 265. 287. 284. & 291. 
500 Acres each — To Adam Hoops N' 242. To Isaac Bowman 
his four Surveys of 500 acres N» I. 158. 213. & 289. 

"The minutes from this point are in the handwriting of Colonel 
William Croghan, instead of Lieutenant William Clark. 


Resolved whereas sufficient proof is produced to the Board 
that William Croghan hath purchased the several Claims in 500 acres 
N? four, the Surveyor be therefore directed to make out a platt of 
said Tract in Croghans name. 

Aj^ till tomorrow 3 oClock 

G. R. Clark 

Wednesday the 9'^ April 1788. the Board, met according 
to adjournment, present same as yesterday. 

The Board proceeded to apportion by lottery, a Number of 
Claims in the residuum of Lands and then ajourned, till Friday the 
i8"> Inst 

G. R. Clark 

Friday iS!"" April 1788 The Board met according to appoint- 
ment: Members same as before also James Francis Moore Gent'' 

The Board proceeded & drew the Lottery for the balance of 
the Residuum of Lands. 

Resolved, whereas James F. Moore, hath produced to the 
Board, a sufficient Assignment from David Glenn for his Claim in 
500 Acres N' 20 the balance being already vested in the said Moore; 
that the Surveyor be directed to make out the platt in Moore's name. 

The following Deeds were presented and Executed by the 
Board. Viz* To William Croghan - N' 4 & N* 113. 500 acres 
each. To William Vanlear Ass" of Montgomery N' 167. 202. 239. 
270 & 283 500 acres each. 

Aj? till the 17"" of July next 

G. R. Clark 

At a Meeting of the Trustees for the Town of Clarksville 
at Louisville the 5"" of June 1788. Present, John Campbell, Geo: 
R. Clark: William Clark, Richard Terrell, & William Croghan 

On motion made by M'' Terrell to appoint a Trustee in the 
room of Col' Robert Todd, who had authorised him to inform the 
Board he could not attend and requested another to be appointed in 
his stead. 

Resolved that M'' Andrew Heth be appointed a Trustee for 
the Town of Clarks Ville in the room of Col' Rob* Todd. 

SALE OF TRACTS. 1788 435 

Resolved tliat the Clerks directed to write to Col' Flcininiiif; 
Col? Edwards. M' John Bayley & AbrT Chapline, requesting them 
to inform the Board wheather they can attend the business or not 
as Trustees for the Town of Clarks Ville if not, to signify their 
Resignation in order tiiat others may be appointed in tlicir stead ■ 

Resolved that the Lots laid out above the mouth of Mill 
Creek in the Town of Clarks Ville, be sold in said Town agreeable 
to Law. for Cash on Saturday the 9'^ of August next: that the same 
be advertised at the Ct. Houses of the Adjacent Counties. And 
that Wiltram, W" Clark. Rich? Terrell, and Andrew Heth or any 
two of them Superintend the Sails in case the Board should not meet 
at that time. 

Resolved that M^ William Clark be appointed Clerk to the 
Board of Trustees; that he be directed to provide Book and transcribe 
therein the proceedings of the Board which have hitherto been 
kept on detached papers and that the proceedings so transcribed, be 
Examined by the Board at their next Setting. 

Adj* till monday next 

John Campbell 

At a meeting of the Commiss''' for apportioning the Lands 
granted to the Illinois Regiment, on thursday the 17'*" July 1788. 
present Geo. R. Clark Rich? Terrell Rich? Taylor James F. Moore 
And : Heth, W^ Croghan Ab : Chapline & Alexander Breckenridge. 

John Campbell Gent'' produced to the Board a Conveyance 
from John Bailey in favour of Michael Hilligas and John Dunlap 
for five hundred Acres of land the Choice of three Tracts of that 
size, and claimed Number Sixteen as the Choice: the question being 
put it was determined that said Hilligas & Dunlap are intitled to 
said Tract of Land and that a Deed Issued accordingly. 

Present Jn? Campbell & W^ Clark 

The following Deeds were presented to the Board and Exe- 
cuted. Viz' To Rich^ Terrell N' 6. To Hector M. Wright ass" 
James F. Moore N' 20 

Resolved that further time be allowed the different Claim- 
ants to apply and take out their Deeds till the first tuesday in april 


Resolved that Richard Taylor & Abraham Chapline Gen'« 
be appointed to examine the Deeds to be presented to the Board, and 
sign such as are found truly made out. 

Adj* till 9 OCIock tomorrow 

Jn' Campbell 

Friday 1 8'* July 1788. The Board met according to ad- 
journment, present Ab: Chapline, Will: Clark, Rich^ Taylor, 
James Francis Moore Will : Croghan, Andrew Heth Alexander 
Breckenridge & R:Terrell. 

The following Deeds were presented and Executed Viz! To 
Abm: Chapline N' 222. To William Croghan Ass"'' N' 145 & 
180 in one Deed. To Rich" Terrell ass"' N' 9. To Terrell & 
Elie Williams N' 157. To Rich'' Terrell ass?* N' 1 15. To Terrell 
& Elie Williams ass"" N' 8 & 58. To Rich" Terrell Ass"? N' 262. 
To Rich" Terrell & Elie Williams ass«« N" 221. To John Mayland 
Adam Hoops & Abner Martin Dunn ass '" N' loi : To Jacob 
Bowman Heir at Law 125. 49: 237. 5. & 97. To Isaac Ruddell 
N" no. 153. 34. 14. 77. & 179. To William Croghan and Gab: 
Madison Ass"' N' 267. 

Present Gen' Clark To Rich" Terrell Ass"" N» 83. 127. 252. 

& 38. To John Shelby Heir at Law for James Shelby N'' 42. 43. 
249. 95. 88. & 89. -To Rob' George N' 17. 159. 137. 146. & 275. 
To William Leas Ass"' of Rob» George N' 172. To William Clark 
N» 96. & 272. To Pat: Joyes Ass»' N* 75. & 109. — Present John 
Campbell Gen' Absent Geo. R. Clark. 

Adjourned till 5 OCIock tomorrow morning 

Jn' Campbell 

Saturday 19'^" July 1788. The Board met according to ad- 
journment, present John Campbell, Ab: Chapline, Will: Clark 
Richard Taylor, And: Heth, James F. Moore Alex'' Breckenridge 
and Rich^ Terrell Gen' 

The following Deeds were presented to the board and Exe- 
cuted Viz' To Nathi Parker Ass^« N' 225 & 33. 

Rich^ Jones Watters appeared before the Board and Claimed 
a Title to the Land allowed William Smith, which was drawn for 

in the name of Dan' Brodhead a» ass''« of Smith on Motion the 

Board determined that the matter should be taken up and revised. 


DEEDS ISSUED. 1788 437 

M'' Mich: Campbell produced to the Board two ODnveyances 
from John Montgomery for five hundred Acres each one in favour 
of said Campbell the other in the name of James Watt, and Claimed 
the Land accordingly - the Claim being contested by M/ Rrcclcen- 
ridge on ace' of his having sold three Thousand six liundrcd Acres 
of such Land as Atto^ of said Montgomery: - the Papers being pro- 
duced - the Board determined that the Conveyance of Breckenridge 
take preference. 

John Harrison and William Sullivan applied to the Board for 
the third and fourth Choice Tracts of Majf Quirks Claim by Virtue 
of Assigments for such Choices, said Harrison chose N? 21 and 
Sullivan N' 70. those Choices were contested by Geo: R. Claik - 
the question being put - the Board determined in favour of the 
Claimants and order that Deeds Issue accordingly A Deed Issued 
to Michael Hilligas & John Dunlap Ass"" of John Bailey for N' 16. 

The title of 500 Acres of Land being contested between 
Mich' Campbell and William Croghan, both haveing Assignments 
from Col' John Montgomery, the Board determined that Croghan's 
Assignm'' take preference. 

Deed Is